a type of society characterized by most of the following: dense population, agricultural economy, cities, complex social hierarchy, job specialization, centralized state, monumental building, a writing system, and a dominant belief system
in a civilization when people adopt different jobs like artisan or priest that don't involve growing or gathering food
an order of social classes with producers at the bottom and leaders or kings at the top.
river valley civilizations
a type of civilization that developed near or around a major river and considered the earliest known large human civilizations
Jared Diamond's theory that some regions developed more rapidly and expanded and conquered much of the world because the natural resources available to them, climate, and geography gave them an early advantage into agriculture before people in other places.
the process by which people change plants and animals over time at a genetic level to increase their productivity or other desired traits
action or process that makes something stronger or more extreme; the process of change and growth in Era 2
the civilization that developed around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers around 3500 BC/BCE
the crescent-shaped area of arable land, that is considered the cradle of civilization
a person who was able to read and write, allowing for the creation of written records and messages
a person who worked as a farmers, builder, or general worker during Era II
worshipping or believing in more than one god
a group of people considered to be the best in a particular society or category because of their power, talent, wealth, or other characteristic
characters formed by the arrangement of small wedge-shaped elements and used in ancient Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian writing.
writing system that uses symbols or pictures to denote objects, concepts, or sounds, originally and especially in the writing system of ancient Egypt
an organizing structure where the main unit has the power, right, and ability to control smaller units
a rule of conduct or action that is binding and enforced by a controlling authority
having no fixed home and move from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land
a way of life where a group of people survives from the secondary products of herds. People follow patterns of grazing to keep their herds alive.
people who depend on domestic livestock, migrate in an established territory to find pasture for their animals.
Great Arid Zone
the belt of dry and semi-arid land that extends across Afroeurasia from the Sahara Desert in the west to Manchuria in northern China.
a vast grassland
the process of different cultures adopted ideas and technology from other cultures over time
a wheeled carriage powered by horses that was essential for trade and warfare throughout Afroeurasia beginning in about 3000 BC/BCE
the art and science of producing metal goods, all the way from mining and extracting metal from mineral ores to the shaping of metal objects
the use and knowledge of tools, crafts, or technical systems to solve problems and/or complete different tasks
a metal alloy (metal mixture) consisting of mostly copper, but also with tin or lead. It is harder and stronger than plain copper
cloth or fabric that is woven, knitted, or otherwise manufactured
a period after the Stone Age characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons made by heating and combining copper and tin
A country, state, or territory ruled by a king or queen or other monarch
a series of rulers in a particular place considered members of the same family
increase in the number of people in a particular place
taking control of a people or place through military force
a gift or payment to one who has power over another to show respect and obedience
a group of people with high rank and privilege, generally gained through birth or connection to a ruler
areas of the world that had lots of movement and interaction among the people who lived there, but that were not connected to other world zones
when people began living permanently in one place instead of moving around to find food