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the pea-sized gland just below the prostate that prepares the urethra for the sperm


development of mature sperm


the production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum


(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms


cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes


a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

polar bodies

the three unusable products that result during oogenesis


a mature sperm cell


Immature egg cell (gamette)


the female reproductive cell


Occurring in the female reproductive tract, _____ is the process by which spermatozoa become capable of fertilizing an egg.

vas deferens

a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct

ejaculatory duct

Tube through which semen enters the male urethra


reproductive cells


(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number


(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

what is the objective of meiosis

result in reduction in chromosome numbers to half result of meiosis is 4 daughter cells

what is the importance of the haploid number

instead of having two sets of chromosomes you have one set

hepatic portal

a subdivision of the systemic circulation in which blood from the abdominal digestive organs and spleen circulate through the liver before returning from the heart

anterior veins

drain the anterior surface of the right ventricle and empty directly into the right atrium.

posterior veins

what system of veins drains the posterior abdominal and thoracic walls?

wet spirometer

Two containers (one open at the bottom, the other filled with water) and a tube that measure respiratory volumes and capacities (tidal volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity)

total volume

What is the term for the total volume of air moved in and out of the respiratory system per minute?

expiratory reserve volume

Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation

volume capacity

The amount of space (in cubic units) that a solid figure can hold.


inspiratory reserve volume, additional volume that can be inspired above tidal volume, 3000 mL

bronchial tree

branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli

respiratory tract

the passages through which air enters and leaves the body

bell jar model

Represents the diaphragm moving up and down, and how the lungs expand in the process.

boyles law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.


an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function

normal lung tissue

compliance, elastic recoil


functional unit of the kidney


A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.

hippuric acid

benzoic acid is eliminated from body in this form; increases with high-vegie diets

uric acid

nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.


creation by the physical union of male and female gametes


the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)


(embryology) the repeated division of a fertilised ovum


a body of matter without definite shape


The process by which neighboring cells can influence the determination (and subsequent differentiation) of a cell.


a solid mass of blastomeres that forms when the zygote splits


The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development


the embryo in the stage of development after the blastula; contains the embryonic germ layers


process in which cells become specialized in structure and function

umbilical artery

Carries blood from aorta to placenta

umbilical vein

a vein in the umbilical cord, A vein in the umbilical cord; returns nutrient blood from the placenta to the fetus.

umbilical ligament

1. fibrous continuation of the umbilical artery
2. located in the medial umbilical fold

ductus venosus

the fetal structure that allows most of the blood to bypass the liver and to flow from the umbilical vein to the vena cava

chorionic villi

These are finger like projections that form the fetal portion of the placenta. By the 8th week, chorionic villi sampling is possible.

yolk sac

membranous structure enclosing the yolk of eggs in birds reptiles marsupials and some fishes


vascular fetal membrane that develops from the hindgut in embryonic higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)

deciduas capsularis

=portion of the endometrium that surrounds the uterine cavity face of the implanted embryo.

amniotic cavity

the fluid-filled cavity that surrounds the developing embryo


Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus


outermost membranous sac enclosing the embryo in higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)

mucous plug

A collection of thick mucus that blocks the cervical canal during pregnancy. Also called operculum.


either of two types of cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and sometimes including platelets


a structure that encloses a body part


small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place

renal corpuscle

the capsule that contains Bowman's capsule and a glomerulus at the expanded end of a nephron

bowmans capsule

cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.


voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

hyoid bone

a U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles

cricoid cartilage

ring of cartilage connecting the larynx and trachea


Paired cartilages. Located on posterolateral surface of cricoid. Pyramid shaped with the corniculate cartilages sitting on top of them.
Vocal Processes--project toward thyroid notch, attachment for VF
Muscular Processes--lateral portion of arytenoid, attachment for muscles that adduct and abduct the VFs


cone-shaped cartilage attached to the top of the arystenoids. They are landmarks used when visualizing the glotic opening. (p. 1183)


elongated cartilage attached to the posterior arystenoids. They are landmarks used when visualizing the glottic opening. (p. 1183)


membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi

primary bronchus

The first branches of the trachea going left and right into the lungs.

specific gravity

the measurement of dissolved substances in the urine

primary bronchi

from the trachea air will flow into the

right axillary

blood flows from the right brachial vein into

left external illiac

blood flows into the left common iliac vein most immedialty from

hepatic portal vein dreains blood from

stiomac, small intestine, colon, and spleen

impermable to water

an important characteristic of the ascending loop of henle is


the portion of the nephron where the filtrate is first produced from the blood is the


the hormone that has an impact on the amount of water that will be reabsorbed from the collecting duct is

collecting duct

the structure that conducts urine to the bladder is


the organ in the female that develops the ovum and delivers it to the fimbria is


the general process of producing a haploid cell


organ that produces sperm and delivers them to the epididimus is

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