Terms in this set (57)
The factor that "I" change, it's what your testing.
What you are measuring.
What you keep the same for every part of an experiment.
Does not get any special treatment, used for comparison.
Living things that are only made up of one cell.
Living things that are made up of two or more cells.
6 characteristics of life
organization, responses to stimuli, reproduction, energy, growth and development, and homeostatis
an organism's ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside conditions change.
Is the change over time in populations of related organisms.
A series of descriptions arranged in pairs that leads the user to the identification of an unknown organism.
A branching diagram that shows the relationships among organisms, including common ancestors.
they form by joining many small molecules together
Long chains of amino acid molecules.
A large macromolecule that does not dissolve in water. (Saturated, Unsaturated and Trans Fat)
One sugar molecule, two sugar molecules, or a long chain of sugar molecules makes it up.
Macromolecules that form when long chains of molecules called nucleotides join together.
The genetic material of the cell is not surrounded by a membrane. Most prokaryotic cells are unicellular organisms and are called prokaryotes. Do not have many other cell parts. Does not have a nucleus. Example: Bacteria.
Each cell has a genetic material that is surrounded by a membrane. Every Eukaryotic cell has organelles. Has a nucleus. Examples: Plants, animals, protists, humans, fungi.
contains the genetic information of eukaryotic cells, "brain of the cell."
Have specialized functions and most of them are surrounded by membrane. "Little Organs" Structures found with a cell.
A flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside a cell
A stiff, rigid, structure outside the cell membrane. (plant cells, fungal cells, and bacteria)
A fluid inside a cell that contains salts and other molecules.
Surrounded by two membranes. Energy is released during chemical reactions. Provides the cell with usable energy. The cell's generator. (ATP is the usable form of energy)
Membrane-bound organelles that use light energy and make food (a sugar called glucose) from water and carbon dioxide in a process known as photosynthesis. Found in plant cells that contain a green pigment called chlorophyll.
Golgi Apparatus (bodies)
Prepares proteins for their specific jobs or functions. Then packages the proteins into tiny, membrane-bound ball-like structures called vesicles. The "UPS" or "FedEx" of the cell because they package proteins into vesicles and ship them out.
A network of threadlike proteins that are joined together. It gives the cell its shape and structure.
Organelles that store food, water, and waste material
Organelles that are involved in the production of proteins
A series of folded membranes that assist in transporting substances throughout the cell
doesn't have ribosomes attached to it
a series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and CO2 into the food-energy molecule glucose and give off oxygen (light energy to make sugar)
Recycling organelles;" break down worn-out cell parts."
Breaks down hydrogen peroxide (which is toxic) into water and oxygen
is a series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food molecules into a usable form of energy called ATP
Cellular Respiration Equation
C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + ATP energy
6CO2 +6H2O →6CO2H12O6+602
a reaction that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can use to obtain energy from food when oxygen levels are low
Two types of fermentation
Lactic-Acid fermentation and Alcohol fermentation.
a process by which glucose is broken down into smaller molecules
Uses oxygen (example Cellular Respiration)
Doesn't use oxygen (example Fermentation)
Lactic Acid Fermentation Equation
6CO2,H12O6→ ATP + Lactic Acid
(occurs in muscle cells)
6CO2,H12O6→ ATP + CO2+ Alcohol
(yeast cels do this)
the movement of substances through a cell membrane without using the cell's energy (ATP).
the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (substances normally move down a concentration gradient)
The cell membrane is semi permeable which means it has tiny holes in it. It allows what it "chooses" to go in or out
the diffusion of water molecules only through a membrane
An uneven amount
When molecules pass through a cell membrane using special proteins (when large substances, such as glucose, tries to enter or leave the cell, it requires special transport proteins)
The movement of substances through a cell membrane only by using the cell's energy (ATP)
There is less water outside of the cell than inside of the cell, such as in a salty or sugary solution (the cell will get smaller)
there is more water outside of the cell than inside of the cell (the cell will get bigger)
There is equal amounts of water inside and outside of the cell (the cell will size will stay the same)
the process in which a cell takes a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane.
the process in which a cell's vesicles release their contents outside the cell.
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