Terms in this set (156)
An all water route across the North American continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It does not exist.
Corps of Discovery
The group led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark of the expedition to explore and map the territory acquired in the Louisiana Purchase.
29 year old army captain. Jerfferson's personal secretary. Lead to Corps of Discovery.
Helped lead Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis. He was once Lewis' commanding officer.
Married to Toussaint Charbonneau. Shoshone Indian, only in her teens with a newborn child. Accompanied Lewis and Clark on their journey.
French fur trapper. Married to Sacagawea. Helped Lewis and Clark on their expedition since he knew the area.
Named for John Quincy Adams and the Spanish ambassador Luis de Onis. Made the cession of Florida official while also setting the boundary between the United States and Mexico at the Sabine River.
Andrew Jackson Role
Pursued the Creek and Seminole across the international border in Florida. Under his command the U.S. troops defeated the Creek and Seminole, occupied several Florida settlements, and executed two British citizens.
John Quincy Adams
Offered to purchase the colony. Spain agreed and the Adams-Onis Treary was written.
A person who engages in an unofficial military operation intended to seize land from foreign countries or foment revolution there.
An amendment (which did not pass) proposed by representative James Tallmadge in 1819 that called for Missouri to be admitted as a free state and for all slaves there to be gradually emancipated.
An agreement reached in congress in 1820 that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, brought Maine into the Union as a free state, and prohibited slavery north of the 36 30' latitude.
A person who brought new settlers to Texas in exchange for a grant of land.
Once-prosperous entrepreneur reduced to poverty by the Panic of 1819. Requested permission to settle three hundred English-speaking American residents in Texas.
Mexican residents of Texas.
A Mexican official who often served as combined civil administrator, judge and law enforcement officer.
Attempted to evict people who had settled his land grant before he gained title to it. When the Mexican government refused he took the alcalde of Nacogdoches prisoner. He then created the Republic of Fredonia. His revold collapsed and then he retreated to Texas.
An old mission, it was taken by Santa Anna and all but a few of its defenders were dead. Amongst the dead were Travis and James Bowie.
Battle of San Jacinto
Lead by Sam Houston. They attacked the Mexican troops as they settled for an afternoon nap. The battle was over in 15 minutes and about half the Mexican troops were killed. Santa Anna was taken as prisoner.
Lead the Texas troops in the Battle of San Jacinto. Elected president of Texas in September 1836.
Lead the Texas troops in the Battle of San Jacinto. Elected president of Texas in September 1836.
Lone Star Republic
Formed to protect itself from Mexican attempts to reclaim Texas. France, Great Britain, Belgium, and the Netherlands saw Texas as an independent nation. The U.S. did not until March 1837.
War between Mexico and America. Started because the U.S. wanted Mexico's land such as a California. The U.S. won, and gave them nearly half of Mexico's land.
Elected president in 1844. A slaveholder from Tennessee. He was elected because he vowed to annex Texas as a slave state and take Oregon.
An area rich in commercial possibilities. The land was a joint ownership by Great Britain and the U.S. The U.S. wanted all of the Oregon Territory but Great Britain refused to give it to them. Great Britain denied U.S. claims to the land north of the Columbia River. Finally in June 1846, Queen Victoria's government agreed to a division at the Forty-Ninth parallel.
Mexican residents of California
General of Army of the the Center. Assigned to accomplish the goal of taking control of the northern Mexico, including Mexico.
General of the Army of the South. Was in charge of seizing Mexico City.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Signed in February 1848. Was a triumph for the American expansionism under which Mexico ceded nearly half its land to the U.S.
The lands west of the Rio Grande ceded to the United States by Mexico in 1848, including California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado.
California and the Gold Rush
On January 24, 1848, James Marshall discovered gold in the millrace of the sawmill he had built. Word quickly spread and soon enough people were traveling from all over. California and the world to come to California's American River.
The nickname for those who traveled to California in 1849 in hopes of finding gold.
Discrimination Against the Chinese
Americans thought the Chinese were depriving them from finding Gold. California imposed a tax on foreign miners and in 1858 it prohibited all immigration from China. The Chinese the remained were often beaten, killed, or had their long hair cut off.
An amendment to a revenue bill that would have barred slavery from all the territory acquired from Mexico.
A political party formed in 1840 by those who believed political measures were the best means by which abolition could be accomplished.
Northern Democrats loyal to Martin Van Buren who opposed the extension of slavery into the territories and broke away from the main party when it nominated a pro-popular sovereignty candidate.
A political party that sought to exclude slavery from the western territories, leaving these areas open fro settlement by white farmers and ensuring that white laborers would not have to compete with slaves.
A term northerners used to describe the disproportionate influence that they felt elite southern slaveholder wielded in both domestic and international affairs.
A term northerners used to describe the disproportionate influence that they felt elite southern slaveholders wielded in both domestic and international affairs.
Five separate laws passed by Congress in September 1850 to resolve issues stemming from the Mexican Cession and the sectional crisis.
A term meaning "before the war" and used the describe the decades before the American Civil War began in 1861.
A device patented by Eli Whitney in 1794, that separated the seeds from raw cotton quickly and easily.
Inventor of the Cotton Gin.
The upswing in American cotton production during the nineteenth century.
A crop grown to be sold for profit instead of consumption by the farmer's family.
Domestic Slave Trade
The trading of slaves within the borders of the United States
Horrible, they were often tortured.
The premise that southern white slaveholders acted in the best interests of their slaves.
Free Black Population
More free blacks lived in the South than the North. The reason was due to manumission, the formal granting of freedom to slaves.
Deslondes' Slave Revolt 1811
Led by Charles Deslondes. 500 slaves joined the rebellion. Began January 1811. They attacked Manuel Andry's household and killed the slave master's son. They also set fire to three plantations and killed numerous whites.
Nat Turner's Revolt
Led by Nat Turner. The rebellion only lasted 48 hours. But due to the shock the state of Virginia thought about ending slavery in the states.
The slave states in the Upper South sold enslaved men, women, and children to states in the Deep South
Second Middle Passage
The internal forced migration of slaves to the South and West in the United States.
Social Classes in the South
The classes were decided by how many slaves you owned.
Southern Code of Honor
The south lived by their code of honor, They would defend their honor and ensure that they received proper respect became preoccupations of whites slave holding South.
Gender Roles in the South
Men represented their households in the world of politics, business, and war. The women were role models, that role was largely domestic and subservient.
Arguments in Defense of Slavery
Southerners are defending slavery because of honor. They argued that they were feeding and clothing the slaves when the north was working on a "wage slavery". The wage workers didn't have the benefit of clothes and food.
Contributed to the defense of slavery with his book Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society.
A majority of a separate region (that would otherwise be in the minority of the nation) with the power to veto or disallow legislation put forward by a hostile majority.
John C. Calhoun
Big supporter of Slavery. Highlighted laws like the Tariff of 1828 as evidence of the North's desire to destroy the southern economy and by extension its culture.
The idea that different human races came from separate origins.
President Franklin Pierve
One term wonder. Huge expansionist.
A secret memo stating that if Spain refused to sell Cuba to the United States, the United States was justified in taking the island as a national security measure.
Wanted to get rid of Spanish control in Cuba. He attempted 5 times. On the 5th time he gained American support. He ends up getting captured and executed.
Takes Nicaragua with no more than 60 mercenaries. Ends up being president of Nicaragua but gets kicked out. Makes slavery legal after it has been gone for 30 years. Bring back the slave trade. He tries to go back and gets captured by the British and gets executed.
Only 12 miles of land stood between the Pacific Ocean and the inland Lake Nicaragua. Important shipping Region.
Second Great Awakening
A revival of evangelical Protestantism in the early nineteenth century.
The belief that the Kingdom of God would be established on Earth and that God would reign on Earth for a thousand years characterized by harmony and Christian morality.
The belief that all people can attain an understanding of the world that transcends a rational, sensory experience.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The leading figure of the Transcendentalist movement. He was born in Boston in 1803 and came from a religious family. His father served as a Unitarian minister and, after graduating from Harvard Divinity School in the 1820s.
Henry Davis Thoreau
He placed a special emphasis on the role of nature and as a gateway to the transcendentalist goal of greater individualism.
A leading transcendentalist and advocate for women's equality.
He published Loves of Grass which celebrated the subjective experience of the individual.
The stressing of stressed transformative individual religious experience or piety over religious rituals and formality.
A religious sect that emphasized communal living and celibacy.
A leader of a group in England. She believed she was "mother in Christ". She thought that God was both male and female. Jesus embodied the male side, while Mother Ann represented the female side.
The Oneida Community
A Utopian Experiment
Came from a large Vermont family that had not prospered in the new market economy and moved to the town of Palmyra, the "burned over district" of western New York. He published The book of Mormon.
An American denomination, also known as the Latter-Day Saints, that emphasized patriarchal leadership.
A British industrialist helped inspire those who dreamed of a more equitable world in the face of the changes brought about by industrialization.
Emphasized collective effort by groups of people or self-restraint in the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Presbyterian minister. In 1825 Beecher delivered six sermons on temperance that were published that follow year as Six Sermons the Nature Occasions.
American Temperance Society
Formed in 1826
Complete abstinence from all alcohol.
Leader of the health reform. A Presbyterian minister. He advocated baths and cleanliness in general to preserve health. He viewed excessive sex as a disease.
The mapping of the mind to specific human attributes.
"Reforms" to Slavery
Members of the ACS did not believe that blacks and whites could live as equals, so they targeted the roughly 200,000 free blacks in the United States for relocation to Africa.
Taking free African Americans and relocating them to Liberia in Africa
Wrote the Freedom Journal. A free black man, he mysteriously murdered.
A believer in the complete elimination of slavery
William Lloyd Garrison
The leader of the abolitionist movement. The best known abolitionist.
A technique of appealing to the conscience of the public, especially slaveholders. They would tell the horrible stories and experiences slaves went through.
The moral demand to take immediate action against slavery.
Born in Maryland. He would publish stories about his life as a slave, he even mentioned the names of his masters. Because of this reason he had to flee the country. He ran away and friends in New York bought his freedom.
Played major roles in combining the fight to end slavery and the struggle to achieve female equality. There were from South Carolina. They were moved by the Second Great Awakening. They moved to the north (after being asked) and became Quakers. They were giving lectures to men.
Seneca Falls Convention
The location of the first American conference on women's right and the signing of the "Declaration of Rights and Sentiments" in 1848. There were men at the convention as well, such as Frederick Douglass.
The idea that the woman is nurturing and caring.
Compromise of 1850
Five laws passed by Congress to resolve issues stemming from the Mexican Cession and the sectional crisis.
Fugitive Slave Act
Imposed heavy fines and prison sentences on northerners and midwesterners who aided runaway slaves or refused to join passes to catch fugitives.
A network of free blacks and northern white who helped slaves escape bondage through a series of designated routes and safe houses.
Made her escape through the Underground Railroad. She returned back to the south to help many slaves escape to the North.
An escaped slave that lived in Boston. When he was captured to abolitionists staged a series of mass demonstrations and a confrontation at the courthouse.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
The author was Harriet Beecher Stowe. The novel first appeared as a series of stories in a newspaper. The story highlighted the idea that slavery was a sin because it destroyed families.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin. She was an abolitionist and lost her first child.
Led to the formation of a new political party, the Republican Party, that committed itself to ending the further expansion of slavery. The act created two territories Kansas and Nebraska.
Came up with the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The principle of letting the people residing in a territory decide whether or not to permit slavery in that area based on majority rule.
A reference to the violent clashes in Kansas between Free-Soilers and slavery supporters.
Proslavery Missourians who crossed the border into Kansas to influence the legislation.
Radical abolitionist. Raid happened Oct. 16-18. 1859. Harper's Ferry, VA, had a federal military arsenal. Was avenging Charles Sumner's beating. He was hung on Dec. 2. Abolitionists make him out to be a martyr. Southerners were glad he was dead.
Dred Scott vs. San(d)ford
An 1857 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that blacks could no be citizens and Congress had not jurisdiction to impede the expansion of slavery.
Illinois state senate race. Douglas wanted to knock Lincoln out of the race early. Lincoln had been following Douglas throughout the state. Lincoln asked Douglas to debate, they get personal and savage. Each trying to make the other look like a radical.
Race-mixing through sexual relation or marriage.
A doctrine that emerged during the Lincoln-Douglas debated in which Douglas reaffirmed his commitment to popular sovereignty, including the right to halt the spread of slavery, despite the 1857 Dred Scott decision affirming slaveholders' right to bring their property wherever they wished.
Radical southern secessionists.
Election of 1860
Lincoln wins, Democrats are split over slavery.
Antislavery. Armed force of any state was they worst crime (secession). No slavery in the new territories. Homestead Ac. Against any change to naturalization laws. Internal improvements (bridges, roads, etc.) Transcontinental railroad.
Southern Democratic Platform
Right to take property into the new territories. Acquire Cuba. Enforce Fugitive Slave Law.
Northern Democrat Platform
Abide by the Supreme Court decisions in regard to the territories. Protection of all American citizens. Transcontinental Railroad. Support Fugitive Slave Law.
Constitutional Union Platform
The Constitution of the United States is the law of the land. Citizens are bound to maintain a more perfect Union.
Secession of Southern States
South Carolina is the first to leave Deep South goes first. Upper South waits to see what Lincoln would do with presidency.
Causes of the Civil War
Lincoln being elected President. The controversy over the new territories. Each new territory gets representation. There would be more Southern or Northern representation so passing laws would be an issue. Abolitionists. The different political parties.
John Crittenden. Wanted to restore the Missouri Compromise Line and extended it all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Wanted to prohibit Congress from abolishing slavery from where it already was. Wanted to prohibit Congress from interfering with the slave trade in the states.
Creating the Confederate States of America
Confederacy: a loose organization of states and only come together during a war. Consists of the Deep South. Their Constitution is like the U.S. Constitution making sure that slavery was legal though.
The first and only president of the Confederacy.
The vice president of the Confederacy
A fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, where the Union garrison came under siege by Confederate forces in an attack on April 12, 1861, beginning the Civil War.
Mobilizing for War
North wanted a quick and easy end to the war. The Union called for seventy-five thousand volunteers. The Confederacy also received many volunteers. North thought it would be only 90 days. Both sides underestimated what it would take to win.
First Battle of Bull Run
Also called the First Manassas. People didn't want to miss out on this battle because they thought it would make history and end the war. The union failed and retreated back to Washington D.C.
General in Chief
The commander of army land forces
General in chief of the Army of the Potomac. He was a horrible general as was eventually fired. Had overall control of the Union land forces. Often thought the enemy has more troops than him and never wanted to fight.
Army of the Potomac
The Union fighting force operating outside Washington D.C.
Army of the West
The Union fighting force operating in Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Mississippi River Valley.
General of the Army of the West. Very good General, very successful.
A state of war in which the government makes no distinction between military and civilian targets, and mobilizes all resources, extending its research into all areas of citizens' lives.
The right of those arrested to be brought before a judge or court to determine whether there is cause to hold the prisoner.
Paper money the United States began issue during the Civil War
Women's War Efforts
Would takeover the farms and businesses when the men were drafted. Women in the South brought soldiers into their homes to care for them. Women int the North volunteered to be nurses and worked to keep things clean to keep soldiers from dying from diseases.
Slaves who escaped the Union army's lines.
Signed on January 1, 1863, the document with which President Lincoln transformed the Civil War into a struggle to end slavery.
A speech by Abraham Lincoln dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg on November 19, 1863.
Relationship with Europe
France and Great Britain. Great Britain never recognizes the Confederacy because it still had slavery. They confederates never got the alliance they wanted with the two countries.
African American Soldiers
After Emancipation Proclamation many slaves wanted to join the army. Once they did join they were paid less. Eventually they got the same pay as whites. Were not allowed to see combat.
Sherman's March to the Sea
The scorched-earth campaign employed in Georgia by Union general William Tecumseh Sherman.
Election of 1864
Thought that Lincoln was going to lose. Running against General George B. McClellan, runs on a peace platform. The war wasn't going well for Lincoln. First war when soldiers in the field could vote. Lincoln wins all but three states.
Democrats who opposed Lincoln in the 1864 election.
A time period in American History 1865-1877 where they are trying to integrate the south back into the Union.
Lincoln's 10% Plan
Lincoln's Reconstruction plan, which required only 10% of the 1860 voters in Confederate states to take an oath of allegiance to the Union.
Lead by Thadius Stevens. Northern Republicans who contested Lincoln's treatment of Confederate states and proposed harsher punishments.
An oath that the Warde-Davis Bill required a majority of voters and government officials in Confederate states to take; it involved swearing that they had never supported the Confederacy.
Official December 1865. Abolished slavery in the United States.
Shot in the head at Ford's Theatre in Washington. Shot by John Wilkes Booth.
Andrew Johnson and the Radical Republicans
Andrew Johnson originally from North Carolina, moved to Tennessee. His wife teaches him how to read and write. Only person from the South that did not resign his position. He hated the upper class of the South. They tried to impeach him from office because he stood in the way of racial equality.
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, which was created in 1865 to ease blacks' transition from slavery to freedom.
Laws some southern states designed to maintain white supremacy by keeping freed people impoverished and in debt.
Anyone born in the U.S. is a citizen and the 3/5 clause is done away with. If a state denies the 14th amendment you can lose representation in Congress. Slaveholders cannot sue for loss of property.