AP World Chapter 12
Terms in this set (39)
"Literary Emperor", title for Yang Jian, a Sui emperor who reunited the traditional core areas of Chinese civilization for the first time in 3 centuries, and created a food surplus for the empire.
Second member of the Sui Dynasty, murdered his father to gain control of the throne; restored the Confucian examination system; responsible for the construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618 by own ministers
Sui Dynasty capital city, site of Yangdi's careless spendings
One of Yangdi's ministers, Duke of Tang; took over empire following Yangdi's assassination establishing the Tang Dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu
Li Yuan's second son, who gained control of the throne when Li Yuan abdicated the throne in 626, started the golden age of the Tang
The title that Tang rulers took
An emperor who took over Korea
Vassal Kingdom in Korea, that remained loyal to the Tang
Capital of Tang dynasty; largest city in the world at the time with 2 million inhabitants
Chan Buddhism (Zen)
Chan variant of buddhism, also known as Zen in Japan and the west; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty.
Mahayana (Pure Land) Buddhism
Pure Land Buddhism (MAHAYANA BUDDHISM)
Branch of Mahayana Buddhism that won widespread conversions because it provided a refuge from an age of war and turmoil.
The only woman to rule China in her own name, expanded the empire and supported Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty. Elevated buddhism to status of state religion.
Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries and shrines in 840s.
Emperor from 712 to756 ,This emperor marked the peak of Tang power, Took strong interest to political and economic reforms and turned to pleasures and arts. Fell in love with Yang Guifei after death of second wife and started ignoring the Tang to keep her happy.
Royal concubine of Tang emperor Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into administration led to revolt.
One of Yang Guifei's proteges, that launched a rebellion in 755 and briefly seized the capital of Chang'an. When the rebellion was stopped, Yang Guifei was put to death.
Followed the Tang Dynasty in 960 and was united China under one ruler.
Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent.
Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song Dynasty China, but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on SOng China in 11th century.
Most prominent of neoConfucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action.
Confucian scholar and chief minister of a song emperor in 1070s introduced sweeping reforms based on legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society.
Kingdom of Tangut people north of the Song Kingdom in the mid 11th century collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry.
rump state of song dynasty from 1127 to 1279 carved out much larger domains ruled by the tangs and northern song; culturally one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history.
Founders of the Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the yellow river basin and forced Song to flee to south.
built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui Dynasty; designed to link the original centers of chinese civilization on the northern china plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
city in the song dynasty known to be at the end of the Grand Canal. It was the "most noble city" "best in the world". it had great market places and entertainment. The epitome of the Grand Canal.
Practice in chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
Most famous Poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
How did the Sui and Tang reestablish a centralized empire in China?
The Sui did so by Yang Jian establishing a alliance with another powerful family and then declaring power over both and then conquering the Chen. He reunited the core of china and was supported due to him lowering taxes and establishing granaries. Li Yuan led the Tang empire by using military power and by being politically savvy. The tang army took over much of Central Asia and western Asian. Provided welfare to unite citizens. Built Canal to help transport goods and allow citizens to travel. They were able to create social hierarchy and establish a bureaucracy using the exam system.
What institutions did the Tang use to govern their empire and why?
They had an institution to watch over local rulers to make sure they were being loyal. Examinations were expanded to further let talent become useful.
What accounts for the decline of Tang Dynasty?
Xuanzong led the Tang to their decline. He forgot about ruling and and focused on the arts. His infatuation with a woman from is harem caused emergences of power and rivalries causing rebellion.
In what way was the Song empire weaker than the Tang? How did the Song attempt to solve the problems they faced?
They focused on scholar gentry so the bureaucracy over grew and became useless. Another big mistake was putting the scholars at the head of the military instead of general because this caused the soldiers to become apathetic. The government had to pay invaders to stay out (which didn't last long) because their military was so powerless.
Describe the chinese commercial revolution.
With the creation of canals specifically the Grand Canal trade transportation became immensely easier. Along with the canals came the creation of junks, advanced chinese boats which were able to dominate the seas for safer trade. When trade increased a improvement to banking also came with the introduction of flying money.
Discuss the status of women during the Tang-Song era. How did gender relations change during this period?
Neo Confucian thinkers worsend women's rights during this period. Women's roles were merely housekeeping and mother. They were further restricted by the allowment of foot binding and their ban from the educational system. Men and women relations furthered and women were treated even more like property and given less rights
What was the overall impact of the Tang-Song era on chinese history?
Their era is highlighted by improvements in education, transportation, banking etc. They introduced the idea of flying money and the first forms of currency. The also made the Grand Canal making transportation and trade throughout China much easier.
What innovations were made in the Tang-Song era?
Junks, flying money, Grand Canal, gunpowder, paper etc.