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82 terms

reproduction lab

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cowpers
the pea-sized gland just below the prostate that prepares the urethra for the sperm
spermatogeneisis
development of mature sperm
oogenesis
the production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum
meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
polar bodies
the three unusable products that result during oogenesis
spermatozoa
a mature sperm cell
oocyte
Immature egg cell (gamette)
ovum
the female reproductive cell
capacitation
Occurring in the female reproductive tract, _____ is the process by which spermatozoa become capable of fertilizing an egg.
vas deferens
a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory duct
Tube through which semen enters the male urethra
gamettes
reproductive cells
diploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
haploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
what is the objective of meiosis
result in reduction in chromosome numbers to half result of meiosis is 4 daughter cells
what is the importance of the haploid number
instead of having two sets of chromosomes you have one set
hepatic portal
a subdivision of the systemic circulation in which blood from the abdominal digestive organs and spleen circulate through the liver before returning from the heart
anterior veins
drain the anterior surface of the right ventricle and empty directly into the right atrium.
posterior veins
what system of veins drains the posterior abdominal and thoracic walls?
wet spirometer
Two containers (one open at the bottom, the other filled with water) and a tube that measure respiratory volumes and capacities (tidal volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity)
total volume
What is the term for the total volume of air moved in and out of the respiratory system per minute?
expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
volume capacity
The amount of space (in cubic units) that a solid figure can hold.
irv
inspiratory reserve volume, additional volume that can be inspired above tidal volume, 3000 mL
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli
respiratory tract
the passages through which air enters and leaves the body
bell jar model
Represents the diaphragm moving up and down, and how the lungs expand in the process.
boyles law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.
emphysema
an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function
normal lung tissue
compliance, elastic recoil
nephron
functional unit of the kidney
glomerulus
A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
hippuric acid
benzoic acid is eliminated from body in this form; increases with high-vegie diets
uric acid
nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.
fertilization
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes
zygote
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)
cleavage
(embryology) the repeated division of a fertilised ovum
mass
a body of matter without definite shape
induction
The process by which neighboring cells can influence the determination (and subsequent differentiation) of a cell.
morula
a solid mass of blastomeres that forms when the zygote splits
blastula
The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development
gastrula
the embryo in the stage of development after the blastula; contains the embryonic germ layers
differntiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
umbilical artery
Carries blood from aorta to placenta
umbilical vein
a vein in the umbilical cord, A vein in the umbilical cord; returns nutrient blood from the placenta to the fetus.
umbilical ligament
1. fibrous continuation of the umbilical artery
2. located in the medial umbilical fold
ductus venosus
the fetal structure that allows most of the blood to bypass the liver and to flow from the umbilical vein to the vena cava
chorionic villi
These are finger like projections that form the fetal portion of the placenta. By the 8th week, chorionic villi sampling is possible.
yolk sac
membranous structure enclosing the yolk of eggs in birds reptiles marsupials and some fishes
allantois
vascular fetal membrane that develops from the hindgut in embryonic higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
deciduas capsularis
=portion of the endometrium that surrounds the uterine cavity face of the implanted embryo.
amniotic cavity
the fluid-filled cavity that surrounds the developing embryo
amnion
Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus
chorion
outermost membranous sac enclosing the embryo in higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
mucous plug
A collection of thick mucus that blocks the cervical canal during pregnancy. Also called operculum.
corpuscle
either of two types of cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and sometimes including platelets
capsule
a structure that encloses a body part
glomerulus
small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place
renal corpuscle
the capsule that contains Bowman's capsule and a glomerulus at the expanded end of a nephron
bowmans capsule
cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
hyoid bone
a U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles
cricoid cartilage
ring of cartilage connecting the larynx and trachea
arytenoids
Paired cartilages. Located on posterolateral surface of cricoid. Pyramid shaped with the corniculate cartilages sitting on top of them.
Vocal Processes--project toward thyroid notch, attachment for VF
Muscular Processes--lateral portion of arytenoid, attachment for muscles that adduct and abduct the VFs
corniculates
cone-shaped cartilage attached to the top of the arystenoids. They are landmarks used when visualizing the glotic opening. (p. 1183)
cuneiforms
elongated cartilage attached to the posterior arystenoids. They are landmarks used when visualizing the glottic opening. (p. 1183)
trachea
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi
primary bronchus
The first branches of the trachea going left and right into the lungs.
specific gravity
the measurement of dissolved substances in the urine
primary bronchi
from the trachea air will flow into the
right axillary
blood flows from the right brachial vein into
left external illiac
blood flows into the left common iliac vein most immedialty from
hepatic portal vein dreains blood from
stiomac, small intestine, colon, and spleen
impermable to water
an important characteristic of the ascending loop of henle is
glomerulus
the portion of the nephron where the filtrate is first produced from the blood is the
adh
the hormone that has an impact on the amount of water that will be reabsorbed from the collecting duct is
collecting duct
the structure that conducts urine to the bladder is
ovary
the organ in the female that develops the ovum and delivers it to the fimbria is
meiosis
the general process of producing a haploid cell
testis
organ that produces sperm and delivers them to the epididimus is