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The Human Body: Test Questions #1
Terms in this set (122)
Muscle cells can get longer and shorter. How does the help with its job in the body?
It allows your muscles to contract and relax.
How do body systems work together?
Body systems share organs and communicate.
What is homeostasis?
How your body responds to change and maintains balance.
When you are finished running, your are sweating and you feel thirsty. What body systems are interacting in this case?
The nervous system makes you thirsty. The integumentary system makes you sweat.
How does the body react when the outside temperature gets too hot?
You start to sweat. It's your integumentary system at work.
What can go wrong with homeostasis?
You get structure or function diseases or pathogens and disease.
Alcoholism is a disease that disrupts homeostasis. What are the effects of nervous system?
NERVOUS: It disrupts functioning of the brain. The brain cannot respond properly to internal or external messages.
DIGESTIVE: Your body will have a hard time digesting food because of toxins.
REPRODUCTIVE: a pregnant woman will have a hard time creating a healthy fetus.
What system brings oxygen into the blood and releases carbon dioxide from the body?
The long, thin cells of which system held transmit electrical messages around the body?
The muscular heart pushers what around the body?
What two systems work together to allow a baseball player to swing the bat?
Nervous and muscular.
If body temperatures goes up, what senses change and will work to reduce the body temperature to normal?
How might disruption of the respiratory system affect homeostasis of the body?
The less oxygen you get could result in "passing out" or death.
What is maintaining stable conditions inside the body?
How are the functions of the skeletal and muscular systems related?
They help your body move.
What body systems record information from inside and outside the body and responds to that information?
The nervous system and endocrine system.
How is skin part of the integumentary system and the excretory system.
Skin is covering the outside of the body and it also excretes sweat.
What is the basic need of all cells in the body?
Cell need oxygen!
Give an example of how a cell's structure relates to its function in the nody.
Nerve cells are long and stringy which allow it to send messages and receive messages.
Choose an answer: The skeletal/muscular system is responsible for supporting the body.
Choose an answer: Bones are a part of your skeletal/muscular system
Choose an answer: You can unscrews your flexibility by stretching your bones/muscles.
How might a broken arm affect your ability to move?
A broken bone would affect the ability to move the limb.
What are the main functions of the skeletal system?
It protects organs, provides your body support, stores minerals, it produces blood cells, and let's your body move.
How might a suit of armor be a good analogy for a function of the skeletal system?
It's a frame for your body and protects organs and armor protects your body from injury.
What are the parts of the skeletal system?
Bones, ligaments, and a cartilage.
What are bones made of?
Minerals , connective tissue, and marrow.
How are bones connected?
Joints connect bones together.
What are some injuries and disorders of the skeletal system?
Fractures, sprains, osteoporosis, and arthritis.
What are the three types of muscles?
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle.
What are some injuries and disorders of the muscular system?
Muscle strains and tears, muscular dystrophy, and tendinitis.
What are some benefits of exercise?
Muscle strength, muscle endurance, and flexibility.
What's a group of muscles that allow you to move and that move materials inside your body?
What's a place where two or more bones connect?
Bones, cartilage, and ligaments that holds bones together is called what?
Tough strands of tissue that connects muscles to bones are called what?
A type of tough, flexible connective tissue that holds bones together is called what?
How do muscles work in pairs to move the body?
The flexor contracts and the exterior relaxes to bend a bone. The flexor relaxes and the exterior contracts to straighten a joint.
What bone disease is caused by a lack of calcium in the diet?
If aerobic exercise improves heart strengths that it pumps more blood with each beat, what likely happens to the heart rate as the cardiac muscle get stronger?
The heart rate would decrease because the heart become efficient, so it does not pump as often.
The shoulder is an example of what kind of joint?
A ball-and-socket joint.
Muscles work in what to move body parts?
Aerobic exercise improves what two things?
Muscle endurance and muscle strength
What is the circulatory system?
The cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system.
What are of the lymphatic system?
Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, bone marrow, tonsils, thymus, and the spleen.
What are some disorders of the lymphatic system?
Lymphoma, lymphedema, filariasis, and the bubonic plague.
What are the parts of the cardiovascular system?
The heart, blood, and blood vessels.
What is blood made of?
Plasma, platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells.
How does blood move through the body?
The blood moves in two loops or circuits around the body.
How does circulation help maintain body temperature?
It signals blood vessels.
What are some problems that affect the cardiovascular system?
Atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart attacks, and strokes.
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
To take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
What's are the parts of the respiratory system?
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchioles, and alveoli.
What are some disorders of the respiratory system?
Asthma, pneumonia, and emphysema.
Inside your what, food is chewed and broken down by teeth and saliva?
What is a nuclear inside your mouth that held you to swallow food and liquids?
If you eat too much food too quickly, you may get a what?
What is the digestive system?
It breaks down the food you eat into nutrients than can be used as building materials and provide energy for cells.
What are the two types of digestion?
Mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.
What's mechanical digestion?
The breaking, crushing, and mashing of food.
What's chemical digestion?
It's the process in which large molecules of food are broken down into smaller molecules so that they can pass into the bloodstream.
The stomach lining is made up of deep muscular grooves. How do you think these structures help the stomachs to break down food?
The deep grooves produce a rough surface to grind food.
What are the parts of the digestive system?
The mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, and large intestine.
What the esophagus?
The food moves through the throat and into a long tube called the esophagus.
What's the stomach?
The stomach is a muscular bag that crushes food and contains acids and enzymes for killing bacteria and breaking some proteins.
What's the small intestine?
It's a muscular tube where most chemical digestion takes place and most nutrients are absorbed.
What's the large intestine?
It's where water nutrients are absorbed. Most of the solid material remaining is waste, which is compacted and stored.
What are the functions of the excretory system?
To sweat, exhale, and produce urine and feces.
What are the organs are in the urinary system?
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
How does the urinary system maintain homeostasis?
Your cells have to maintain a certain level of water and salt in order to function properly. The excretory system works with the endocrine system to help maintain homeostasis. Chemical messengers called hormones signal the kidneys to filter more or less water or salt, depending on the levels of water and salt in the body. As a result, the nephrons conserve less water, and more urine is produced by the kidneys.
Starting with the mouth, describe the pathway that food takes through the digestive system.
It goes through the esophagus, to the stomach, the small intestine, and then the large intestine.
What is the function of the nervous system?
For the CNS to process information and the PNS to connect the CNS to muscles and organs.
What are the parts of the CNS?
The brain and spinal cord.
What are the parts of the PNS?
Sensory and motor.
How do signals move through the nervous system?
Through sensory and motor neurons.
What are the parts of the neuron?
The neuron is made up of a large region called the cell body, a long extension called axon, and short branches called dendrites. At the end of the axon is the axon terminal.
What are the main senses?
Sight, touch, hearing, taste, and smell.
The connective tissue in bone made mostly of protein is called what?
What are two types of marrow?
Red marrow and yellow marrow.
What's a cartilage?
A strong, flexible, and smooth connective tissue found at the end of bones.
What's the most plentiful minerals in bones?
What's the muscular system?
It allows the movement of body parts.
What's the skeletal system?
It supports the body and protects important organs.
What's the respiratory system?
It gathers oxygen from the environment and gets rid of carbon dioxide.
What's the cardiovascular system?
It moves blood through the body.
What's the lymphatic system?
It returns leaked fluid back to the blood.
What's the endocrine system?
It makes chemical messages that regulate the conditions inside the body.
What's the integumentary system?
It's the protective covering of the body.
What's the excretory system?
It gets rid of the body's waste.
What's the digestive system?
It breaks down food into nutrients that can be used by the body.
What's the nervous system?
It collects information and responds to it by sending electrical messages.
What are fractures?
When bones are broken by a high force impact.
What are sprains?
An injury to a ligament that is caused by stretching a joint too far.
A disease caused by bone tissue that becomes thin.
A disease that causes joints to swell, stiffen, and become painful.
What's smooth muscle?
It helps move materials through the body. It's an involuntary muscle.
What's cardiac muscle?
The tissue that makes up the heart and never gets tired of contracting and relaxing.
What's skeletal muscle?
It's attached to your bones and allows you to move. You have control over skeletal muscle.
What are some anaerobic exercises?
What are some aerobic exercise?
Where are lymph nodes located?
Lymph nodes are located in the armpits, neck, and groin.
What are lymph vessels?
They are the thin-walked vessels of the lymphatic system.
What's bone marrow?
The soft tissue inside of bones where blood cells are produced.
What are tonsils?
Small lymphatic organs at the back of the throat and tongue.
What's the thymus?
An organ in the chest where some show blood cells are produced.
What's the spleen?
The largest lymphatic organs that stores white blood cells and allows them to mature.
What's the heart?
The heart is the limp that sends blood around the body.
A fluid that carries gases, nutrients, and wastes through. The body and that is made up of platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells, and plasma.
What and how do your bones protect?
Bones provide protection to organs.
What and how does your body support?
Bones provide support for your body and make it possible for you to sit or stand upright.
How do your bones produce blood cells?
In the center of your bones, you have marrow, which helps make blood cells.
How does your body control movement?
Bones play an important role in movement by providing a place for muscles to attach.
What's an example of a hinge joint?
Knees and elbows.
What is an example of gliding joints?
Wrists and ankles.
What's an example of a ball and socket joint?
Shoulders and hips.
What's a joint?
A place where two or more bones connect.
The fluid part of the blood is called plasma. It's a mixture of water, minerals, nutrients, sugars, proteins, and other substances.
What's a platelet?
Tiny pieces of larger cells found on bone marrow.
What's a white blood cell?
White blood cells keep you healthy by fighting pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.
What's a red blood cell?
Red blood cells as disk shaped cells that do not have a nucleus.
What's the function of the CNS?
The CNS processes information.
What's the function of the PNS?
The PNS to connect the CNS io the rest of your body.
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