Cocaine, Amphetamines, Stimulants
Crack cocaine is _____ rather than _____.
Cocaine is most potent when _____.
The most popular route for administering freebase cocaine is ___________.
When cocaine is snorted, plasma levels peak at ____ and the drug may persist in plasma for up to ______.
30-60 minutes, 6 hours
When cocaine is smoked, effects peak at ____ and last for about _____.
5 minutes, 30 minutes
Cocaine exerts its effects by ________.
blockading the presynaptic transporter
Cocaine has a half-life in plasma of about ____
Cocaine is metabolized by ______
enzymes in liver and plasma
Cocaine can be detected in the brain for up to ____ and in the urine for up to _____
8 hours, 12 hours
The major metabolite of cocaine is _______
an inactive compound, benzoylecgonine (BE)
Cocaine's metabolite can be detected in the hair of long-term users for up to _____
3-4 months after use
Concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol forms the metabolite ________
Cocaethylene acts as a ________ to potentiate the euphoric effect of cocaine.
presynaptic dopamine reuptake transporter
The half-life of cocaethylene is about _____
Cocaine is metabolized into an _______ metabolite.
Cocaine is the only drug that has these three characteristics:
local anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, psychostimulant
Cocaine potentiates synaptic actions of _____ and _____
Increased dopamine levels (as a result of cocaine use) in _____ account for euphoric effects
Serotonin probably doesn't have significant effect on rewarding effects of cocaine; _____ has a bigger role
Physiological responses to cocaine include:
increased alertness, motor hyperactivity, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, hypertension, pupillary dilation, increased body temperature
Psychological effects of cocaine include ______ and last about _____.
euphoria, enhanced self-consciousness, boastfulness; 30 minutes
After using cocaine, a milder state of euphoria and anxiety may last ______
High doses of cocaine can cause ______
anxiety, sleep deprivation, hypervigilance, paranoia, aggression, homicidality: toxic paranoid psychosis
A toxic dose of cocaine is about ____ per kilogram of body weight
Cocaine abuse during pregnancy can indirectly cause ____________ due to constriction of the mother's blood vessels.
premature birth, respiratory distress, bowel and cerebral infarctions, microcephaly, seizures
Cocaine abuse during pregnancy can (directly) cause:
organ toxicity, lesions, seizures, SIDS
Cocaine can cause acute ______, which disrupts the blood-brain barrier
Drugs that substitute for cocaine act as either direct or indirect _______ ________.
Drugs used to treat cocaine addiction include ______ and ________.
______ _______ like rimonabant may also be effective anti-craving drugs
_____ is an irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase, which has anti-craving effects.
Amphetamine's effects like vasoconstriction, tachycardia, hypertension, and restlessness are the result of increased __________.
presynaptic release of dopamine and norepinephrine.
Which neurotransmitter do the amphetamines mimic?
Amphetamines directly stimulate postsynaptic ________ receptors.
Amphetamines are FDA-approved to treat _______ and ________.
Increased psychomotor activity as a result of amphetamine use follows stimulation of dopamine receptors in the ________ system, including the _______ ________.
mesolimbic system, nucleus accumbens
The stereotypical high-dose amphetamine effect of repetition of meaningless acts involves _____ neurons in the ______ ________.
dopamine, basal ganglia
Amphetamine metabolites are detectable in urine for up to ____.
Studies show that low doses of _______ can improve cognitive speed and concentration.
Withdrawal from amphetamine use is ________ compared to withdrawal from opioid and barbiturate use.
_____ refers to the smokable form of methamphetamine
Methamphetamine has a half-life of about _______.
After smoking ice, about 60% of the methamphetamine is broken down in the _____.
Loss of volume in the ______ following chronic meth use accounts for persistent mood and memory problems
Meth _____ brain temperature, which accounts for BBB disruption, edema, and pathological injuries.
Ephedrine is found in nature in ________
Ephedrine acts by releasing the body's stores of ____________.
Pseudoephedrine is used in medicine to relieve ___________.
_______ is a nonamphetamine behavioral stimulant used to treat ADHD.
______ is a CNS stimulant that treats ADHD by potentiating CNS dopaminergic transmission
_______ is a serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor that is structurally similar to an amphetamine
______ is a cocaine-like psychostimulant that is used to treat narcolepsy, shift-work sleep disorder, and sleep apnea.
_____ can be chewed or brewed as a tea, and exerts effects similar to amphetamines or cocaine.