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Terms in this set (37)
a written document that describes the structure and powers of a national or state government
an organization or alliance of several groups joined together
Articles of Confederation
the first written plan of government for the United States --> it was created because the states needed a national government, but it failed because the national government that was created was too weak
part of the government that is responsible for making laws
territory north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi
bill of rights
a written list of people's rights that the government promises to protect
the buying and selling of goods and services
a tax placed on imported goods when they come into the country
major slowdown in the economy --> production of goods slows down, unemployment increases, and people who have jobs earn less money
meeting where delegates worked to create the Articles of Confederation
accepted method of exchange for goods and services
revolt of Massachusetts farmers led by Daniel Shays --> farmers felt they were being treated unfairly because the government was taking their land when they couldn't pay their taxes or loans
proved to American people that the Articles of Confederation did not work!
55 delegates from 12 of the 13 states met in Philadelphia in 1787 to address the problems with the Articles of Confederation --> delegates ultimately decided that they would need to write an entirely new constitution
one of the most important delegates at the Constitutional Convention --> he helped develop the Virginia Plan
a plan for creating the legislative branch of the federal government and determining how many representatives each state would have in the legislature. It called for two houses and the number of representatives in both houses would be determined by each state's population. This idea would give large states such as Virginia more power than small states.
New Jersey Plan
a plan for creating the legislative branch of the federal government and determining how many representatives each state would have in the legislature. It called for a single house in the legislature and for each state to have one vote. This idea of equal representation would give small states like New Jersey as much power as the large states.
the part of the government that makes laws. In the U.S. the legislative branch is called Congress and is made up of two houses (the Senate and the House of Representatives)
the part of the government that executes, or carries out, the laws. In the U.S. the President is the head of the executive branch. The president is assisted by a vice president and a cabinet.
part of the government that interprets the laws and runs the court system. In the U.S. the judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court and other federal courts
written by Roger Sherman --> an agreement at the Constitutional Convention between the large states and the small states about how representation would be determined in the legislative branch of government. Government would still have three branches, but the legislature would have two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. In the Senate each state would have the same number of representatives. In the House the numbers of representatives would be based on the state's population.
an agreement between the Northern states and Southern states that was made at the Constitutional Convention. The two sides agreed that three-fifths of all enslaved people would be counted toward a state's population for representation and taxes.
a form of government in which people elect leaders, called representatives, to stand in for them
separation of powers
the separation of the powers of the federal government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches so that no one branch becomes too strong.
the division of power between the national/central/federal government and the state governments
the system that the framers established to elect the president and vice president of the United States. The number of electors each state receives is equal to the sum of the state's U.S. senators and members of the House of Representatives. I
checks and balances
a system of government in which each separate branch can check, or limit, the power of the other branches. Checks and balances help prevent any one branch of government from becoming too powerful
to charge with a crime
the people who supported the Constitution and believed that the country needed the strong federal government created by the new Constitution.
the people who opposed the Constitution and thought the new federal government was too strong (they objected to its lack of a bill of rights)
The Federalist Papers
a series of 85 newspaper essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay to encourage ratification (approval) of the new constitution
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution
to change by editing, deleting, or adding
laws that protect the rights of people accused of crimes
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