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History final sem 1
Terms in this set (81)
Mycenaeans fought a 10 year war against Troy
Homer is the best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. He was believed by the ancient Greeks to have been the first and greatest of the epic poems
A series of wars in the 5th century B.C., in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire
City leader of Athens, 3 main goals, idea for Parthanon
-Create a stronger democracy
-Strengthen Athenian Empire
Athens Golden Age
Drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, and science all reached new heights. The artists and literary legacies of the time continue to inspire and construct others
A war, lasting from 431 to 404 B.C., in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies
Alexander the Great
Led by his father in goals, proclaimed himself king of Macedonia - 13 years of accomplishments
Philip II of Macedonia
Father of Alexander the Great, sets up Alexander for achievements. Goals to defeat/attack Persian Empire, unify Greece, build up a strong army.
Lighthouse, library, tomb of Alexander. Major city of the Hellenistic time.
Romulus & Remus
Founders of Rome, twin brothers put in the Tiber River
Wealthy landowners who help more power, superior to other members of Roman society
Middle/lower class who made up most of the population. Examples - artisans, farmers, merchants
A form of Government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by citizens who have the right to vote
A brilliant military strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage's earlier defeat - Carthaginian general
Roman military general who devised a plan to attack Carthage
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C), resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean
Young politician who gains popularity with the poor through his festivals and games that he sponsors - serves as Governor of Spain
Between Crassus, Caesar, and Pompey - Civil war between Caesar and Pompey, Caesar wins
Between Lepidus, Marc Antony, and Octavian - Civil war between Marc Antony and Octavian, Octavian wins
Caesar's 18 year old grandnephew and adopted son. Won 2nd Triumvirate civil war. Prior to having control of empire, called Octavian but once he had control of the empire he was called Agustus
Period of peace and prosperity within the empire and is also known as "Roman Peace." Roman Empire included more than 3 million square miles - climax or highest point of Roman Empire
Roman emperor, was fighting three rivals for leadership of Rome. He had marched to the Tiber River at Rome to battle his chief rival
A strong-willed army leader, became the new emperor. He was a firm ruler who severely limited personal freedoms - Restored order to the empire and increased its strength. Doubled the size of the Roman army and sought to control inflation by setting fixed prices for goods.
The city of Constantine - Capital city of the Roman/Byzantine, the Latin, and the Ottoman Empires
City that interfered with Roman access to the Mediterranean, located on a peninsula of the North African coast.
Germanic people that had power in Gaul. Leader was Clovis
Leader of the Franks, brought Christianity to the region. United the Franks into one kingdom - we don't know if he saved Western Europe.
The appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles
The body of laws governing the religious practices of a Christian church
The selling or buying of a position in a Christian church
Emperor of the Holy Roman empire and king of Germany. Called a meeting of the appointed bishops and with their approval the emperor ordered Gregory to step down from the papacy. Gregory excommunicated Henry. German bishops and princes died with the pope and in order to save his throne, Henry tried to win the pope's forgiveness. He approached the castle where Gregory was a guest and Gregory kept Henry waiting in the snow and the meeting solved nothing although Gregory had humiliant Henry.
Pope Gregory VII
Banned lay investiture (appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles) (rest in Henry IV)
Pope Urban II
Issued a plea which resulted in the First Crusade
Richard I the Lion Hearted
The son of Henry and Eleanor, and English king. He was part of the third crusade to help capture Jerusalem.
A group of people in the same business, working to improve the economic and social conditions of their members.
Medieval merchant-class towns dweller
The language of the common people of an area or the most common language that people in one area speak. Examples - Germany - German or Italy - Italian USA - English
William the Conqueror (William of Normandy)
Norman noble who defeats the Anglo-Saxon king and takes control of England
Eleanor of Aquitaine
When she married Henry II, her lands in France were added to her husband's kingdom of England.
"Great Charter" - a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in A.D. 1215.
Philip II of France
King that regained French land from King John of England and strengthened the power of the monarchy
Louis IX of France (St. Louis)
Known for his religious beliefs and pious behavior. He created a court of appeals that could overturn local courts decisions.
Bubonic Plague (Black)
A deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people.
A division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome.
Hundred Years War
Conflict in which England and France battled on French soil on and off from 1337 to 1453.
Joan of Arch
Teenage peasant girl who felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors. When she was 13, began to have visions and hear what she believed were the voices of the saints. They urged her to drive the English from France and give the French crown to France's true king. Led the French army into battle in 1429 at a fort near Orleans and the fort blocked the road to Orleans. The French army had won this. In 1430 the Burgundians captured Joan in battle and turned her over to the English and the English handed her over to the church authorities to stand trial and Charles VII did not do anything to save her - She was burned at stake in 1431.
5 Characteristics of civilization
1) Advanced cities
2) Specialized workers
3) Complex institutions
4) Record keeping
5) Advanced technology
What do The Iliad and The Odyssey tell about? What is their importance?
Epic stories about the Mycenaean or Bronze age, ancient Greeks who flourished from about 1600-1100 B.C. The Iliad tells the final chapter in the story of two major Bronze Age "Greek" alliances battling each other. The Odyssey mainly takes place outside of that common culture and describes contact with pre-Mycenaean Mediterranean cultures. The story focuses on Odysseus and his family's struggle to recover from the Trojan war's after effects and, primarily, with Odysseus struggle to make it back home. Importance of Homer to ancient Greek history. No other texts in Western imagination occupy as central a position in the self-definition of Western culture as the Iliad and the Odyssey. They both concern the great defining moment of Greek culture, the Trojan War.
Ruled by a king and power is passed onto family
Ruled by nobles or large land owners
Ruled by a small group of powerful people
Ruled by the people
A system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god
What is the importance of geography on ancient Greece?
Regions shaped Greek traditions, Greeks developed small communities within valleys, mountain chains, seaways.
How does Sparta and Athens compare to each other?
Athens: Democracy, art, creativity, individual, trade empire, land power
Sparta: Oligarchy, military society, group/state, agriculture, focused on self, naval power
What is the importance of Marathon, Salamis, and thermopylae in the Persian Wars?
Marathon - Persian fleet that carried 25,000 men across the Aegean sea and landed on this plane
Thermopylae - Was a mountain
Salamis - Island
What is the connection between Socrates, Plato and Aristotle and what do they have in common?
They were the three famous Greek philosophers
How does Ancient Greece's culture compare to Hellenistic culture (differences and similarities)?
-Greek, Egyptian, Persian
-Worship the Greek Gods
-Have common ideas of theters
What characteristics does the United States government share with Ancient Rome's government?
Share the senate, the idea of veto, have a Republic Democracy, checks and balances, classical art and music, and architecture.
What groups did the Roman's overcome to dominate Italy and the western Mediterranean?
In Italy, they overcame the Etruscans and the Greeks. For all of the western Mediterranean, they overcame Carthage.
What types of problems did Rome's republic face following its expansion after the Punic Wars?
-Growing discontent among the lower class
-New political system
-People became homeless and jobless
-Breakdown of the one-loyal military
-Generals began seizing greater power for themselves
What does the term "Bread and Circuses" refer to and what role does this play in Rome?
Unemployed poor are fed and provided with entertainment by the government
What problems did the Roman Empire face following the end of the Pax Romana?
-Decline of the Economy (Inflation - decline in value of money), decline in agriculture, invasions disrupt trade. increased taxes destroy incentive to work, slavery may have stifled innovation
-Decline in population
-Decay of Politics
-Decline in military
-Unity of Empire declines
How did Diocletian and Constantine attempt to overcome Rome's problems?
-Doubles army by drafting people and mercenaries
-Fixes prices to fight inflation
-Creates a caste system - people cannot leave jobs
-Claims divine descent
-Splits Empire to make its rule easier
-Continues economic politics of Diocletian
-Re-unites rule of Empire
-Ends Persecution of Christians. Edict of Milan
-Moves Capital to Byzantium. Eastern half in wealthier. (this Eastern half will become the Byzantine Empire)
What are characteristics of classical art and during what time period do we see a return to this style?
Harmony, order, balance, proportion, individualism - Wanted the art to be ideal beauty not realistic
What are some of the achievements that Rome passed along to the western world?
-Adopting/passing on many elements of the Greek and Hellenistic cultures (Greco-Roman culture) which includes writings (both philosophical, scientific, and literature - poems, plays, etc.)
-Different art forms - Use of columns, arches, and domes
-Representative government (republic) - law
-Roman engineering (aqueducts)
What were some of the results of the Roman Empire falling apart in Western Europe?
-Office was seen as large problem
-Military interference in politics
-Division of empire
-Decline in public affairs
-Disruption of trade
-Gold and silver drain
-Threat from northern tribes
-Law funds for defense
-Decline of patriotism
What are Romance languages and why are they described as such?
Italian, Portuguese, French, Spanish, Romanian - Primary language of the Roman empire was Latin and languages that come from Latin are known as Romance languages (named after the Romans)
Why is the Catholic Church so important during the Middle Ages?
-It was one common aspect to everyone's life - all follow the same path to salvation (heaven/promise of religion), all celebrated the same holidays with one another
-Centers for education
What are the accomplishments of Charlemagne during his rule?
Became king of The Franks, embarked on a mission to unite all Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity - Skilled military strategist (he spent much of his reign engaged in warfare in order to accomplish his goals), crowned emperor of the Romans.
-Conquered new lands
-Built an empire
Be able to describe the feudal system.
Feudalism - political/military system
Decentralized government: land is given to a noble that technically belongs to the King in return for loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live/work on the land.
Feudal obligations between a lord (person who gives land) and vassal (person who receives the land)
How did the collapse of Charlemagne's empire and the invasion by Magyars, Muslims and Vikings help lead to feudalism?
-Kings could not defend their lords
-People started to turn toward local leaders
-System of government and land hold (feudalism)
Be able to explain the relationship between a lord and vassal.
Gives land to vassal (fief)
Provides assistance when vassal is attacked
Provides court for disputes between vassals
Pledges loyalty to lord
Provides military service for lord (40 days)
Services on lord's court. Acts as an advisor
Provides payments in following cases - Dowry for lord's daughter / Ransom for lord's son
What was life like for a serf during the Middle Ages?
Peasants who live and work on the nobles land - Serf provides:
Work on the lord's land 3 -4 days a week
Care for the lord's animals
Pay a tax for using the lord's mill
Tax for marriage
Pay a tithe/tax (10%) to church
Cannot leave the land
Serfs were not slaves - cannot be sold or traded, tied to the land (could not leave the land even though the lands ownership could change (different lord))
Why did Frederick Barbarossa and other Holy Roman Emperors struggle to unify Germany?
He had a very forceful personality / his military skills enabled him to dominate German princes
He invaded rich cities of Italy
What were some of the problems the Church faces during the Middle Ages?
-Kings begin to resist efforts by Popes to control their behavior
-Political attempts to control selection of pope lead to the Great Schism/divide
-Scholars begin to question authority of popes and question teachings of church leaders
What were the Crusades and what were their results?
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns sanctioned by various Popes in the Middle Ages, from 1096 to 1487.
Stimulates trade between Europe and Southwest Asia
Weakens nobles and strengthens kings
Weakens prestige of church
Creates conflict between Christians and Muslims in border regions
What changes in agriculture led to an increase in food production and population during the Middle Ages?
-Growing food supply
-Development of the guild
-Let people buy goods
How did the growth of towns, trade and universities begin to change the Middle Ages?
-Trade grew leading to towns swelling with people
-Streets were narrow
-Dumped household waste into the streets
-More workers were needed
-Merchant and power expanded
How did the Kings of France and England increase their power during the Middle Ages?
France/England: Both allied with the church and limited the power of the nobles
France: Charlemagne fought muslims in Spain, conquered new lands, and spread Christianity through the conquests and reunited the Roman Empire
What events helped bring an end to the Middle Ages? Be able to explain each event's impact.
Division within the church - kings begin to resist efforts by Popes to control their behavior / political attempts to control selection of pope lead to the Great Schism, scholars begin to question authority of popes and question teachings of church leaders. John Wycliffe and John Huss both state that the final authority of Christianity is the bible.
Plague starts in Asia and travels by war and trade to Europe (1347), spreads outward from Italy into rest of Europe, 1/3 of population of Europe believed to have died from the plague.
Hundred Years War:
Conflict between France and England over rightful ruler of France.
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