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Mrs Martin April 15


Iron chancelor of Germany


Bismarck's "battle for civilization," in which his goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above their allegiance to the Church


prime minister of Sardinia

Crimean War

Cavour gained no land, Joined Britain and France againstt Russia Sardinia gained French respect

Goals of Cavour

end Austria power in Italy; Annex Lombardy and Venetia


Giuseppe Mazzini was the first person that tried to unify all of Italy. created Young Italy


reawakening of Italian unification

victor emanuel

1849-1878; became king of all of Italy in 1861 with help from Cavour & Garibaldi; nationalism


secret agreement between France and Sardinia where France would help Sarinia if Austria attacked them. Sardinia would get Lombardy as pay


longest ruling dynasty


elected assemblies, and created by alexander II

reforms of Czar Alexander

jurry trials erased censorship, reduced military service, and encouraged industry


formed the german social deomcratic party

began social reforms

old age pensions, health insurance, accident insurence and good public schools

cavours goals

to end Austrian power in Italy, to annex Lombardy and Venetia

Cavour reforms Sardinia's economy by

improved argiculture, built railroads, supported free trade and ended local tariffs

Francis joseph

was 18 when he assumed the throne, and gave them constitution

Ottoman Empire

sick man of Europe


Wanted Bosnia and Herzgevonia

the balkans

the powder keg of Europe

Alexander II

was assinated by terrorists


violent mob attacks, persecuted the Jews


Inspired by the enlightenment of the French revolution, believed in natural rights


lower house appointed by rulers of German


upper house appointed by rulers of German states

william 1

kaiser of Germany


industrial giant of Europe, second to Britain

Napoleon Bonaparte

dissolved the holy roman empire and created the confederation on the Rhine

congress of Vienna

created German confederation weakened


economic policy of Germany

Krupp Works

steel and weapons

August Thyssen


/carl /zeiss

optical equipment

Bloody Sunday

Nicholas II leaves palace; troops fired on crowd

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