30 terms

BY 130 Exam 2

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Pandemic
A worldwide disease outbreak.
Population dynamics
The general study of population changes.
Population
A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area or interbreeding and sharing genetic information.
Species
All individuals that are capable of interbreeding, and so a species is composed of one or more populations.
Demography
The statistical study of human populations, and people who study the human population include demographers.
Abundance
The size of a population
Birth Rates
The rate at which births occur in a population, measured either as the number of individuals born per unit of time or as the percentage of births per unit of timee compared with the total population.
Death Rates
The rate at which deaths occur in a population, measured either as the number of individuals dying per unit time or as the percentage of a population dying per unit time.
Growth Rates
The net increase in some factor per unit time. In ecology, the growth rate of a population, sometimes measured as the increase in numbers of individuals or biomass per unit time and sometimes as a percentage increase in number or biomass per unit time.
Age Structure
A population divided into groups by age. Sometimes the groups represent the actual number of each age in the population; sometimes the groups represent the percentage or proportion of the population of each age.
Exponential Rate
The annual growth rate is a constant percentage of the population.
Doubling Time
The time required for a population to double in size.
Logistic Growth Curve
The S-shaped growth curve that is generated by the logistic growth equation. In the logistic, a small population grows rapidly, but the growth rate slows down, and the population eventually reaches a constant size.
Logistic Carrying Capacity
The rate of growth declines until it reaches an upper population limit.
Inflection Point
The point at which the curve changes.
Demographic Transition
A three-stage patter of change in birth rates and death rates that has occurred during the process of industrial and economic development
Maximum Lifetime
The genetically determined maximum possible age to which an individual of a species can live.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can expect to live given the individual's present age.
Acute Disease
Appears rapidly in the population, affects a comparatively large percentage of it, and then declines or almost disappears for a while, only to reappear later.
Chronic Disease
A disease that is persistent in a population, typically occurring in a relatively small but constant percentage of the population.
Human Carrying Capacity
How many people can live on Earth at the same time?
Zero Population Growth
A condition in which the human population, on average, neither increases nor decreases.
Environmental Economics
How to persuade people, organizations, and society at large to act in a way that benefits the environment, keeping it as free as possible of pollution and other damage, keeping our resources sustainable, and accomplishing these goals within a democratic framework.
Policy Instruments
What we do, what we can do, and how we do it.
Public-service Functions
Functions performed by ecosystems that benefit other forms of life in other ecosystems. Examples include the cleansing of air by trees and removal of pollutant from water by infiltration through the soil.
Natural Capital
The ecological systems that providebenefits
Commons
Land owned publicly, with public access for private uses.
Externality
Often not recognized by producers as part of their costs and benefits, and therefore not normally accounted for in their cost-revenue analyses.
Direct Costs
Those borne by the producer in obtaining, processing, and distributing a product.
Risk-benefit Analysis
The riskiness of a present action in terms of its possible outcomes is weight against the benefit, or value, of the action.
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