PSYC 308

Some recent headlines in social psyc: brain and exercise
"brain possibly the biggest beneficiary of exercise"
"exercise benefits brains of older people"
-mounting evidence that healthy brain functioning of old and young is related to exercise -- improves memory, focus, visuospacial processing (e.g. how far away objects are), learning and more
Middle finger to instructor in class example
caused feelings of: surprise, curious
doing? laughing, looking around
thinking? am i supposed to do this? maybe hes trying to break the ice?
ABCs of social psych
Affect: how you feel, includes physiological components
Behaviour: what you do
Cognition: what you think

The ABCs are influenced by the real or imagined presence of others-- we are an inherently social species
Expectation violation
-example with fingering instructor!
-you typically aren't asked to do something offensive toward instructor
-you typically listen to instructor
-this conflict results in an uncomfortable feeling
-were motivated to alleviate this uncomfortable feeling (cognitive dissonance)- we try to make sense of it
how do we alleviate the uncomfortable feeling caused by expectation violation?
as we get older, our expectations are often met as we learn more about the world. yet something gets violated! We can either:
-assimilate into other frameworks (he was joking)
-accomodate it (sometimes instructors want to be offended)
-affirm other frameworks (its ok, because UBC rocks!)

*we accomodate much more when were younger, affirmation causes us to focus on another aspect
The meaning maintenance model
when our expectation are unexpectedly violated, we experience an uncomfortable feeling, which we resolve by assimilation, accomodation, or affirmation
rabbits video:
strange video with rabbits, breif talking and creepy music
-meaning/ expectaion violation
-person may deal with it by assimilating, accomodating, or affirming
what expectations were violated in the meaning maintenance model in the rabbit video by David Lynch?
wrong laugh track, wrong clapping track, no flow to convo
Expectation violations: subliminally flashing words


Those who are subliminally flashed incongruent word pairs are more likely to show affirmation
Expectation violations: card flashing
there is expectation violation when the colour is not what you expected, could cause people to assimilate, accomodate, affirmation
Expectation violations: changing experimenters/ transmogrifying experimenter
later shows affirmation even unconciously
-majority dont recognize switch but still show changed behaviour
Meaning maintenance model summary
-a wide variety of expectation violations (and maybe all) lead to responses to alleviate the unpleasant arousal-- we compensate!
(e.g. mismatched playing cards, incongruent word pairs, transmogrifying experimenter)
UBC is ____ in social psych
Charles Darwin, 1809-1882
-naturalist, best known for evolutionary theory, discussed how emotions evolved
-"the expression of emotions in man and animal" was a very popular book of his (thought emotions evolved to help us survive in the enviro e.g. anger- furrowed brow helps us protect eyes in case of fight occuring) published 13y after on the origin of species
-highly influenced psychology
Wilhelm Wundt 1832- 1920
-widely regarded as the father of psychology
-volkerpsychologie (many translations): social psychology, folk psychology, ethnic psychology
-a massive multi volume text
-basically a social/ cultural psychology text
Norman Triplett
-1898 wrote the first published social psychology experiment
-social facilitation: behaviour gets better when other people are there observing you. his experiment: cyclists have faster times when cycling in a group than when cycling alone
John Dewey 1859-1952
-wrote human nature and conduct: An introduction to social psychology
-thought behaviour was from instinct (nature) and experience (nurture)
-one of the first texts to bring together ideas of instinct and ideas of learning (behaviourism)
Kurt Lewin 1890-1947
-widely regarded as the father of modern social psychology
-famously said there is nothing as practical as a good theory
-discussed how behaviour is determined by unique aspects of the individuals and specific aspects of the situation
Social psychology after WWII
grew afetr WWII and the holocaust, as people wanted explanations for how such atrocities could occur
Social psychology after WWII: Sherif
robbers cave experiment, which showed how conflict occured between equal groups (study done in camp of 11 and 12 year old boys)
Social psychology after WWII: Asch
showed how people conform to group pressure (famous line study with target line and you have to answer which of the alternative lines matches the target line. Always extremely obvious but confederates answer first and give wrong answer which usually changes participants answer. "called normative conformity"
Social psychology after WWII: Milgram
showed how people obey authority, even if obeying has negative consequences (famous shocking study- administered shock everytime they got memory test wrong, looked at what point they stopped shocking and most people went to the maximum)
Social psychology after WWII: Zimbardo
famous demonstration using students as prisoners and guards (stanford prison study, fake prison, guards adopted role of guards depicted by media and became violent and bossy while prisoners felt extremely detained and stripped of their rights)
"Culture: the uniquely human adaption" from text, but clarified in lecture
-many animals show what is believed to be culture:
-they learn by observing conspecifics (same species) in much the same way people do
-this information gets passed down generation to generation
animal culture examples
-japanese Macaques: learn to wash sweet potatoes from others
-Chimpanzees: learn to use tools from others
-Elephants: learn aggression toward humans from others
-sparrows: learn songs from others
-they learn by observing conspecifics (same species) in much the same way people do
-this information gets passed down generation to generation
animal vs human culture
humans are not unique in having culture
-but no other species comes close to how good we are at it
-can be difficult to find examples of animal culture, difficult to go any length of time without being exposed to human culture
An explanation for everything by people!
-psychologists call this the hindsight bias
-we can explain almost anything: "opposites attract" and "birds of a feather flock together" for explanations of why similar or non-similar people are attracted
-this may make it appear like anything is common sense or unimportant: "i could have told you that"
do opposites attract or are we attracted to similarity?
Example of hindsight bias in study:
you are a participant, given a scenario: A young soldier had a plan to save a village that was about to be attacked during WWII, pariticpants were told either A) soldier convinced others to follow his plan, and the village was saved OR
B) military rejected the soldier's plan and the village was destroyed

-then rated how likely was the result: whatever participants were told the result was, they said that it was the most likely to occur
hindsight bias explained
sense making: new information (The outcome) is assimilated into relevant frameworks of the past
-for example: having a young soldiers idea rejected makes sense, as does having a plan (that convinced other to follow) work
-the outcome can then be assimilated into whatever framework is relevant
What is more effective at remembering a robbers face?
writing down details of the face/ doing nothing?
doing nothing! Why? one reason is because we dont have good words to remember faces
"he has a small nose", instead of remembering actual nose, we remember a prototypical small nose
-language interferes with visual memory, termed verbal overshadowing
thinking about faces as a whole
normally think about faces as a whole
-look at entire face
-look at the features and how they related to each other
-psychologists call this hollistic thinking (more common in Eastern cultures but seems cross cultural with faces)
describing faces and specific facial features
describing a face makes us think about specific facial features (E.g. nose, eyes) - focus on main features, look at the features individually, psychologists call this analytical thinking
the way we think about faces influences how we remember them:
think about them holistically, remember them well
think about them analytically, by putting them into words, and we remember them worse
how many people in general public report experience of hallucinations?
what takes longer to recover from? intense distress (e.g. death in family) or mild distress (E.g. unpleasant experience) and what is this phenomenon called
-this is called the Region beta paradox
-why? because intense distress sets off our coping mechanisms, which can then deal with the distress
-mild distress is not as likely to lead to coping, which means the distress can last much longer
-most of us can think of things that bother us and affect us years after they've occured, but that arent really serious
counterintuitive findings
many of us think the world works in a way in which it doesnt
-many findings run counterintuitive to how many of us think- how to resolve this? research!
big bang theory clip
how did they do research
-feild work
-review the literature
social psychology is a science: need it for our less than accurate tendencies!
doesnt rely on folk wisdom or common sense
-hindsight bias, people hold contradictory beliefs, counterintuitive findings, popular beliefs are often wrong
Popular beliefs are often wrong: myths exampleS
14th cent europe though the black death was casued by wearing pointed shoes
-you only use 10% of your brain
an organized way of explaining observed phenomenon
a testable idea, usually derived from theory
-falsifiable- can be proven wrong
unfalsifiable hypothesis is unscientific
creation science: God created the universe and all living things
-there are no falsifiable hypotheses
-how can you disprove?
-impossible to test
-a theory that explains everything explains nothing
observational method
observe behaviour and systematically record it
-gives descriptive information
-great for generating ideas
-can vary the situation and make observations e.g. Judo who won or lost- goes further than simply observing
-sometimes called a natural experiment
observational method in action: judo
-looking at bodily behaviour after match (one person won, one lost)
-arm codes: hands on hips, arms raised above body etc
-cross culturally: the winner showed pride, hands above head
-the loser showed shame
-this was true for congenitally blind- could not have learned the expression though visual modeling
-suggests an innate response to success and failure
correlational method:
systematically measure two or more variables and determine their relationship
-often measured with a correlation coefficient, r (varies frim -1 to +1)
correlation doesnt mean causation
a correlation can tell us the nature of the relationship btwn 2 variables- pos, neg, or none
-and how strong -1 to +1
-cannot tell us the cause of the relationship, X causes Y
supersititions: misinterpreting corrlations Jason Giambi
Jason Giambi
-baseball player, whenever in a slump, he wears a gold thong to help him break out of it
-he likely wore it and had success (pos correlation) but it is unlikley that the thong was the cause of his success
supersititions: misinterpreting correlations Mark Tixiera
Mark Teixeira
one day he accidentally wore someone elses sock, but he played a great game (pos correltation)
-now he purposefully wears 2 different socks to help him inc performance
illusory correlations
percieving relationship when one does not exist
-superstitions e.g. cracked mirror is bad luck
-it always rains on weekends
-stereotypes e.g. people from small towns are nice
correltations summed up
the larger the correlation, larger the effect
-r's of .10, .30. 50 are small, moderate and large respectively
-psychotherapy and outcome =.39
-there is a bias that large effects are more important- asprin and heart attack reduction =.03
-one way small effects are percieved as important is if peoples lives are on the line
Experimental method
the gold standard of science: investigator manipulates one or more factos to observe effecton some behavioural/mental process
e.g. does watching violent movie increase violence? Show violent movie and then observe their behaviour
-the only way of determining cause
-vary an IV and see its effect on DV
-IV is systematically varied; predicted to have effect
-DV is key variable measured; affected by IV
experimental group:
exposed to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV- those that watch violent movie are in experimental group
-sometimes multiple experimental groups- e.g. mildly, moderately, extremely violent movies shown to different groups --> predict that violent behaviour will increase as severity of the movie violence does
control group
not exposed to treatment, serves as comparisson for evaluating effect of treatment
-non-violent movie, observe behaviour
Example of experimental method: bystander effect
to test whether the number of people present effect the likelihood of helping behaviour, participants completed task with 0, 2, or 4 others and researchers watched whether participants helped when someone was in trouble.
IV= number of bystanders, DV= whether participant helped
-more people present, less likely to help
confounding variable
factor other than IV that might produce effect, produces a change but not the IV
-not interested in confounding variables e.g. movie example: participant already violent by nature, accounting for their violent behaviour.
how to resolve this? random assignment!
random assingment
eliminates confounding variables
-make its so that these violence prone people have equal chance of being in experimental and control groups
-random assignment works with all variables
-any personality differences!
-what do we want evenly distributed? gender, age, culture, socioeconomic status
-increases likelihood aspects will be evenly distributed, not 100% garuntee, large sample helps
Confidence with results of experimental study
a single study is always limited because the results might be due to chance. 1 way to solve this problem is to run the study again through replication
-direct replication: testing the study with different participants
-conceptual replication: testing same idea but with slightly different method or measure, failed replication tells us little
sometimes called external validity
-asking the question: does it apply to different people? (age culture and religion) and different situations? (outside lab)
-psych looks at WEIRD people: Western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic
-not generalizable to rest of world-- not typical of humanity
High GDP correlated with high belief rate in ____
Theory--what make a good theory?
organizes observations, explains observations, provides research direction, generates new questions, has practical value
Theory-- Organizes observation
-simplify world into orderly set of observations
-more observations a theory can account for, the better
-e.g. species evolve to better fit the environment- can explain many observations
Theory--explains observations
-say why/ how things happen
-e.g. species fit environment because of natural selection (survival of the fittest)
Theory--provides research direction
provides hypotheses to test, many different avenues of research
-sometimes cannot be tested due to limits of technology at the time
-not until recently that we could test brain function
Theory--generates new questions
-used in diverse areas outside of where originally intended
-evolution states traits passed down- now know this is because of genes
Theory--practical value
-it is applicable to the real world
-principles of evolution can be used to better artificial selection (like breeding purebred dogs)
-difference between basic (developing accurate theory) and applied research (applying science to solve problems)
-distinction sometimes blurry
ethical concerns of experimental research
-consent forms and debriefing used bc of past abuses
Tuskegge Syphilis Experiment
1932-1972 by US health service
-600 African American (some with syphilis some without) took part in free medical, free meals, free burial
-not told if they had disease- just told "bad blood"
-not given penicilin to treat it, wanted to see how disease progressed, so left people untreated
-1997 Clinton appologized to survivors
David Reimer
born biologically male
-botched circumcision, John Money suggested gender reassignment and used him as a case study on whether nurture was determining factor of sexual identity
-he reported case as a success
-By age 15 David began living as man and later committed suicide
-Money failed to mention the struggles Reimer has with his female gender
Monster Study
1939 Johnson supervised Mary Tudor, who ran study with 22 orphaned children- interested in stuttering
-1/2 positive speech therapy: rewarding their good behaviour
-1/2 negative speech therapy: critical statements
-some of the negative conditioned children retained speech problems for the rest of their lives
-returned three times after to undo the damage mary had done but it didnt work
-Iowa publically appologized in 2001
-survivors given compensation in 2007
Landis' facial Expression Experiment
1924 Carney Landis at minnesota university- interested in emotions and their evoked facial expressions
-had participants do variety of things e.g. smell ammonia to elicit disgust then asked participants to decapitate a rat with a knife and 2/3 of people did it, many had no idea how-- cruel and if they refused he did the decapitation for them
-1 participant was a 13 year old boy
Little Albert
John Watson classicially conditioned little Albert
-unpleasant sounds conitioned with white rat
-Little Albert developed phobia of white fluffy things
-fear never extinguished
-Little Albert died a few years later
-though humans shaped solely by environment, blank slate or tabula rasa
Milgrams shocking study
1960's Milgram had particpants shock confederate during memory test- most participants shocked until person complained of heart problems and then went totally silent
-participants looked like they were under psychological distress
Animal ethics have changed
Harry Harlow
some social psychologists do work on animals
-Harlow and monkeys in 1950s: infants prefer social contact of a more realistic mother than one that isnt comforting but provides food
-put monkeys in "pit of despair" - total isolation in darkness for one year
-they became very aggressive and disturbed
-his studies were the driving force behind animal rights movements
-research ethics today would not allow this
Ethical safeguards basic principle and extension of deception
-studies reviewed by research ethics boards
-basic principle: participants must not be placed in any lasting psychological / physical harm
-we can lie- deception- must be justified and not result in harm- e.g. lie about what study is about so participants dont change behaviour
-cant lie about something that could change participants minds about whether or not to participate
-TCPS2- Tri council policy statement
-APA- US code of ethics
Social psych in trouble? Diederik Stapel
-was well respected social psychologist, prof at Tiburg university in Netherlands- said meat eaters are more selfish than vegetarians-- fabricated data, he made it up! in some cases, no participants and locations didnt exist
Social psych in trouble? Daryl Bem
-social psych, came up with self perception theory
-published "feeling the future" in Journal of Personality and social psych
-rehearsing words helps us remember them, Bem showed you remember them better even if you rehear them after memory test.
-several studies finding similar effects
-no direct replications
self relection in the feild of social psych
little we can do about people who fake data
-Bem posed serious Q- how could this be published in a well-renowned journal?
-researchers stated to question their practices
-false positive: when apparent effect is actually due to chance and not manipulation (happens around 5% of the time)
researcher degrees of freedom
researchers have many decisions to make
-when to stop collecting data, what participants to cut, should conditions be combined/ compared, what variables to consider, did you include covariates, should variables be transformed or combined?
il/Legitimate reasons for cutting participants
didnt answer the questions you wanted them to
-VS. not supporting existing data
Pressure to find significance in academia
-journals dont publish null results
-difficult to interpret null, file-drawer problem (could actually be interesting)
-success in academia determined by how often you publish -- grad students expected to publish right away, tenure decisions influenced by publishing record, publish or perish!
New guidelines for publication
-make data avaliable for other researchers to analyze- can tell if researchers aren't reporting covariates/ using inappropriate stats
-authors must confirm all variables measured are reported-reduces likelihood of cherry picking the data
-pre-register your study (predictions, sample size)- reduces researcher degrees of freedom
- direct replication, large sample sizes, use new statistics that dont rely on p values, start publishing null results
what does replication eliminate?
researcher degrees of freedom
-Bem's psi findings would have never been done
Why isnt replication used today?
uses resources (time and money)
-want to put out studies quickly
-other related Q's are more appealing
-no glory
What does researcher degrees of freedom mean?
higher chance of 5% false positive
behind the scenes of science
-research papers typically tell story of the DATA, not story of what they really did
-HARKING: hypothesizing after results were known
-not unique to psych
what is social cognition?
•How we think about the social world
•How we make sense of the world around us
cognitive schemata
-Mental frameworks that organize expectations or instructions that are mentally organized e.g. how to do laungry
•Meaning frameworks
what can reliably improve memory?
making connections
•Schemas about how certain events unfold e.g. what do you do when you go to a restaurant?
•What do you do when you go to a restaurant?
•Go to a restaurant
•Wait to be seated
•Get menus when seated
•Place your order
•Schemas about other groups based on gender,
race, etc.
•Who is more likely to be reported: Black youth
appearing to steal a bike, or a White youth
appearing to steal a bike? Black youth. Also do this same thing with a woman, helped her actually steal the bike
automatic thinking
•Have you ever noticed that sometimes you seem to be thinking without really trying?
-E.g., You might be washing the dishes and have an
"A-Ha!" moment: "That's why I got that math
question wrong!"
2 ways of thinking: dual process model
•Unconscious-Automatic, effortless, fast, no working memory (chapter 8)
•Conscious-Controlled, effortful, slow, requires working memory
unconcsious thinking: IAT and black versus white
•If unconscious thinking is unconscious (we aren't aware of it), how can we measure it?
•We can't ask people "what are you unconsciously thinking?" and tap into unconscious thought
•Measures designed to tap into unconscious thinking
-The Implicit Association Test, IAT
IAT example: Black bad and white good-- most people find the reverse more difficult when required to respond with their hands as shown in class or the click of a button
-why? we unconsciously (automatically) associate black people with negative concepts to a greater extent than we do white people
-our unconscious mind quickly makes that negative association, before our conscious mind can override it
-this makes it easier (faster) to pair blakc with bad
-does not measure racism
Unconscious Influences on our thoughts
•Our unconscious mind influences our behaviours, often in undesirable ways
•In the next three scenes, decide if you should shoot or not (pretend you're a cop)
-Shoot when you see the man with a gun (clap)
-Don't shoot when the man is holding a non-threatening object (wave hand)
•Do this fast!
-this was an actual study: white people decided to shoot equal amount across armed / unarmed white people - baseline?
-most errors were to shoot unarmed black man, least errors were to not shoot an armed black man
Results of unconcsious black/ white gun study
•We tend to make the least number of errors when we see an armed Black man (we shoot him more often than not)
-Since shooting is the appropriate response, in this case, our unconscious mind helps us
•But we also make the most number of errors when we see an unarmed Black man (we shoot him when we shouldn't)
-Since shooting is the incorrect response, our unconscious mind hurts us in this case
Unarmed Black Men Being Shot By Police
•There is currently much attention about unarmed Black men being shot by police in the USA
•There is probably a lot going on here-Racism, history of police abuse, culture, unusual scrutiny, unconscious mind, etc.
•We know our unconscious mind influences us
-And our unconscious mind typically tells us Black men are violent
•To what extent do we take this into account (if at all) when dealing with these police shootings? need more education on this matter!
Schemata Affect What We See
•Schemata/stereotypes shape what we see, cold vs warm study
•You are going to have a guest lecturer
•Told "People who know him consider him to be a rather cold person"
•or "People who know him consider him to be a rather warm person"
-Independent variable
•Class discussion with lecturer for 20 minutes then rate impression of the lecturer
-Dependent variable
•Results: Better ratings when told warm than cold
•Everyone saw the same thing!!
schemata affect what we remember
•Scottish and Bantu man watched a complicated cattle
•1 year later the Scottish man had little memory of it
•The Bantu man remembered specific details of the
transaction (e.g., cattle colour, price, who bought them...)
-Bantu herdsman in Swaiziland, central part of economy and culture
-well developed schema for cattle
Schemata and Expert Memory
•Experts have well-developed schemata for their area of expertise
•Experts should have better memory for their area of expertise-Just like the Bantu with cattle
schemata and Chess Experts
•Master, Advanced, & Beginner chess players-Independent variable
•Showed them chess positions for 5 seconds
•Recall where the pieces are-Dependent variable
•Master chess players had better memory, followed
by Advanced then Beginner
•Notice anything odd about this picture?
•The pieces are in random order
•Expertise had virtually no effect on memory when the pieces were in random order
-Schema didn't help them as much
schemata and meaning framework
synonymous terms
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: Major influences on social psychology
-instinct based view of human behaviour (Spencer extended Darwin's view of evolution by natural selection to the social realm by saying that societies evolve just as organisms do becoming larger and more complex)
-Psychoanalytic (Freud: behaviour result of sexual and aggressive drives)
-behaviourism (Watson: behaviour can be overtly measured and emotions are unobservable fictions)
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: who published first social psych textbook ?
McDougall--> majorly based on instinct
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: evolutionary perspective on social psychology
humans as species of animal and their social behaviour as consequence of evolutionary adaptions- we must recognize human adaptions and those we share with other creatures
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: cultural perspective on social psychology
culture as a determinant of thinking and behaviour- it is intertwined in everything we do
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: existential perspective on social psychology
return to examining basic questions about existence and human nature, regarding matters such as meaning, identity, the body, and free will.
large return to this and the need for connections, innevitability of death, possibilities of trauma and loss etc.
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: neuroscience perspective on social psychology
enables us to understand that is going on inside the brain when people engage in social thought and behaviour.
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: 4 core assumptions of social psych
1) behaviour is a joint product of the person and situation
2) socially constructed view of reality impacts behaviour (ie: thought, feelings, actions, involve and are influenced by other people-even looking to others is essential to how we understand ourselves)
3) social cognition influences behaviour- our thought patterns influence behaviour
4) best way to understand social behaviour is to use the scientific method-social psych can be distinguished from the other social sciences by its rigurous use of the scientific method
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: quasi experimental design
groups of participants are compared on some dependent variable but for practical or ethical reasons, the groups are not formed on the basis of random assignment e.g. you can randomly assign age or sex
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: limits of the scientific method
-there are aspects of reality that we cannot know-our sense organs only register a tiny fraction of what is truely going on in the world
-although the scientific method is objective, the humans who apply it are not> complete elimination of bias is impossible
-not all questions can be answered scientifically> cant tell us which values to invest in
-human values exert powerful influence on the way science is conducted--political, religious, economic factors
internal states that drive action that is necessary to survive or thrive
cognitions that represent outcomes that we strive for in order to meet our needs and desires
the human preference for pleasure over pain--> adaptive in previous environments
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: two fundamental psychological motives-security
avoiding the bad
-to sustain security providing feelings of acceptance and self worth, people are inclined to follow the crowd, obey authority, and accept the values espoused within their own culture
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: two fundamental psychological motives-growth
approaching the good
-as a part of striving for growth, people exhibit a need for uniqueness, want to express their personal views and preferences, and assert their personal freedoms when they are threatened
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: cognitive appraisal theory
people's subjective experience of emotion is determined by two step process involving fast primary appraisal that is followed by more careful secondary appraisal
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: primary appraisal
takes place outside of conscious awareness -- signals whether something is good or bad. involves limbic system, more primitive brain structures, autonomic arousal e.g. heart racing)
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: secondary appraisal
assesses the environment further- often leads to refinement, modification, or change in the nature of the emotion people experience. involves prefrontal lobes, memory, culture higher order thinking etc
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: Terror Management Theory
supports the hypothesis that reminding people of their mortality increases protection of their worldviews, undermining their thoughts about their worldview increases thoughts about death
continue :)
Accessibility of Schemata
•The extent to which schemata are at the forefront of people's minds
• Right now your "social psychology" schema is highly accessible
•But your "dog" schema isn't highly accessible—until just now when you read this
•Priming: a recent experience that increases the accessibility of schemata
Example of accessibility of schema
•You encounter a rowdy person on the bus
•How do you interpret his behaviour?
-could interpret it by priming effect: see a man slumped against a building drinking at 8am already and you think to yourself "acloholic" then the rowdy person enters the bus and you think, wow they must have been drinking already today
-OR you were reading a book on mental health patients when the person gets on the bus and you think to yourself instead that they have a mental health issue
Priming Culture study
•Participants were students born in China but live in Canada
•Described themselves in an open-ended questionnaire
-Dependent variable
•Half the participants completed it in Chinese, the other half in English
-Independent variable
-Primes Chinese or Canadian schemas
results of priming culture experiment
•When primed with Canada-Wrote 3x more positive than negative statements about themselves
•When primed with China-Wrote an equal number of positive and negative statements about themselves
•Why did this difference emerge?
•Westerners tend to hold positive views of themselves
(focus on things they do well to promote self-esteem)
•East-Asians tend to hold more negative views of
themselves (focus on things they don't do well to
prevent losing face—social value others give you)
Making Schemata Come True: self fulfilling prophecy
•Self-fulfilling prophecy: Expectations influence how you treat people, which causes them to act consistently with the expectations
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Example: Bloomers at school
•Gave an IQ test to students in elementary school
•Told the teachers which students were "bloomers"—
someone who would do well next year
-Independent variable
-Chosen randomly
•Students and parents didn't know the results of IQ test
•Watched what happened, & at end of year tested IQ again
-Dependent variable
-The bloomers IQ improved significantly! WHY?
•The teachers didn't intentionally treat the students differently
•It was automatic!
1.Created a warmer climate for bloomers with more attention and support
2.Gave Bloomers more difficult material to learn from
3.Gave Bloomers more and better feedback
4.Gave Bloomers more opportunity to respond in
class and more time to respond
•Mental shortcuts used to make decisions quickly and efficiently
•They are automatic!
•Lots of work by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky
-Nobel Prize in economics
example of Heuristics
•Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti nuclear
•What is more probable?
Linda is a bank teller
Linda is a bank teller and is an active feminist
A!! WHY?
•Most people say B is more probable (Linda is a bank teller and a feminist)
•This couldn't be more probably because the likelihood of any 2 events occurring is less than 1 event
-What's more likely: you win the lottery and become prime minister, or you win the lottery?
•So why does this error happen? >>representativeness heuristic
Representativeness Heuristic
•As the detail of the story increases, the likelihood of it happening decreases
-When you don't pay attention to this fact, it is called
the Conjunction Fallacy
•As details increase, it becomes more representative of a category
-Perceive the category as more likely
•Representative heuristic: classify something based on how representative it is to a typical case
ex) linda the bank teller
Example of Avaliability heuristic
•What is more common? (excluding words of less than 3 letters)
A.English words that start with the letter K
B.English words that have the 3rd letter as K
•Most people say words that start with K are more
•Words with the 3rd letter as K are about twice as
•Why does this error happen?
•Easier to think of K words than ones with the
third letter K
Availability Heuristic
•Judge the frequency/probability of something by how easy it is for it to come to mind
•Usually it works well
-Generally, easier to think of events are more frequent
•When it doesn't work well
-Less frequent events are easier to think of
-Available in memory because it is recent, emotional, etc.
Availability Heuristic and imagining events
•Imagining an event makes it more available
•Asked participants to imagine:
A.Ford winning the presidency
B.Carter winning the presidency
•Who is more likely to win the election?
•Participants thought the one they imagined had a
greater likelihood of winning the election
-It was more available in memory
Availability Heuristic and Shark attacks
•It is easier to think about someone being killed by a shark than a cow
-Shark week on Discovery Channel
-The movie Jaws
•We assume easy to come to mind means more
common: Availability heuristic
Tversky & Kahneman, 1974 Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
you just spun a wheel and it landed on 10 or 65
•Is the percentage of African countries in the UN greater or less than 10/65?
•What is the actual percent?
•Landed on 10
-Median: 25%
•Landed on 65
-Median: 45%
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
Adjusting an estimate from some previous anchor, often giving too much weight to the initial anchor
Unrealistic Anchors
•Anchoring and adjustment heuristic still works even if the anchors are extreme and unrealistic
•Similar procedure
-Textbooks cost $7128.53
-Temperature of San Francisco is 558 ̊
-will cause people to drive up cost or temperature!
Experts & Heuristics
•Real estate agents toured a property
•All had the same information on the property-Facts about the listing-How other houses sold in the
-One exception: the listing price varied
—high price vs low price
•Asked agents how much should the house be listed
•Judgments varied from the actual appraisal by more than $10,000 depending on listing price given
-Higher listing price --> higher the appraisal
•What affected their decision?
-Few said the listing price, most said because other houses in the area are selling well etc
-Suggests they were unaware of anchoring and adjustment
"Telling more than we know" people providing reasoning for their implicit judgements
•Richard Nisbett and Timothy Wilson, 1977
•People can report reasons for their judgments
•Don't actually have access to processes that influence judgments
-Automatic processes are unconscious!
Facilitated Communication
•Allows communication-impaired individuals (e.g., those with autism or cerebral palsy) to communicate with others with the help of a facilitator
•Facilitator holds the hands and arms of the impaired communicator as they type on a keyboard
•Disproven, not real
•Facilitators weren't faking it; they believed they were helping
•Overestimate how much control we have over our actions
•We don't realize how much is automatic
Automatic Thinking Summary
•Automatic thinking is usually a good thing
-It preserves resources (e.g., energy, time)
-It speeds up decisions and makes life easier (e.g.,
every time you drive a car it would be like the first
•Sometimes it can lead to mistakes-Self-fulfilling prophecies
-Heuristics used inappropriately
•We can come up with reasons, even if it is automatic (the reasons are wrong!)
Controlled Thinking
•Responsible for many great accomplishments
-All of science
•Controlled thinking can help us make better decisions
-For instance, we can overcome automatic stereotypes
•There are problems with controlled thinking too!
Problems with controlled thinking
•Thought suppression -a conscious attempt to avoid thinking about something
•Ironically, it can increase thinking about the undesired thought!
•Monitoring process -automatically searches for evidence of the thought
•Operating process -conscious attempt to distract oneself from the unwanted thought
•Operating process might not work if cognitive resources are being used-Stress, cognitive load
-Ironically you end up thinking about it more than if
you didn't try to suppress the thought!!
Monkey Blindness Illusion
•Conscious attention to another task distracts from unexpected events
-Inattentional blindness
-we miss things we aren't paying attention to
•We end up missing things around us all the time
-"Why did you ignore me at the movies?"
-missed gorilla, change of curtain color, and one person was switched out of the group
Who is Happier?: Meddalists at olympics
•Silver medalist or bronze medalist at the Olympics
•You would expect silver medalists to be happier since they did better.. but bronze medalists are happier!
Counterfactual Thinking
•Thinking about some aspect of the past in a different way than it actually was
•Silver medalists imagine winning gold, this is upward counterfactual
-"I just missed gold!"
-Less happy
•Bronze medalists imagine not winning at all, downward counterfactual
-"At lest I got a medal!"
-More happy
Thinking about Morality
Why do we think something is morally wrong?
Immanuel Kant
-Morality is rationally based, using reason, logic
-We develop morals as we age (Kohlberg)
David Hume
-Morality is informed by emotions
-We say something is wrong because it feels wrong, not
based on rationality (Haidt)
Dual Process and Morality
•Kant's view is a controlled thinking view
-We consciously think and use reason to figure out
what is right and wrong
•Hume's view is an automatic thinking view
-We use our feelings to decide what is right and
these two perpectives can be illuminated by the trolly dilemma that suggest there is a coginitive rationality involved but also an emotional component (wouldnt push the fat person)
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: probelms with asking questions about behvaiour
-people dont always tell the truth- less candid about GPA and sexual activities than hometown or university major
-people often dont really know what they think they know-accounts of our own behaviour are often inaccurate, even when we think were telling the truth e.g. believing you want to be in medical school even though this was an idea forced on you by your dad that you have repressed
-another ex) stockings placed on right in department store are preferred
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: problems with explaining others behaviours
our observations come from our own unique limited persepective, reasoning processes may be biased - influenced by our desires and prior beliefs (confirmation bias), act of observing may change the behaviour we seek to explain (presence of others causes alteration of behaviour)
-often prefer quick and easy answers
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: Stereotype threat
stereotyped groups sometimes perform poorly on standardized tests of their ability after being reminded of a sterotype that pertains to them
e.g. being a woman and reminded of your gender before completing a math test
CHAPTER 1 TEXTBOOK: examples of ways to operationalize your variable in the experimental method
1) scores on questionnaire
2) observable behaviours
3) physiological measures
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: Natural selection and its two mechanisms of variability and competition
variability is necessary for natural selection to occur: two primary sources
-Mutation: random mistakes in DNA replication
-Sexual recombination: when a new creature is produced it does not have the exact same genetic makeup as its parents- combination of their genes
Competition-positive variability helps an organism to compete for food, mates, and pass on its genes
-successful organisms will pass on their adaptions to their offspring
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: brains capability to classify individuals
closeness or solidarity- friend or foe
status or heirarchy- categorize others power or rank
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: background emotions purposed by Damasio
general affective tone at a given moment
-there is never a waking moment in which a person has no emotion
-what we refer to when we say were in a good/ bad mood
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: primary emotion purposed by Damasio
-emotions are tirggered by enviornmental stimuli
-emotions involve brain structures like the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex
-distinctive facial expression
---> include: happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, disgust
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: secondary emotion purposed by Damasio
variations of the six primary emotions ex. joy, ecstacy are variations of happiness
gloom and misery are variations of sadness
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: how do social emotions regulate behaviour?
drawing peoples attention to socially inappropriate behaviour, reinforcing appropriate behaviour, helping repair disrupted social relationships
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: aspects of culture
-->shared beliefs- accepted ideas about reality
-->similar attitudes- preferences and opinions
-->similar values- guiding principles and shared goals
-->norms- shared beliefs about what is expected or appropriate
-->morals- beliefs about what good and bad behaviour is
-->customs- specific patterns of dress, speech, and behaviour that are deemed appropriate
-->social roles- positions within a group that entail specific ways of acting and dividing labor, responsibility and resources
-->cultural symbols- represent culture as a whole or beliefs or values present in culture e.g. flags
-->rituals- patterns of actions performed in particular contexts
CHAPTER 2 TEXTBOOK: how culture helps us adapt
to the physical environment e.g. wearing fur in northern climates (Technology and skills)
to the social environment e.g. individualism vs collectivism (shared belief systems that reduce uncertainty, orient self towards relationships, maintain social order)
to the metaphysical environment e.g. beliefs about the afterlife (faith in meaning-providing worldview)
CHAPTER 3 TEXTBOOK: theory of lay epistemology need for accurate knowledge
want an accurate truthful understanding of person, idea, or event e.g. hiring someone for a job
CHAPTER 3 TEXTBOOK: theory of lay epistemology need for nonspecific closure
we reach closure when we stop the thought process and grab the first handy judgement or decision without extensive effort- just desires any conclusion because feeling uncertain can be uncomfortable
CHAPTER 3 TEXTBOOK: theory of lay epistemology need for specific closure
reach a conclusion that fits well with the specific beliefs and attitudes that one prefers
-activated when prior beliefs are brought to mind or they're threatened by contradictory information
generalized state of affect that persists longer than an emotion
What is Social Perception?
•How we form impressions of others and make
inferences about them
•How we make sense of each other
correspondence bias/ fundamental attribution error are
synonymous terms
MC questions
Making Sense with Attributions
•One way we make sense of others is by making attributions
•Attribution: The process we undergo when we determine the cause of behaviour
•This area of research primarily started with Fritz
Heider'sAttribution Theory (1950s)
-Thought people were intuitive scientists figuring out the causes of other people's behaviour
•Developed more by Harold Kelley's Covariation Model (and others)
Kelley's Covariation Model
•Harold Kelley thought that people relied on 3 sources of information when making attributions about
•Consensus (across people)
-How other people act in the same situation
•Distinctiveness (across situations)
-Does the individual always act this way
•Consistency (across time)
-Does this behaviour always occur in the same situation
example of covariation model: Cindy
•Cindy was out with friends and started smoking a cigarette
•To what do we attribute her smoking?
Cindy and Consistency
•Does this behaviour always occur in the same situation at different times
•If Cindy smokes every time she is out with friends, there is high consistency
•If Cindy smokes more rarely when out with friends, there is low consistency
•High consistency -> Something about Cindy (e.g.,
she likes to smoke) or about the situation (e.g.,
being with friends leads to smoking)
•Low consistency -> Something unique led to
smoking (but we don't really know much about
Cindy and Distinctiveness
•Does the individual always act this way across
•If Cindy has never smoked, but suddenly does,
there is high distinctiveness
•If Cindy smokes all the time, there is low
•High distinctiveness -> Something about the
situation (e.g., being with friends might increase
•Low distinctiveness -> Something about Cindy
(e.g., she likes to smoke in general)
Cindy and Consensus
•How other people act in the same situation
•If all of Cindy's friends smoke while together,
there is high consensus
•If none of Cindy's friends smoke while together,
there is low consensus
•Consensus high -> Something about the situation
(e.g., being with friends leads to smoking)
•Consensus low -> Something about Cindy (e.g.,
she likes to smoke)
Covariation Predictions of distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus
•Generally, when behaviour is high in consistency,
distinctiveness, and consensus -> we make
external attributions (something about the
•When behaviour is high in consistency, but low in
distinctiveness and consensus -> we make
internal attributions (something about the
•We don't know much when behaviour isn't
•Research generally supports these predictions
-But we don't always use all 3 aspects
-We tend to use distinctiveness more than consensus
Mr. Bean Clip
non verbal communication
facial expressions, symbols, body language
Nonverbal Communication
•Another way we make sense of each other is by our
nonverbal communication
•Communication without spoken words
-Posture/body movement
-Eye gaze
-Tone of voice
-Emotion expressions (Facial expressions)
Emotion Expressions and Darwin
"the expression of emotions in man and animal"
•Darwin, 1872
•Emotion expressions evolved to help us survive
•Enhance physiological functioning of the displayer
•Fear widens the eyes, which aids in vision
•Useful when in dangerous situations
•Disgust narrows the nasal passage, decreasing the exchange of oral agents
•Useful when around contaminants
•Pride expands the chest and increases lung capacity
•Useful for recovery
emotion expression two main functions
1.Enhance physiological functioning for displayer
-Evolved first
2.Function to communicate something to others
-More recent adaptation (exaptation)
-Expression gets exaggerated for better
communication (ritualization)
what does pride communicate?
•Displayed across cultures after success
-Pre-school children after winning a fight
-High-school students after doing well on an exam
-Adults after winning an Olympic judo match
•By congenitally blind
•Those who show pride are successful
Pride Communicates Who Has Knowledge/Skill
•Successful people tend to have knowledge or skill
-That's why they are successful!
•How would we test whether pride is automatically
associated with knowledge?
•Implicit Association Test pairing pride and other
emotion expressions with knowledge and ignorance
-Smart, wise, intelligent
-Dumb, foolish, unintelligent
•Pride is automatically associated with knowledge
-Strong effect!
Pride Influences Social Learning
•People copy those who show pride, ~75%
-Pride Learning Bias
-Not due to intimidation or a desire to fit in
-Heightened motivation to seek knowledge
-This might be a universal bias, Fiji data is inconclusive at this point
Cultural influences in interpreting emotion expressions
•East Asians typically view things in a holistic way
-Pay attention to the object, context, and their
•Westerners typically view things in an analytic way
-Pay attention to the main object and less to the
•Will these differences affect how we interpret
emotion expressions?
e.g. Is Kim/David feeling authentic pride
(successful, hard-working, confident, etc.)? Shows picture of kim with smile and rest of friends behind her with smile and David with smile and rest of friends behind him with no smile
-caucasian participants: no effect, did not show difference between kim and david
-Asian participants: said there was less autentic pride when background people were sad as opposed to happy
•Asian participants take into account the context
•Culture influences how we interpret (even universal)
nonverbal behaviour
-this is constrasted with heuristic pride which is nasty side of pride, arrogance
•Culture specific nonverbal gestures that communicate
something specific
•We can make sense of people by the emblems they use
•If someone gives you the middle finger in Canada,
you can be confident they are upset with you
summary of people and nonverbal behaviours
•We partly make sense of people by their nonverbal behaviours
•Some of these behaviours are human universals
-E.g., emotion expressions like pride
-Even these have a cultural influence
•Cultural influence is more obvious with some other behaviours
Actor/Observer Bias
•Focusing on dispositional factors for the behaviour
of other people, but on situational factors for one's own behaviour
Correspondence Bias (FAE)
The tendency to think that other people's behaviour
is caused by their disposition (personality)
Classic Study on Correspondence Bias
•Participants randomly assigned to read another student's essay that A) supports Fidel Castro's rule in
Cuba, or B) opposes it
•Some participants were told that the student picked the topic, others were told the student was assigned
the topic
•Rate the extent to which the student really felt that way
•Even when students have no choice, participants still said students believed what they wrote!
•This is the correspondence bias (FAE)--> disposition not situation!
why does the correspondance bias happen?
•Perceptual Salience-The behaviour of others is salient
-The situation is salient for our own behaviour
•We see what happens to us more so than our own
•Information Availability-We have more information about ourselves than we do others
-We don't know if they had a bad morning
Perceptual Salience & The Correspondence Bias Study
•Presented courtroom judges and police officers with a videotape of a suspect confessing to a crime (actually a confederate)
•Saw a camera view showing A) just the suspect, B) just the detective, or C) both the suspect and detective
•Rated how voluntary vs coerced the confession was
•When the camera was solely on the suspect, both
judges and police officers rated the statements as
•When the camera was on the detective, both judges
and police officers rated the statements as more
Salience- impact of camera angle during study
•We might like to think that the camera angle has little
impact on our judgments
•But we tend to make dispositional attributions to
the one we see talking
•Even professionals are influenced by what
information is salient
-Which of course makes sense, since they are humans too!
Defensive Attributions
•Explanations that avoid feelings of vulnerability
•Belief in a just world-Good things happen to good people, bad things happen to bad people
Dealing with Unjust Acts
•We can't always deal with unjust acts directly
•We have psychological mechanisms that protect us
•One mechanism: We blame the victim
-If something happened to an innocent victim, it might
happen to us, which can be very threatening
-If we blame the victim, the world is still fair, which reduces our anxiety for our own safety
e.g. Did Nirbhaya really have to go watch a movie at 11
in the night with her friend?... Rapes also take
place because of a women's clothes, her behaviour, and her presence at inappropriate places
other examples of victim blaming for unjust acts
Hurricane Katrina
"I believe that New Orleans had a level of sin that was offensive to God, and they were recipients of the
judgment of God for that."
John Hagee -Pastor of Cornerstone Church in Texas
Dealing with unjust acts and our cognitive schemas
•Belief in a just world is a schema, a meaning
-Should be stronger or weaker depending on the
•When it gets violated, people may respond by
affirming unrelated schemas (meaning frameworks)
-Hold onto your beliefs stronger when other beliefs
are threatened
-Predicted by the Meaning Maintenance Model
Beleif in just world schema gets violated- affirmation study
•UBC students filled out a Belief in a Just World scale
•Read a story about A) a criminal getting away with a crime (Threat), or B) getting caught (No Threat)
•Participants picked a gift for participating
-Actually the DV (pen with UBC written on it or mini stapler)
RESULTS: Those High in BJW Selected the UBC Pen
After Reading About A Criminal Going Unpunished-- they are affirming their UBC schema because their other one has been disrupted-- only happens with people who hold high regard for the Belief of a just world schemea (no effect for people low in this)
define upward counterfactual
imagined alternative where the outcome is better than what actually happened
downward counterfactual
imagined worse alternative outcomes to something that actually happened
Dis-positional Attribution: Three stage model
-even individuals in individualistic culutres can take situation into account
-this model occurs in a temporal sequence
1) a behaviour is observed and labelled.
2) observers automatically make a correspondent dispositional inference
3) if observers have sufficient accuracy motivation and cognitive resources available, they modify their attributions to take salient situational factors into account
POST MIDTERM: 12 angry men: many different social psych phenomenon, most obvious?
minority influence
informational social influence
use other people as a source of accurate information- how to behave because you want to be accurate and come to the right conclusion (Seeking the right answer)
normative social influence
act this way simply because everyone else is, not trying to be accurate
example of informational social influence: twelve angry men
juror 4 changed opinion when new info presentedd (Eg female witness had poor eyesight)
example of normative social influence: twelve angry men
go along with the crowd- juror 7 went with the crowd, changing his decision as other jurors did
what factors contributed to the minority influence being successful in twelve angry men?
-minority infuence is when a minority (e.g. dissenter or small group) can produce attitude change among the majority
-Henry Fonda's character was consistent, this increases success
-New info was introduced (knife, timing) - can sway majority bc it increases their likelihood that they will re-examine their views
-appeared quite confiedent- not backing down under pressure (uncertain of gulit but confident they needed to review evidence) People are swayed by confidence
-reasonable, just wanted to talk. Appearing open-minded and unbiased inc the likelihood others will consider your opinion
internal/ external attributions: twelve angry men
one juror was adamant that slum kids are bad- internal
-external: jurors mentioned boy was abused and came from poor family
minority influence: Serge Moscovici
romanian born
-did psychology in France and US'
-at the time, prevalent thought was that the majority had a strong influence on people
-he thought that if the majority really did have such a strong influence we would all be the same
-many movements start off with one individual or small group who persuade the majority ex) christianity (jesus)
-did color perception test with females
Hitler and minority influence
-rose to power gradually
-he was in fringe political party with few members
-gave speeches in beer halls
-had failed coup in 1923, went to prison where he wrote mein kampf
-released in 1924
-his part won 18% of vote in 1930 (impressive considering party was obscure until then)
-popularity grew
-consistent, good speaker and very charismatic- promising the people change convincingly settles thoughts of TMT
-reminders of mortality increase the appeal of charismatic leaders
Alkali Lake: minority influence
-in Cariboo region of BC
-home to Edk' eteme first nations
-documentary in 1986 "honour of All: The story of Alkali Lake"
-community had 100% alcoholism rate, even children
-1972: Andy and Phyllis Chelsea decided to quit drinking, hard work and consistency in anti-alcoholism
-alcoholism rate eventually fell
1973: less than a dozen sober people, 1974: 35 sober, 1975: 40% sober, 1979: 98% sober
Minority influence research: color brightness experiment- Moscovicci
-2 confederates, 4 actual participants in study on colour perception
-ALL female (judging color task- thought females would be better at this)
-all viewed blue slides of various brighness
-after some practice, confederates started to call slides green
-consistent condition: called green on all trails, inconsistent: called green 2/3 trials
-results: consistent- particiapants called green 8.42% of trials, inconsistent- participants 1.25%
-control less than 1% said green
why listen to minority?
-people generally dislike those that go against norm
-but on reason they do is because they're distinctive: they stand out which gives them more focus, people consider the minory more thuroughly bc it caputes their attention
-otherwise, mindlessly go with the majority
-people also want to understand why the minority can see things so differently
-a change in behaviour or belief to accord with others
-in individualistic cultures, the term has a neg connotation. Generally considered a bad thing to do. Goes against individuals wants and desires
-collectivistic: term has pos connotation, considered good, helps people get along together
varieties in conformity: compliance
publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing- sometimes called public compliance
varieties in conformity: obedience
acting in accord with direct order, how many parents and those in authority command others
varieties in conformity: acceptance
acting and believing in accord with social pressure, sometimes called " private acceptance"
Mazafer Sherif
-american psychologist
-infleuntial in early social psych
-did robbers cave study
-interested in how norms formed
Sherif's classic conformity study
-participants put in a dark room and watched small light on the wall
-looks like it starts to move "autokinetic effect"
-asked to estimate how much the dot moves
-did this alone and then in a group of people
-when alone they provide their own independent opinion, then as they report with other people there is a convergence effect
-accepted new estimate as accurate (internalized info) they actually thought this (private acceptance- what they saw actually changed due to others attitudes). This is happening because of informational influence-- really looking for the right answer.
-this is not just public compliance- trying to appease and conform to others in the group
-prevate acceptance and informational influence going on
*other research has found that if new people are introduced, the estimates of new participants converge with the existing norm
-once estimates converge tradition gets transmitted to new members
Polish psychologist
-Sherif used stimuli that was ambiguous
-Asch was interested in how people respond when answer is very obvious
-compare 3 lines to target line, confederates sometimes gave a unaminous incorrect answer
-3/4 participants conformed at least once
-public compliance and normative social influence (Want to fit in)
-other forms like robbers in a line up
-meta-analysis shows stronger effects from collectivitistic cultures
why give the wrong answer and conform? who doesnt conform as often?
the pressure to fit in is strong
-those that stick out are ridiculed/ taunted
-dont want to look foolish if actually wrong
-people who disagree are often isolated and rejected by a group
-might value getting along and having good relations with group
-unlikely that there was any informational influence going on here because the answer was clear
-public compliance and normative influence!
-studies have shown that higher self awareness, higher self esteem lead to less conformity and there is a slight gender difference (Women more)
-also those who are leaders, high need for achievement, confidence in their own judgement also show decreased conformity
Milgram and shocking study
-trials of nazi members really intrigued him-- defence: just following orders (Nuremberg defence)
-could they actually be just following orders?
-orignially wanted to test obedience in US then germany (assume Germans will obey and Americans wont)
-participants came into lab to conduct experiment on learning
-Teacher (participant) and learner (confederate)
-teacher shocks learner if answer wrong
-each shock gets more powerful
-learner complained- "get me out of here" talking about his heart problem and screaming
-experimenter encouraged teacher if they complained- "please continue, experiment requires you to go on"
-65% of people went to full strength (450 volts)
-different conditions: if two other teachers refuse, less of effect, teacher gives order instead of experimenter- less of an effect, participants chose shock level- less effect, if another participant delivers the shock but not the memory test then 92.5% go all the way
-this is more like WWII and modern warefare
backlash against Migram
-public and many collegues shocked by milgrams study
-many claimed it was unethical- pariticpants visibly stressed and concerned, believed they were hurting someone, milgram countered saying majority happy to participate
-others claimed backlash had more to do with what it revealed about people in general, ethics wouldnt approve of this today
why obey authority?
-might have evolved to obey, (nature)
-organize and coordinate group activities, imagine working in a group with no leader or leader that no one listened to
-those that obey may have adaptive advantage
-socialized to obery (nurture) - parents, teachers, police
-once we commit to something it is hard to go against it if change is gradual -- snowball effect, something smll (harmless 15 volt shock)-- 30-->40 when do you stop?
What are Attitudes?
•Evaluations of people, objects, or ideas
•Daryl Bemcalled attitudes "likes and dislikes"
•Early researchers called social psychology the scientific study of attitudes
•Gordon Allport (personality and traits) "This concept [attitudes] is probably the most distinctive and
indispensable concept of contemporary American
social psychology."
Cognitively based attitude:
based on relevant facts
•e.g. Does the clock work? Is it a good price?
Affectively based attitude:
based on emotions and values
•Is it based on religious or moral beliefs?
Behaviourally based attitude
I just did a behaviour, so i must like it
Why Have Attitudes?
•Attitudes have at least 4 functions
1.Knowledge (meaning)
-Provides meaning for life
-Gives us a sense of control
-expressive (self-expression)
-Attitudes help communicate who we are
-Part of our identity
3.Adjustment (rewards & punishment)
-Help us fit in with the social group
-People reward those who hold favorable attitudes (e.g., flatter your boss -> get a reward)
-Help us protect ourselves
-Help us justify our actions
When Do Attitudes Predict Behaviour?
•Deliberate behaviour-planned
•Theory of Planned Behaviour--> Attitudes predict deliberate behaviour when there is
an intention to do the behaviour
•Intention is influenced by
-Attitudes toward the specific behaviour
-Subjective norms--> Beliefs about how others view the behaviour
-Perceived behavioural control--> Ease people believe they can control the behaviour
•Spontaneous behaviour
-with little thinking
•When attitudes are accessible--->Easy to come to mind, Typically measured by the speed people can report how they feel about a target
•When attitudes are automatic
-Can measure this with an IAT
Specific Attitudes and predictions of behaviour
•General attitudes are not good predictors for specific
behaviors (better at general behaviours)
•Specific attitudes are better predictors for specific
-Asked women about their attitudes about birth control (general) and then got more specific to attidtude toward using birth control pills during next two years
-at first with the general question the attitude behaviour correlation was very low but as it got more specific, the correlation rose to .57
Seating Preference and behaviour prediction
•Earlier participants filled out a Black-IAT
•Told they were doing a study with another participant
who was already there, but was in another room
-Participants knew he was Black because they saw
demographic information on him
•Where do they sit (a spontaneous behaviour)?
-Higher the IAT score (more negative associations toward Blacks), the further they sat
An attempt to change attitudes or behaviour
Persuasion seen as good and bad
•Persuasion isn't inherently good or bad
•Persuading someone to seek medical treatment can be good
•Persuading someone to assault another person is generally bad
Attitude Change
•People often change their attitudes in response to
persuasive messages
•Advertisements are designed to change your
-Some estimates suggest we see roughly 300-400 ads a
-Other estimates suggest we see closer to 5,000 a day
top 10 commercials video
emotional appeal
-classical conditioning: laugh at commercial and associate positive feelings with it
-listerine invented the word hallotosis
do ads work?
•Showed anti-marijuana ads in two different
•10% drop in reported marijuana use when the
ads were played
How To Change Attitudes
•Yale Attitude Change Approach
-Who says What to Whom
•Who (source)
-Credible speakers (prestige)
-Attractive speakers
•What (message)
-Perceived as not trying to influence (reactance theory), feeling of freedom taken away "you can't do this" makes you want to
•Whom (audience)
-Need for cognition
changing attitudes: Who (Source)
•We are particularly swayed by certain characteristics of the source of the message
•Source credibility
-Whether the one delivering the message is perceived as an expert and trustworthy
•How do we know who is credible?
-Surface characteristics help
changing attitudes: Is The Source Accepted As An Expert?
Medical advice from doctors (a respected source) is generally more influential than advice from lay people
•One study found that participants were more likely to support allowing the sale of certain drugs without prescriptions when the source was the New England Journal of Biology and Medicine(accepted experts) than from a popular magazine
-The exact same message, just a different source
changing attitudes: Is There A Cue Of Expertise for a source?
•We tend to be swayed more by someone who has a lab coat on (cues expertise) than regular clothes
•Advertisers take advantage of this
Changing attitudes: Perceived As Trustworthy and customer reviews
•We tend to be swayed by those we trust
•We trust those who appear unbiased
•We partly like customer reviews because they don't profit from the reviews
•Advertisers and companies know this, so they hire people to write fake reviews
-In 2015, Amazon filed a lawsuit against 1,114 individuals who wrote fake customer reviews for money
-Some include typos to make them seem real
•If you argue against your perceived interest, you are perceived as more trustworthy (and more influential)
•An oil executive arguing for fewer environmental laws would be unconvincing
•An oil executive arguing for more environmental laws would be more convincing
-It is against his/her interest, so it must be true
Changing attitudes: Prestige
•Cultural learning biases influence who we agree with
•We tend to copy prestigious people
-Prestige is high status from having valuable skills or
•Skilled fisherman, farmer, etc.
•It would have been adaptive to learn from these
-today, movie stars and celebrities have prestige and they do celebrity endorsements
Biases in Determining Prestige
•We have a number of biases (called cultural learning biases) to help us determine who has prestige
•We will review 4
-Prestige bias
-Success bias
-Skill bias
-learning bias
Prestige Bias
•We copy those that get attention from others (have prestige)
•One UBC study found that children copy the behaviours of those who get preferential eye-gaze
Success Bias
•We copy those who demonstrate success
-We look for cues of success
e.g. very fancy house, the size of your yams
Skill Bias
We copy those whose skill we directly observe
Pride Learning Bias
we copy those who display pride
Why Copy Pride-Displaying Others?
•Pride is automatically associated with success
-It is an innate response
-Congenitally blind individuals from around the world display pride after winning a judo match
•Pride is automatically associated with knowledge and skill-We can't help but think they are knowledgeable and skillful
•Copying them might be adaptive, 75% of people copy pride person
Learning and Persuasion
•This research is often framed as learning, but it is also related to attitude change and persuasion
-E.g., Research on these biases is more often presented at conferences on cultural learning than
persuasion or attitude change
•But it is obviously relevant: We are more likely to copy (be persuaded by) those who fit these biases
Sleeper Effect
•We have a tendency to forget the credibility of a
source before we forget the message (especially
if we learn about the credibility of the source
after hearing the message)
•We are left with a message with unknown
-In this case, we tend to show weaker effects of
-Credible source: initially persuaded -> less persuaded
-Non-credible source: initially not persuaded -> more
persuaded later
Sleeper Effect Evidence
-Asked participants attitudes from credible and
low-credible sources
•Asked them again 4-weeks later
•4 weeks later the credibility no longer mattered
-Arguments equally likely to change minds
•We tend to be swayed by physically attractive sources
•This is why companies hire models
•Physically attractive people produce a positive reaction in people
-We tend to assume that attractive people have other positive characteristics, called halo effect
-"What is beautiful is good", so maybe their message is good too
•Study: Attractive politicians get more votes than unattractive ones
-this is often salient in the peripheral route
Balance Theory And Attraction
•Heider's Balance Theory suggests we have a motivation to maintain consistency with our attitudes
•A) You like the attractive model (+)
•B) The attractive model likes the purse (+)
•C) You are more likely to like to purse as well
to be consistent (+)
•This theory works for more than just attraction (any attitude)
Similarity and Persuasion
•We are swayed more by those who are similar to us
•When it comes to preferences, we are swayed more
by similar others-E.g., I'm more likely to be swayed by students from the same university than from a different university when it comes to opinions
•When it comes to facts (with objective truth), we
are swayed more by dissimilar others
-Those similar to us might have an interest in maintaining a friendship or be exposed to the same faulty information
-Those dissimilar to us might not have that friendship
motivation and might have different information
changing attitudes: What (Message)
•Stronger points can be more effective than weaker ones
•You can have too many points (even if they are strong)
-More points isn't always better!
-People will fatigue and not remember all of them
•If you have a lot of weak points, people might notice and have a negative attitude about the message
-Other times, they might take note of the number and not notice the strength
-Sometimes a few strong points is best, sometimes not
•But there are a lot of variables to consider when it comes to number of points... there is no simple answer to how many is best
What (Message)
Sometimes messages try to convince you not
to do something
Reactance Theory (what/ message)
•When people feel pressure to NOT do a behaviour, they feel an unpleasant state (called reactance) and are more likely to do that behavior to reduce this state
-Threatens their freedom
•Graffiti: "Please don't write on the walls" vs. "Don't write on the walls"
-More graffiti with severe threat
•Strong anti-drug, -smoking, -nose piercing messages
-More likely to do them
Romeo and Juliet Effect (what/ message)
•Reactance theory with romantic relationships
•The more your parents say "no" to dating someone, the more you want to date them
Romeo and Juliet Effect Evidence
•The more parents say you can't be with someone, the more you want to, the more romantic love you feel to justify it
-"I want to be with him/her. I love him/her!"
•One study found a correlation between parental interference and feelings of romantic love of .35 (Driscoll et al., 1972)
-This is a moderate correlation
•Research since hasn't been overly supportive
-It is easier to find evidence that disapproval discourages relationships than the opposite
•It might be a complicated picture
Reactance Depends
•Reactance is a push back against feeling like your freedom is being threatened
•If you don't value freedom, you won't experience reactance
•Individualistic cultures value independent self, which focuses on individual freedoms and wants
•Collectivistic cultures value interdependent self, which focuses on collective goals
•Do cultures show differences in reactance?
Does Culture Affect Reactance? UCLA study
•Those from individualistic cultures (European Americans) and collectivistic cultures (Asian/Latin Americans) took part
•Read about a personal freedom being threatened (borrow your parking pass at UCLA) or collective freedom being threatened (UCLA parking lot used for a tennis tournament)
•Measured their level of reactance
•Reactance occurs across cultures, but it does
not occur for the same things
-Individualistic = reactance from personal freedom (parking pass)
-Collectivistic = reactance from collective freedom (tennis tournament)
Reverse Psychology
•Reverse psychology is basically reactance theory
•Something parents have been taking advantage of to persuade their children to do things
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
•Petty and Cacioppo developed this dual process theory of persuasion
•Two routes can lead to attitude change from a persuasive message
•Central route: think carefully about the information
-Strong arguments change attitudes, weak ones do not
•Peripheral route: peripheral cues (non central to the argument) are used to form attitudes instead of effortful thought
-More irrelevant aspects like physical attractiveness
play a role
Dual-Process Models of Persuasion
•ELM is not the only dual-process model of persuasion
•Elaboration Likelihood Model
-Central route: controlled thinking--> Swayed by logic
-Peripheral route: automatic thinking-->Swayed by surface characteristics
•Heuristic-Systematic Model
-Systematic processing: controlled thinking-->Swayed by logic
-Heuristic processing: automatic thinking-->Swayed by surface characteristics
•Notice the similarities
Which Route to Use? Relevant information study
•The more relevant the topic, the more people pay attention and use the central route (controlled thinking)
•Participants heard a speech arguing that students should have to pass a comprehensive exam before graduating
•Manipulated how relevant the topic was
-Implemented before they graduate (high personal relevance)
-Implemented in 10 years (low personal relevance)
•Manipulated the strength of the argument
-Strong: "Quality of teaching improves with the exams"
-Weak: "Students welcome the challenge of failing"
•Manipulated the prestige of the speaker
-High school student
•Asked participants if they agree with the speaker's position
•When relevant: The quality matters, but not the source (controlled thinking)
•When not relevant: The source matters, but not really the quality of the argument (automatic thinking)
Relevant Information Study 2
•All participants saw ads for razors
•Before beginning, participants were told they would either get to pick between several a) razors (relevant) or b) toothpastes (low relevant)
•Varied argument strength: Ads either had a) strong arguments (e.g., coating prevents rust), or b) weak arguments (e.g., designed for bathroom)
•Varied peripheral cues: Ads either had a) a celebrity or b) a regular person
•Asked their attitudes towards the razor
•When the razors were relevant, argument strength won out
•When the razors were not relevant, peripheral cues won out
Cognitive Load and Persuasion
•Cognitive load is basically how busy your mind is (how much you are using working memory)
-Doing a complex math problem = high cognitive load
•High cognitive load tends to
increase automatic thinking
-We don't have mental resources to think, so we use heuristics and process things automatically
Cognitive Load Study
•Students listened to a message saying tuition should be cut in half
•A) Strong argument in favor (e.g., high tuition prevents some from going to college)
•B) Weak argument (e.g., cutting tuition leads
to increase class size)
•Concurrently had to record where an X appeared on the screen
-A) Flashed every 15 seconds = low cognitive load
-B) Flashed every 5 seconds = high cognitive load
•When cog load is low, the
strength of the argument wins
•When cog load is high, the
strength of the argument matters less
-They couldn't determine a
good argument from a bad one
Some Interesting Aspects of Central and Peripheral Routes
•Attitudes formed through the central route tend to be more resistant to change
-Once formed, they are harder to change through persuasion since they are based on deeper
processing of information
•Attitudes formed through the peripheral route tend to decay faster
-These attitudes tend not to last as long (even without
persuasion against them)
-This is because they are often formed by a single, simple association (e.g., "that celebrity uses this, so I will too")
You Want to Sell Beer, What Route Do You Use?
-People don't typically base their beer drinking on objective qualities (a lot of beers taste
•Advertising executive's thoughts on soda: "The thing about soda commercials is that
they actually have nothing to say"
-Same thing for beer commercials?
•Best to go the peripheral route
Tailor Persuasive Message To The Type of Attitude
•Cognitive-based attitudes are swayed more by central route (controlled thinking)
-Use logic, utilitarian aspects, and reason
-This product is the best because it will help you...
•Affective-based attitudes are swayed more by peripheral route (automatic thinking)
-Use heuristics, values,emotions, and surface
-All the cool people use this product
Does Fear Work to persuade?
•It depends
-It can't overwhelm them ->defensive
-If it motivates them to listen to the message
-It provides information on how to reduce the fear
•Smokers Study, the participants either:
A.Read pamphlets on how to quit smoking (provides info)
B.Watched disturbing lung cancer film (increases fear)
C.Did both
-for the only instructions group, smoking did not decrease. For the film no instructions group smoking only decreased slightly, for the film and instructions group smoking decreased significantly
•The film scared them, and the instructions showed them how to reduce the fear
Cults: Solar Temple
Many cults have persuaded people of unusual, extreme views
-Members gave up all their money; educated people
-74 deaths/suicides by fire to get to the star Sirius
Cults: Peoples Temple Agricultural Project, "Jonestown"
-Moved to Guyana as a utopia; worked 6 days a week
-918 deaths/suicides from cyanide in cool aid
Cults: Heaven's Gate
-Some underwent voluntary castration
-39 deaths/suicides so their souls could go on a ship following comet Hale-Bopp
Many Reasons Cults Can Be Persuasive
•Charismatic leader, support from others, isolation from those with differing views, etc.
•Important reason: Cognitive dissonance
-An uncomfortable feeling we get when our behaviour is
at odds with our attitudes or when attitudes conflict
•To reduce the dissonance, we:
-Justify behaviourby changing the cognition (e.g., the cult isn't that bad)
-Justify behaviour by adding new cognitions (e.g., the cult
makes me a better person)
-Change the behaviour
to be in line with the cognition
(e.g., quit the cult)
-Affirm a competence on something unrelated to the
threat (e.g., It's ok, I'm a good person)—Self-Affirmation Theory
Cognitive Dissonance and Attitudes: Women and appliances study
Free choice paradigm- making choice between alternatives and then attraction to alternatives is assessed
•Decisions create dissonance: post-decision dissonance
-There might be good reasons to make the opposite decision
-To reduce the dissonance, people make their decision more attractive and the alternative less attractive
•Women rated the desirability of several appliances
•Given choice between one of two appliances to have as a gift (items were rated equally
•20 minutes later, rerated all the appliances
•Rated the selected appliance higher and the non-selected appliance lower than before
Cognitive Dissonance and Attitudes: Psychology of sex study group study
Effort Justification: loving what we suffer for
•Get a commitment
-Justification of effort: Tendency to increase liking for something you work hard to get
•Students joined a "psychology
of sex" study group
-Easy to join, mild initiation
(read aloud sex related words),
or severe initiation (read aloud
explicit sex words)
•Went to a dull discussion
•Rated how much they like the
discussion group
-rating for thr discussion group has much greater liking in the severe initiation group
Cults and Dissonance
•People made decisions to join a cult
-Could have started off small, like going to a meeting
-This makes them like it more (post-decision dissonance)
•More commitment leads to stronger views
-Members are typically asked to make larger and larger
commitments (eventually abandon friends & family,
quit jobs, give up belongings...)
-This increases their liking for the group (justification of
When Evidence Contradicts Beliefs: cults and heavens gate
•Heaven's gate members bought telescopes to look at the spaceship
•They didn't see it
•How do you think they reacted?
•They returned the telescopes saying they were faulty
Whom (Audience) and factors that lead to persuasion
•Some people are easier to persuade than others
-Easier to persuade = high on persuasibility
•A number of factors influence someone's persuasibility
-Age (18-25 attitudes and opions are forming so more susceptible to persuasion, later 20's attitudes have already formed)
-self esteem: low self esteem more likely to be persuaded
- intelligence: more educated less persuadable
•Cultural background also plays a role
Culture And Persuasion
•American ads stress independence
-Individuality, self-improvement, etc.
•Korean ads stress interdependence
-Family, concern for others, etc.
•Americans are persuaded more by independent ads
•Koreans are persuaded more by interdependent ads
•Advertisements work best when tailored to the culture
Age And Persuasibility
•Generally speaking, the older you are the lower your
-Younger individuals tend to be forming attitudes, so are more susceptible to attitude change
-Older individuals have formed attitudes for some time (and might have evidence to back them up)
-It starts in your 20s when it becomes harder to persuade
Intelligence And Persuasibility and uncderstanding of the message
•Those higher in intelligence are generally better at comprehending complex messages
-Related to receptivity(whether you "get" the message)
-This can mean highly intelligent people are persuaded more by strong thoughtful arguments (one's that require a longer attentions span and focus) than others
•Moderately intelligent people are generally easier to persuade than highly intelligent people
-Highly intelligent people tend to rely on their own knowledge more
•It doesn't seem to be as straightforward a relationship as your textbook implies
Need For Cognition
•A need to think about things critically and analytically
-People who score high tend to enjoy solving puzzles and thinking through problems
•You can think of this need as
a personality variable
•People high on need for cognition tend to use the central route more
-They are more strongly influenced by strong
STUDY: Participants filled out Need for Cognition scale,
Given strong and weak arguments for having a comprehensive exam to graduate
•The pattern is the same
(strong arguments are better)
•More pronounced for those high in Need for Cognition
6 short cuts that guide human behaviour
reciprocity, scarcity, authority, consistency, liking, consensus
-employing in ethical manner will increase chances that someone will be persuaded by your request
give back to others that they recieved first
-e.g. giving mint at end of dinner inc tip by 3%, giving two mints per person tips quadruple 14% inc in tips, if waiter provides 1 mint and turns back and gives extra mint 23% increase
-be first to give and be sure what you give is personalized and unexpected
want more of those things they have less of
-benefits of choosing products and what is unique/what they stand to lose
People follow the lead of experts
-people more likely to give change for parking meter to person in uniform
people like to be consistent with the things they have previously said or done
-activated by small initial commintments
-look for voluntary, active public commitments, ideally in public
people prefer to say yes to those that they like
-three important factors: similarity, pay us compliments, cooperate towards mutual goals
-people look to actions and behavours of other to determine their own
-e.g. cards in hotel room to reuse towels, point to fact that 75% of guests reuse towels at somepoint during their stay and towel reuse drastically rises! Even more if the card states "in this room".
How To Resist Persuasion?
•Attitude Inoculation: Making people immune to attitude change by exposing them to small doses of arguments against their position
-Give weak arguments and counter them
Groups and People
Virtually everyone on this planet associates with at least one group
•Your culture (which could be billions of people)
•Your tribe
•Your family
•A sports team
•The university student body
•A religious group (e.g., Catholic)
Group Formation
•Groups form for different reasons
•Your genes generally link you with your family
•Geography links you with your neighbourhood
•Your attitudes/interests/goals can link you with various clubs
•Shared experiences can link you with other groups (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous, UBC Alumni)
•And other reasons (e.g., hobbies, goals, causes, coincidence, etc.)
•There are many ways that link us with other people
What is A Group? Minimal definition
Two or more individuals that interact and influence each other
What is A Group? Real Groups
•"Real" groups:
-Interdependent, need each other to reach shared
-Have group structure
•Norms: expectations of how members behave
•Roles: expectations of how particular members behave
-Have group identity, perceive self in group
Why Associate With Groups?
•Groups promote SURVIVAL and help us achieve goals
•Surviving in groups is easier than on your own
•Raising a child on your own can be difficult
-reduces uncertainty
-Infant mortality rate is generally higher for single mothers than married mothers (Bennett et al., 1994)
•Survival is one reason cited for why people join gangs
-Can provide money, safety from rivals, food...
• Groups GET THINGS DONE: Farming is easier with others than on your own
groups: Survival
Hunting is easier in groups
•True for people and some other hunting species
•Chimpanzees are more successful when they hunt
in groups than alone
groups: Achieve Goals
•Groups help us achieve goals
•Building a shelter, house, skyscraper, almost any building is difficult (if possible) on your own
•Imagine making a movie on your own
Groups Help Get Things Done
•Groups are often good at getting things done
•Division of labour
-Some people are actors, some are stunt doubles, some write the script, some do the filming...
•Share common burdens
-Starting a business with 2 people to split the costs is easier than with 1 person
-People can focus on one task and get really good at it
Groups Can Improve Their Situation
•An individual is easier to fire from a job than the entire staff
-Unions can unite people and get a better outcome
•The cast of Friends refused to negotiate unless they all
received equal pay
There Are Several Reasons To Associate With Groups
•Groups reduce uncertainty, and uncertainty is
•The groups we belong to shape our views of the world
-They also increase our confidence (decrease uncertainty) in these views ("if everyone believes it, it must be true")
-We come to believe many things because that is what
everyone else believes
•E.g., Some people believe you are born heterosexual or homosexual
-Other people (Sambiaof Papua New Guinea) believe hetero-and homosexuality are natural stages of life (boys start off homosexual, become bisexual, and then become heterosexual
groups and dealing with uncertaintly
•Groups tell us (and others) how to behave, which decreases our uncertainty
-uncertainty identity theory: the theory that people join and identify with groups in order to reduce negative feelings of uncertainty about themselves and others
•Our culture gives us norms (how we should behave),
roles (expectations for certain positions), and scripts
(what to say in certain situations), which tells us
what to do in different situations
-E.g., We know what to do in a restaurant because of our norms (eat at the table, not on the floor...), roles (I'm the customer who sits down and eats the food...), and scripts (I order the food, drinks usually first...)
Groups boost our self esteem
By associating with successful groups, we gain some of their success
-This is called basking in reflected glory, or BIRGing
-One of the most obvious examples is with sports teams, when people jump on bandwagons
BIRGing Evidence
•Cialdiniet al., 1976
-University students were more likely to wear the
university's colours after they won a game than if
they lost
•Use "we" when talking about their winning team,
but not when they lose
-"We won!", but "They lost"
Groups manage mortality concerns
•This thinking comes straight out of TMT
•The basic idea is that we all know we will die (which is
•But being a part of a group gives us a sense that we
are a part of something bigger than ourselves that will
last after we have died
-If you are Catholic, your religion will still exist when you are gone
-If you are a student, your school will last when you are gone
-Groups give us a sense of immortality (symbolic
immortality), which makes us feel a bit better about our own death
Minimal Groups
•It is easy for people to feel like a part of a group
•Minimal Groups Paradigm
-Assigned individuals to a group
-Members never meet!
-Based on trivial criteria (e.g., colourof shirt) or completely random (flip a coin)
•Associate with group members!
-Like members more
-Give them more money
-Identify with the group
groups: Fairness & Trust and ultimatum game
•Fairness and trust influence how we interact with
-We all generally want to be treated fairly
-We tend to cooperate more with those we trust
•Culture influences fairness norms, which we can see in the ultimatum game
•Ultimatum game
-Two players
-One player decides how much money to split with the
other player
-The second player either accepts it (and everyone gets
the allocated money) or rejects it (and no one gets
-People often reject money (and get nothing) if they
feel like the offer is unfair
Ultimatum Game and Culture
•Machiguenga of Peru: mean offer 26% of money
•Sangu of Tanzania: mean offer 41% of money
•Orma of Kenya: mean offer 44% of money
•Lamelara of Indonesia: mean offer 58% of money
-Maybe because they depend on large scale cooperation to hunt whales and they share the surplus
•In Western industrialized cultures it's usually around
•There is also tremendous variation in offers that are
rejected (and some rarely reject while others reject
•Sometimes hyper-fair offers get rejected (above 50%)
-Some cultures get anxiety from unsolicited gifts, which might lead to rejecting these offers, or they might not want to reciprocate the offer
Ultimatum Game and large versus small societies
•In larger societies, larger offers are often made
•In smaller societies, much smaller offers are sometimes made
•In larger societies, you need cooperation and fairness
for society to work (economy depends on it)
-You buy a sandwich in the store and trust you will get a full sandwich (and it won't be poisoned); you buy gas trusting it will be the accurate amount
•So different fairness norms developed in larger
-Though we all seem to care about fairness (to different extents)
•Even chimpanzees care about fairness
-They get upset (and spit) at other chimpanzees when they are treated unfairly
Ultimatum Game and Chimpanzees
•Two chimpanzees play a game
•Chimpanzee 1 selects one of two tokens and gives it to chimpanzee 2 to redeem (1 token gets equal rewards for both chimpanzees, the other gets more rewards for
chimpanzee 1)
•Chimpanzee 2 hands the token in to get the rewards handed out
-Chimpanzee 1 tends to act in a fair manner
-Chimpanzee 2 will sometimes spit water or hit the barrier if it is not fair
Trust and groups: Where there is a history of slave trade in Africa
•Where there is a history of slave trade in Africa, there is poor modern economic development
•Economy is poor because of a lack of trust with others
Group Decisions and group think
•Groups can be more interested in getting along than with critically evaluating ideas
-Groupthink: when getting along is more important
•Irving Janis
-Political gaffs: JFK's Bay of Pigs attack, Nixon covering up Watergate...
•Factors that influence the likelihood of groupthink
-Isolated from outside opinion so members are protected from hearing alternative viewpoints
-No decision-making procedures that consider alternative viewpoints
-Cohesive group with members that value the group
-Directive leader who controls the discussion
•Groupthink can lead to poor decisions
Tragic Consequences of Groupthink?
•Challenger, 1986
-Defective O-ring seals on rocket, it blew up upon launching
-NASA officials disregarded engineers' concerns
•Columbia, 2003
-Damaged wing
-NASA chair-woman of mission team overruled
request by engineers for satellite photos of wing
Group Polarization and why this happens
The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members
-this often happens by exposure to new persuasive arguments (persuasive arguments theory) & Informational influence
-or through trying to be a good group member (normative social influence)
-Social Comparison & Normative influence
Risky Shift
•When group polarization happens in the more risky direction, it is called risky shift
-Initial research, by James Stoner (a Master's student), focused on this risky shift, which is why it has its own name
Why Does Group Polarization Happen?
1.Persuasive Arguments
-Hear more arguments supporting majority
-Informational influence
2.Social Comparison
-Feel better when abiding group norms
-Normative influence
Group Decisions Can Be Accurate
•Groups tend to make better decisions than individuals
-Motivated to search for the best answer for the group
-Rely on the experts in the group
•Transactive memory: shared knowledge between members of a group
-Encoding: Learn who is best at remembering what
-Storage: Different members store different knowledge based on their expertise
-Retrieval: Members ask each other for their stored knowledge
•Can increase performance
-Division of responsibility
-Faster at accessing knowledge
-Better coordination
•Some couples do this automatically
The Presence of Others
•Presence of other people has an influence on
individuals, but it depends on......whether effort
is evaluated
Effort Isn't Evaluated: Social Loafing
•Worse individual performance when in a group than alone
Social Loafing, Why do it and what decreases it?
•Why social loaf?
-Free riders: Let the others do the work
-Sucker effect: Don't want to work if others take credit
•What decreases loafing?
-Complex tasks decreases loafing (more intrinsically
-Care about the group (e.g., friends, soldiers stationed
-Women (relational interdependence)
-Interdependent cultures
Chinese vs. American Children Social Loafing study
•9thgraders listened to tones in left, right, or both ears
•Count specific tones
•Alone or with classmate
•Americans loafed: performed 11.7% worse with classmate than alone
•Chinese strived: performed 8.7% better with classmate than alone
•Interdependent cultures work harder with others!
Social Striving
Social Loafing & Culture
•In individualistic societies there is less interest in
working for the benefit of the in-group than collectivist
•Collectivist societies should show less social loafing
•Study: Managers from America, China, or Israel
performed a managerial task
•Assigned to work with an in-group or out-group partner or by themselves
•Measured their performance
Social Loafing and Social Striving Manager Study
•Study: Managers from America, China, or Israel performed a managerial task
•Assigned to work with an in-group or out-group partner or by themselves
•Measured their performance
•Americans showed social loafing
•Chinese and Israeli participants showed social striving—they worked harder with in-group but loafed with an out-group
•Chinese and Israeli loafed with out-group
Evaluations and Groups
-We've already seen that when effort isn't evaluated, we see social loafing or social striving
-What happens when effort is evaluated?
Effort Is Evaluated: Social Facilitation
Better individual performance when in a group than when alone
Robert Zajonc
•Influential Polish-born social psychologist
•He thought a very basic mechanism could explain social facilitation-- arousal and dominant responses
-So basic that we can find it in other species (like cockroaches)
Arousal and Dominant Responses- Zajonc
•Presence of others increases physiological arousal
-Facilitates dominant responses
•Helps when task well-learned or easy
-Dominant response is the correct response
•Hurts when task is difficult
-Dominant response likely incorrect
•Cockroaches and centipedes show it
•Lots of evidence, and no cultural differences
Social Facilitation and Interpretation
•Interpretation also plays a role
•If people interpret a threat, performance tends to be
-"I can't do it" = threat (e.g., not enough resources)
-Veins and arteries tend to constrict, decreasing flow of
oxygenated blood in the body
-This results in poor performance
•If people interpret a challenge, they tend to perform
-"I can do it" = challenge
-Veins and arteries tend to expand, flowing oxygenated blood through the body
-This results in better performance
Social Facilitation Summary
•The presence of others increases our physiological arousal
•If we perceive a challenge (typically occurs with easy or well-learned tasks), our arousal tends to help performance and our dominant response is correct
•If we perceive a threat (typically occurs on unlearned or difficult tasks), our arousal tends to hurt performance and our dominant response is wrong
-social evaluation also has an impact whereby being evluating may increase negative or interfering thoughts
Cyclists & Fishing Reels social facilitation
•Norman Triplett, 1898
•Widely regarded as first social psych study and first social facilitation study
•Recorded cycling times when alone and in groups (in the field)
-Faster when with others
•Recorded kids winding up fishing line alone or with others (in the lab)
-Faster when with others
Social Facilitation and Ants
•Ants build nests when placed in sand
-With another ant
•Weighed the sand excavate
-much more sand excavated when in pairs than when alone
Vancouver Hockey Riots
•1,204 recommended criminal charges against 352
•Many never had a criminal record before
•Why does this happen?
•There are many factors that likely contributed
to Canucks riots
•Alcohol, anarchists (some planned on rioting),
frustration at the loss (frustration often leads
to aggression—frustration-aggression hypothesis)...
•Another main factor is deindividuation (A tendency to lose one's sense of individuality when in a group or crowd)
•A tendency to lose one's sense of individuality when in a group or crowd
-People feel more anonymous (even if they aren't)
•People are more likely influenced by cues in the
-They tend not to act in accord with their values, morals, or attitudes
•We are more likely to follow what others are doing when in a state of deindividuation
•All it takes is someone to start rioting, then others can join in
•The more that join in, the more it can escalate as the salient behaviour becomes rioting
•Deindividuation isn't all bad
-Positive side: if someone is doing something positive in a group (e.g., donate to charity), people are more likely to do that
Alan Fiske (1991, 1992): all groups are based on one or
more of 4 basic elements (structures of interaction)
•Communal Sharing
-Everyone treated the same (rights, privileges)
-Give and take without record keeping
•Authority Ranking
-Hierarchical structure
-Higher rank get privileges; lower ranks often get care
•Equality Matching
-Reciprocity and balance
-Keep track of exchanges and pay back (e.g., exchange
dinner invitations)
•Market Pricing
-Proportionality and ratios
-Money or similar exchange that usually occurs at once
(e.g., $5 for shoveling snow)
Leaders in groups
•Groups tend to have leaders
-People who are more influential in a group
•How are some people more influential?
•Prestige is high status from having valuable skills or knowledge
•"Valuable" is just something that people value
-It doesn't necessarily mean practical or have survival value
•Being famous might be valued, so being a celebrity might have prestige
-Though being a celebrity might have little practical value (e.g., what has Paris Hilton or Kim Kardashian given society besides celebrity?)
Prestigious Models
•Warren Buffet -a successful investor
•Well respected, and generally liked
•People seek out his investment advice
•In 2012, ranked one the world's most influential people
another ex) Ellen's oscar selfie
•Dominance is high status from force, intimidation,
or aggression
•You don't have to be physically violent
-It often includes (what many think is) psychological abuse
-E.g., intimation, verbal threats, insults
•Physical dominance is well-known in the animal kingdom
Dominant Models
•Henry Ford II
•Ran Ford Motor Company as president then CEO from 1945 to 1979
•Known for his aggressive leadership style
-He had a temper, his employees described him as a terrorizing dictator
-His grandfather, Henry Ford, was also known for this
•Fired president Lee Iacocca (developed Ford Mustang) in 1978 for personal reasons
-They had $2 billion in profit the year he was fired
•To settle arguments, he would say "My name is on the building"
Influential People: Putin & Ukraine
•Putin sent Russian troops into Ukraine to protect Russian speakers
•Comparisons to what Hitler did in the 30s with Poland,
Czechoslovakia, and other countries
•Putin's been accused of trying to "re-Sovietise" the periphery of Russia"
•Is Putin using a dominant leadership style to influence others?
Two Routes To The Top
Prestige: possession of valuable skills or knowledge--> freely deferred influence--> high-status power e.g. Reno 911 clip (Famous Hawk)
Dominance: use of aggression, fear and intimidation-->forced influence--> high-status power
(e.g. boss in horrible bosses)
Cheng, Tracy, Foulsham, Kingstone & Henrich
(2013) Study on leaders
-Leaders naturally emerged that could be categorized
as Dominant or Prestigious
-Dominant and Prestigious leaders were more
influential and received more eye-gaze from outside
Leaders characteristics
•Organization, coordination, inspiration, etc.
•All known human societies have leaders
-Other species too: ants, bees, wolves, primates
•Leaders get rewards
-Praise, status, resources, mates
Who Leads?
•Not everyone wants to be a leader
•Costs to being a leader
-Criticism, responsibility, time, safety
Obama gets ~30 death threats a day according to Secret Services
Who Wants to Lead? Personality Factors
•The Need For Power
-Desire to attain prestige, status, and influence over others
-U.S. president John F. Kennedy
-More likely to lead into military conflict
•Achievement Motivation
-Desire to do something exceptionally well for its
own sake
-U.S. president Jimmy Carter
-More likely to try out innovative approaches
Who Wants to Lead? Situational Factors
•Voids at the top
-Current leader dies or departs group
-Group becomes larger
-Times of crisis increases demand for leaders
-Admiral William Halsey: "there are no great men,
only great challenges that ordinary men are forced
by circumstances to meet"
-Know the right people
-Son of Enron CEO Kenneth Lay
Who is Effective At Leading?
•Weak evidence that personality is associated with
effective leadership
-Leaders are slightly more intelligent, extroverted, etc.
-Personality is a poor predictor of leadership
•Dominance and in the military is good (Bradley et al., 2002)
•Great leaders tend to have integrative complexity: recognize and integrate different perspectives
Many Ways To Characterize Leaders
•Charismatic leaders
-Inspire other people
•Task-oriented leaders
-Focus on achieving goals
•Relationship-oriented leaders
-Focus on fairness, harmony, and having the group get
•And on and on...
•Which style is better depends on the situation and people involved
-No style seems to be best in every situation
Who is Effective At Leading? study with autocratic and democratic leader
•Kids worked on their hobbies in groups
•Led by adult that was either
-Autocratic leader: dictate what do and how do it
-Democratic leader: encourage to make own decision
•Leader present for awhile, then left
-when leader present: autocratic leader cause kids to work on hobbies more, democratic caused them to work on hobbies less
-when leader absent: democratic leader caused kids to work on hobbies more, autocratic leader caused kids to work on hobbies less
•Having control over another person
-You get to decide who gets what
•Power has the potential to change people who possess it
•Power removes inhibitions against acting
-Powerful people are more likely to act without fully considering the consequences
-They avoid (also called inhibit) less, and approach more
-people in higher power also tend to have less empathy
Approach study and power
•Participants were assigned to be a "manger" or a
•Participants played blackjack
•Those assigned to be a manager were more likely to
take a card ("hit")
-High power participants: 92% took a card
-Low power participants: 58% took a card
Power on Followers
•Power also has the potential to change followers
•Subordinates spend more time thinking and trying to understand powerful people
-Which makes sense since powerful people can influence subordinates
•People automatically adopt submissive postures when interacting with dominant people
Non-verbal power experiment
•Participants interacted with a confederate that displayed nonverbal power (e.g., expanded chest),
neutral posture, or submissive posture
(e.g., constricted posture)
•Participants' posture was analyzed
•Participants complemented confederate's posture
-e.g. when confederate dominant, they were submissive with a constricted posture. When confederate submissive, they expanded their posture
Cultural Differences in Power: Power distance
•Leaders with power emerge in all known human societies
•Even highly egalitarian societies have leaders
•But how power is viewed varies
•Power distance: variation in accepting an unequal distribution of power
-High = People accept the hierarchy and unequal
power: "unequal power requires no justification"
(e.g., Mexico, China, Arab countries)
-Low = People try to distribute power more equally: "unequal power requires justification" (e.g., Germany, USA, Netherlands)
Power Summary
•Power influences those who have it and those who don't
•Everywhere in the world we find leaders (even egalitarian societies)
-How power distribution is accepted varies culture
to culture
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: Social Learning Theory
The capacity to learn from observing others
-learn from others by watching them model behaviour (E.g. octopus opens jar better after watching another one do it first)
-this also happens in humans-- mirror neurons activated when you do an action or when you observe someone else do an action
-EX) bobo doll study- but social learning was contingent upon whether the model was reward with 7up and candy or spanked. Also contigent upon the person being likeable, and the motivational state of the children (mildly frustrated school children)
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: Social priming and focus theory of normative conduct study
focus theory of normative conduct: emphasizes the important role that salience plays in enhancing the influence of norms
-injunctive norms: beliefs about which behaviours are generally approved of or dissaproved of in ones culture
-descriptive norms: beleifs about what most people typically do
-study: sign reads "your heritage is being vandalized every day by theft loses of petrified wood 14 tons a year, mostly a small piece at a time"
-this suggests an injunctive norm but also implies many people are doing this act-- descriptive norm
-researchers placed sign "please do not take the wood" (injuncitve norm which led to less wood being taking)
-and placed "many past visitors have taken petrified wood from the park, changing the state of the forest"-- descriptive norm and wood-stealing increased!
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: social contagion
ideas, feelings and behaviour spread like wildfire accross people
e.g. yawns and laughter
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: social learning summarized
-we learn to do something new from watching others model the behaviour
-we unconsciously tend to mimic the nonverbal mannerisms of others
-we also shift our attitude toward those of people we like
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: reference group
when an individual identifies strongly with the majority it is called the reference group
-source of informational and normative influence
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: neural processes of conformity
people are more sensitive to peer opinions than to other kinds of information (occipital parietal regions activated)
-going against the group activates brain regions associated with detecting errors
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: how minority can sway the majority
-project self confidence and be consistent in advocacy
-flexible and open-minded behavioural style
-getting members of the majority to cross over and adopt minority view
-identifying with the people you are trying to persuade "our ingroup"
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: lowballing
after agreeing to an offer, people find it hard to break that commitment even if they later learn of some extra cost in the deal
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: door in the face technique
phenomenon whereby people are more likely to comply with a moderate request after they have first been presented with and refused to agree to a much larger request
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: social proof
tendency to conform to what we believe respected others think and do
CHAPTER 7 TEXTBOOK: variables that influence obedience
-psychological distnace from the authority (demands given out from a far away location)
-psychological distance from the victim (same room as victim)
-witnessing defiance
-not personally causing the harm
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: elaboration likelihood model
a theory of persuasion that proposes that persuasive messages can influence attitudes by two different routes, central or peripheral
-central: both the ability and the motivation to think carefully about the message's argument. Attitude change depends on the strength of the argument.
-peripheral: person is not willing or able to put effort into thinking carefully about the message's argument. Attitude change depends on the presence of peripheral cues (irrelevant cues)
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: What (message) and confident thoughts about the message
-people will be more confident if they think their thoughts are correct and the thoughts will then more powerfully guide their attitudes
-this usually happens through metacognition
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: What (message) and statistical trends and vivid examples
vivid examples/ testimonials can have a large impact on our behaviour instead of accessing large and informative statistical databases on a topic
e.g. friend tells you Chicago is very dangerous and you shouldnt live there because she was robbed
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: What (message) and discrepancy
key is the credibility of the source when trying to change someones attitude.
-an extreme position with a credible person is more likely to result in attitude change
-but if the communictors credibility is in question its is easier for the audience to ignore the message
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: What (message) primacy and recency effects
also have a large impact on changing someones attitude- they are both more effective than being in the middle because of their accessibility
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: What (message): effective emotional response
repetition and familiarity
-learned associations with positive stimuli
-the need to maintain consistent ideas about related people or things
-positive mood
-use of fear to avoid negative consequences if paired with strategies to reduce the neg consequences
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: What (message): health application
-thoughts of death can motivate people to maintain healthy behaviour
-unconscious thoughts of death create the need to boost self-esteem and may result in unhealthy behaviours
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: audience - persuasion and initial attitudes
-one sided arguments obscure counter arguments, appealing to audiences leaning toward agreements
-two sided arguments avoid the perception of bias, appealing to audiences leaning toward disagreement
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: audience: regulatory style
-for audiences high in promotion focus, influential messages highlight positive outcomes e.g. trying to look like ryan renolds
-for audiences high in prevention focus, they are persuaded by messages highlighting negative outcomes e.g. avoid being fat
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: why attitudes often dont predict behaviour
-sometimes people dont know what their attitudes are, dont reflect gut level feelings
-other attitudes pull them in other directions
CHAPTER 8 TEXTBOOK: factors effecting the attitude behaviour link
-attitudes that are directly relevant are better predictors of behaviour e.g. birth control pill study
-self-presentation may mask the influence of attitudes on behaviour
-implicit attitudes are better predictors of subtle or spontaneous behaviour
-stronger and more accessible attitudes will most likely guide behaviour
CHAPTER 9 TEXTBOOK: When and why do people cooperate?
social norms, personality traits, and culture all play a role
-oxytocin signals trust--> caregiving, social attachment, love
-we respond negatively to unfairness
CHAPTER 9 TEXTBOOK: social dominance theory
the theory that large societies create heirarchies and that people have a general tendency to endorse beliefs that legitimize the hierarchy
CHAPTER 9 TEXTBOOK: Legitimizing hierarchy
for hierarchies to stay in power individuals across society must believe in the legitimacy of their leaders, the instituions and the social system in general
e.g. police officers have high social dominance orientation (how much they value the social hierarchy)
CHAPTER 9 TEXTBOOK: why do people leave groups?
-They no longer provide survival- e.g. gangs may initially provide money for the person to survive but then as the gangs comes into danger either internally or externally it no longer promotes survival
-they no longer reduce uncertainty- if the group violates someones worldview and a core value then it will no longer reduce uncertainty
-doesnt bolster self esteem if the person feels incapable of living up to the groups expectations, might seek different group where they can have more attainable self worth OR rival group may be more successful
-when group identification no longer serves one of the functions to validate a persons worldview, the person may jump ship when reminded of their death. No longer manages their mortality concerns.
what happens when you look in mirror? animals
gorillas: dominance display
-chimps: bluff display (dominance)
-at first not good at recognition, after a while chimpanzees recognize themselves
The self: what is it?
1) mental representation of ones identity-- self concept, william james called this "me", schemata of ourselves (fairly stable)
2) ongoing sense of self awareness: sometimes called ego, william james called this "i", consciousness about ourselves that links past, present and future
symbolic self
abstract cognitive representation of itself through language
-kind of cognitive schema about oursleves
-unique to humans
subjective self
ability to crudely distinguish between the self (an organism) and the environment (no cognitive component)
-least complex
-even plant will react to environment (grow toward light)
-all living species, no brain necessary
objective self/ bodily self
cognitive capacity to become the object of attention
-mirror self recognition
-more complex than subjective self but less complex than symbolic self
-less common
mirror recognition and rouge test
-Rouge test: put mark on animal/infant without them knowing and see where they reach
-if they reach to right spot= objective self
which animals have mirror recognition?
-all great apes: humans, bonobos, chimps, orangutans, gorillas
-bottlenose dolphins (gain capability around same time as kids)
-European magpies
-they start to look at areas they've never seen before on body
why have a self?
-subjective self: coordinate parts (eg body) with environmental stimuli
-objective self: anticipate what others might do e.g. chimps hide their favorite food from others
-symbolic self: helps us plan far into future, e.g. going to universality
Twenty statement test
gets at content of the self
-"I am _____"
-categorize the responses in a number of ways
Categorizing TST: multiples selves
William James, 1890
-Personal: traits, values, and abilities e.g. sensitive
-relational: people we have direct contact with e.g. Amy's close friend
-social: social roles and reputation e.g. popular athlete
-collective: social categories we belong to e.g. Im Irish
Inclusion of the other in self scale
-which picture best represents your own level of identification with _____?
-e.g. mom, friend, collegue
-(show overlapping or just touching circles)
-independent: some circles touching but not overlapping-- distinction (characteristics unique)
-interdependent: overlap with others, characteristics linked with others, who you are is dependent on others
TST: American and Kenyan Undergrads
western cultural groups- american undergrads and kenyan undergrads (western ideas)
-non-western cultural groups--> kenyan locals
-american and kenyan undergrads- personal characteristics identified in TST
-kenyan locals- roles and memberships identified on TST
-culture influences the way we think about ourselves
TST used all over the world
pattern similar to American occurs in West (Australia, Canada, Britain, Sweden)
-pattern similar to non-undergrad Kenyans in rest of the world: Cook Islands, Chinese etc
-can emerge as quick as Kindergarten
Brain Imaging and Self
Chinese and Western participants
-asked how well traits characterize themselves or their mother
-used fMRI
-Western: different parts of brain activated for self and mom (DIFFERENT)-- see as seperate
-chinese: same brain regions activated bc they see overlap
Culture and self
people are both individuals and social
-survival depends on both
-culture emphasizes different aspects
-these are group averages
within culture variation in self Kibbutz and urban area in Israel
-participants in Isreal
-urban area (more independent)
-Kibbutz - collective community (more interdependent)
-gave TST
-urban has higher independent (rank order stability)
-same pattern in urban and kibbutz but urban has higher independence in relation to the kibbutz
Culture and context american and Japanese undergrads and TST
American and Japanese undergrads
-gave them the TST
-Americans referred more to their personal attributions than Japanese
-gave context and asked to describe themselves
-with context, Japanese gave more personal attributes than Americans (41% vs 26%)
-Jap express individuality when given context
Culture and context american and Japanese undergrads and TST study 2
-manipulated context- prof office, with fellow student, in large group, or alone
-context didnt matter much for Americans
-Jap undergrads were affected- alone: more self critical than Americcans but less neg when completed in other contexts
-Fone with prof: most self critical
-Japs change with context
Gender and Self in culture
tend to adopt self concepts that are consistent with how our culture views our gender
-learn what is appropriate/ inapproriate e.g. boys want to play with boy toys
Toys and culture study
-children shown toys with no labels or with gender labels (eg this is a boy toy)
-varied on attractiveness of toys
-children asked how much they liked toys
-kids liked toys more if labeled as being for the same gender (less if for other gender)
Women and men interdependent/ independent stereotype and social role theory
-women: more interdependent
-men: independent
-Men and women from USA, Australia, Japan and Korea filled out survey
-across cultures women cared more about relatedness-- empathy and helping behavior
-no gender difference on collectivism
-women typically show more signs of being more independent - at least in relatedness
-cant make geographical claims about men/ women dichotomy and difference between them
-social role theory: gender differences in self concepts arise because of a long history of role distribution between the sexes
Cultural difference in gender roles and egalitarian attitudes
-14 countries participated
-attitudes toward how men and women should act
-egalitarian: women and mens work should be valued as equal
-traditional: women should have sex with men whenever the man wants it
-attitudes of egalitarian/ traditional are very agreed upon in cultures between men and women
-gender effect: women more egalitarian than men in almost all cases
-males have more traditional views
-nigeria: most traditional society, Netherlands very egalitarian
religion influences on gender equality
-protestanism: more support for equality
-Muslim: less gender equality
Origin of gender roles: social role theory
we learn the gender roles bc of historical division of labor
-men tend to be strong, take on more physically demanding roles
-women more in child rearing and stay in home- communal roles
-these differences lead to traditional gender roles
-roles and norms for men and women are different and this might be bc of historical differences
-but what about cultural differences?
Cultures differences in gender roles and ploughing
agricultural cultivation: 2 ways
-shifting cultivation: earth dug up with tool like garden hoes
-plough cultivation: using animal, requires strength and quick bursts of energy, cannot be easily stopped or restarted
-difficult to do while caring for children- typically done by mothers
plough influences
where it is used women don't participate as much in the labor force
-women focus on domestic affairs
-as we moved out of agrarian society into industrial, gender norms perservered
-predicts current gender norms
-places that adopted plough centuries before have less egalitarian gender norms
-female immigrants from these locations to US less visible in workforce
-self presetation defined: process through which we try to control the impressions people form of us (sometimes called impression management)
Self-presentation and Dutch girl faking trip to south east asia
-she never left amsterdam
-5 weeks long
-posted on FB her pictures of her fake trip- great avenue for impression management
professional impression management
public relations (PR)
-how to handle info and how its presented to public e.g. celebrities, politicians, and companies
-often involves putting a "spin" on the information
-certain level of deceit to appear a certain way
"thank you for smoking"
putting a spin on smoking to appease the audience using persuasion
John F Kennedy and impression management
35th president of US
-presented himself as healthy, vigorous, and ready to face challenge
-he actually suffered from degenerative bone disease, chronic back pain, and under heavy medication during presidency
wedding and funerals impression management
avoiding embarrassment is important in interdependent cultures, like Japan
-japanese rent guests at their weddings and funerals to mourn
Funeral mourners for hire
middle east: much more common than in the West
-"wailers": vocal, crying women
-UK: A niche market, foreigners to UK, quiet mourners
-this goes back some time-- Marco Polo described it
what we eat with others and impression management STUDY
does who you're with affect what you eat?
e.g. male or female companions?
-research suggests more so for women
-naturalistic observation-- watched from a distance
-university students at three different cafeterias at McMasters
-469 individuals in 266 groups
-recorded all the food in front of them
-males overall ate more than females
-women ate fewer calories with males than with females
-men not affected by gender of companion
Other examples of impression management?
friendly waiter/ waitress- trying to get a good tip
impressions people actually have: illusion of transparency
-put in effort to control how we are viewed by others
-we aren't always accurate on how other people actually percieve us
-think of song like "happy birthday" people think 50% of people will guess the beat right with no words but really it is only about 3%
-one reason we are so bad at knowing what other people think is because of illusion of transparency-- tendency to overestimate anothers ability to know our internal thoughts and feelings
-other people dont have the same information, something we think is obvious is actually not
impressions people actually have another example of illusion of transparency
before public speeking people think their anxiety is obvious to the audience. But most people typically dont see this unless it is extremely obvious
Self monitoring
tendency to be chronically concerned with ones public image and to adjust accordingly: way of monitoring self presentation
-high self-monitors easily blend to new situations. They are sensitive to social cues (better at reading non-verbal behaviour)
-social chamelions change for people and situations
-low self-monitors change little from situation to situation, less sensitive to social cues
Self monitoring scale
"i find it hard to imitate behavior of other people" T or F, if flase add 1 pt
-"i can only argue for ideas i already have, T or F, false add 1 point
-the higher your score the higher your self monitoring
Self handicapping
strategy where people create excuses for themselves so that if they do pporly they can avoid blaming themselves
-1) adding obstacles: use alcohol or drugs, reduce effort, failure to prepare e.g. " i did bad but its cause i was hung over"
-2) ready-made excuses: test anxiety, not feeling well, adverse events from past
self handicapping band example
band had a successful first album
-pressure for their second follow up album
-they may be a medicore one hit wonder band
-but if they fail with an excuse like an alcohol problem then they can blame it on alc problem
-and if they still do well it looks great because they can still produce regardless of being an addict
-can protect reputation by self-handicapping (type of self representation)
Real life example of self handicapping: Des cahpelles
was a chess master in 1800s
-while he was active he was considered the best or one of the best in the world
-he started to self handicap
-gave other people "odds" e.g. opponent got to go first
-when he won, people marveled at the fact he could overcome the odds
-if he lost people thought it was because of odds and not his skill
Self handicap study and MC IQ test
-some participants completed a MC IQ test that had impossible to answer questions
-told they got 16/20
-know it wasnt earned- they were guessing on the answers to get this high score
-other participants did easier IQ test
-real score was 16/20- they earned this
-both groups told they did great
-next, participants told another IQ test would be given
-1st they were asked to choose between 2 drugs to take before next test
-1 increases performance (Aetavil) and Panocrin (decreases performance)
-the people who took the hard IQ test and guessed took the Panocrin so that if they performed badly they could blame it on the placebo and self handi-cap
Self perception theory
when uncertain, we infer our attitudes and feelings from our behaviour and situation
-Daryl Bem
Environmental Beliefs
Session 1) assessed attitudes about protecting environment
Session 2) on another day select items from list of pro and anti environment activities that they had performed
-those with uncertain attitudes were influences by past behavior-- they were reminded of past behavior that helped them form attitudes
Overjustification effect
when you view your behaviour as resulting from extrinsic reasons e.g. rewards or pressure and underestimating the intrinsic reasons e.g. enjoying it
-when rewarded for doing something you come to view the behavior as caused by the reward
--came out of self perception theory
Overjustification effect and kids: drawing study
kids who had intrinsic interest in drawing either: were told they would recieve a reward for drawing
-others told nothing about being rewarded
-others told nothing about being rewarded but got unexpected reward
-later on, those who expected the reward were drawing much less when the reward was removed-- behavior is influencing attitudes
Overjustification effect other examples: Pro athletes
turned into their jobs, doing it for the money and no longer the pleasure
Social comparison theory
-people often don't have an objective way of figuring out where they stand on an attribute
-therefore, we know oursleves by comparing ourselves to others
-comparisson of the self with others who are worse off is downward social comparisson
-comparison of themselves with people who are better off is upward social comparison
-Although, we generally compare ourselves with those who are similar to us to get more accurate indications of the traits we possess
-Leon Festinger--> cogntive dissonacne
Job interview and social comparison theory
participants came into job interview for 1/2 positions in personality research
-secretary gave survey as part of job interview that measured self esteem
-another job applicant came into room (confederate): either mr.Clean and professional or Mr. Dirty
-secretary asked whether confederate was there for the personality research position or computer programmer
-secretary gave more forms to the participants (measured self esteem again)
-two participants actually hired to enter data
-self esteem change: went down with MR Clean, went up with MR Dirty
-no difference if they were competing for same job or not
Looking glass self
know oursleves based on what we think others (significant to us e.g. family, friends) think of us
-Charles Cooley
-appraisals are what other people think about us, and we often incorporate this into our self concept
Looking Glass self and angry prof
participants were graduate students and research fellows who knew or worked with Robert Zajonc
-participants evaluated their research ideas
-participants primed outside of their awareness
-scowling face of Zajonc or friendly face of fellow researcher
-now how do they evaluate their research ideas? friendly collegue: their evaluation of their research ideas go up, Zajonc scowelling, evaluation of research ideas go down
-view changed based on others thoughts even though it was outside of their awareness
-similar results with catholics and pope john paul II
Self awareness theory
our attitudes, values, goals, beliefs and other aspects of youself with most likely influence behavior when the is is object of your attention
-pay attention to ourselves, act more in line with what we believe
-one way: to look at self in the mirror (like the mirror study with punishment)
Mirror study and Self awareness theory
-participants earlier asked about their views of punishment- categorized as high or low
-sat in front of a mirror during experiment or not
-assigned to be teachers and administered shocks to the learners when they got the answer wrong, the participants picked the shock level they thought the learner needed to facilitate learning
-high punitive with mirror: higher level of shock used
low punitive with mirror: lower level of shock used
-mirror increases behavior that is in line with attitudes
self focus
focusing on yourself isnt always pleasant
-if we fail, we tend not to like focusing on ourselves--> this brings focus on the failures, feels negative and unpleasant
-instead we distract ourselves-- go watch TV, binge eat, drink alcohol
-these activities reduce self focus and the unpleasantness of focusing on own failures
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: Social identity theory
people define themselves largely in terms of the social groups with which they identify
e.g. family, race, nationality
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: social comparison theory and better than average effect
people's tendency to rank themselves higher than most people on positive attributes
e.g. 94% of professors thought they did above average work and people in prison think they are kinder and more moral than the average person
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: facial feedback hypothesis
the idea that changes in facial expression elicit emotions associated with those expressions
e.g. holding pencil between your teeth to induce a smile may make you feel more positive to something like rating a cartoon as funnier and making sucking gesture on pencil (simulating frown) find them less funny
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: Two factor theory of emotion
people's level of arousal determines the intensity of the emotion but the specific type of emotion they experience is determined by the meaning that is assigned to that arousal based on contextual environmental cues
emotion= arousal x cognitive label
-same arousal can be attributed to one or another emotion depending on the self perception process of interpreting cues in the environment
-can be exemplified by classic experiment by schacter and singer. The group who was told the epinephrine shot would have no effect experienced happiness/ angirness depending on the confederate they were with
-when participants told they would experience heightened arousal because of the shot, they were less likely to experience these emotions because they already had a cognitive label
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: self regulation and three fundamental capacities of the human mind
Self aware- able to assess our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours in relation to the world around us
-think about overarching goals like Winning gold at Olympics
-mental time travel : pop in and out of here and now
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: self discrepancy theory
suggests people feel anxiety when they fall short of how they ought to be, but feel sad when they fall short of how they ideally want to be
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: construal level theory
people focus on more concrete details when thinking about the near future but more abstract meaning when thinking about the distant future
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: thought supressions through one process monitor and one procss operator
we are continually trying to suppress thoughts
monitor: is on the lookout for signs of unwanted thoughts- thoughts must be accessible (close to consciousness)
operator: actively pushes signs pf unwanted thought out of consciousness
-when we stop this conscious process rebound effect occurs
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: implementation intentions
mental rules that link particular situational cues to goal directed behaviours
-"If situation X arises then i will perform action Y"
-if i past the post office i will mail this letter
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: self regulatory preservation theory of depression
the theory that one way in which people can fall into depression is by persistent self-focus on an unattainable goal
e.g. getting your loved one back after being dumped
CHAPTER 5 TEXTBOOK: strategies to improve self regulation and help you achieve your goals
-strengthen willpower by activating the hot system (driven by strong emotions) and avoid factors that block the cool system (level-headed reason) like stress and cogntive load
-minimize ironic processing (intrusion of thoughts were trying to suppress) by keeping distractions and stress to a minimum
-build ego strength gradually e.g. tyring to improve posture or monitor what you eat
-reappraise difficult situations to avoid feeling strong negative emotions
-form implementation intentions
-break abstract goals down into smaller concrete ones
-maintain balance between self-focus pursuit of goals and letting go of goals beyond our reach
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: cognitive dissonance
people reacting to micro-level inconsistencies in their thoughts and behavior. People have such distaste for percieving inconsistencies in their beliefs, attitudes, and behavior that they will bias their own attitudes and beliefs to try to deny those inconsistencies.
-when two cognitions are in opposition to eachother, people experience dissonance
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: ways to change cognitive dissonance
1) change one of the cognitions
2) Add a third cognition that makes the original two cognitions seem less inconsistent with eachother
3) Trivialize the cognitions that are inconsistent
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: example of cognitive dissonance
sally knows smoking is bad for her health, sally knows that she smokes.
she could 1) change her cognition about smoking and think "smoking really isn't that bad for me" OR she could quit smoking, changing the cognition "i smoke"
2) she could add a third cognition e.g. "I've only been smoking for a short time. I'll quit soon." or "I only smoke at parties or when im stressed."
3) Trivialize one of the inconsistent cognitions (making something seem less important than it really is) e.g. thinking to yourself: "just a couple cigarettes every now and then really doesn't impact my health all too much"
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: Factors that effect the magnitude of dissonace
-weak external justification: dissonance will be higher (when you act against your cognitions and it is not very justified e.g. $1 vs $20 to tell new participant task is interesting)
-choice: (When you dont have a choice dissonance is low)
-commitment: (when people's freely chosen behavior conflicts with their attitudes, the more committed they are to the action, the more dissonance they experience e.g. betting on horse races)
-foreseeable aversive consequences: more forseeable the aversive consequnces are, more inconsistent cognition and more dissoance e.g. writing pro-smoking essay and reading to your cousin vs throwing it away)
-cultural influences e.g. East Asians differ from Westerners
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: induced hyprocracy paradigm
make people feel dissonance- people are asked to advocate for a cause they already believe in but then remind them of a time their actions ran counter to this
e.g. students making a film to support condom use and prevent HIV but then reminded of a time they didnt use a condom. Then asked if they would like to buy one to reduce dissonance
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: self verification
seeking out other people and social situations that support the way one views oneself in order to sustain a consistent and clear self concept
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: possible selves
imagining what the self might become in the future
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: how to maintain self esteem?
-self serving attributes: external attributions for bad things one does but internal attributions for good things one does
-self handicapping
-better than average effect: overestimating the frequency of your own good deeds
-projection: view others as possessing negative characteristics you have
-symbolic self completion: when people percieve that a self-defining aspect is threatened and they feel incomplete they try to compensate by acquiring and displaying symbols that support their desired self-definition
-compensation: blow to one domain, shore up how they feel about themselves in another domain
-social comparisson e.g. birging
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: implications of self-esteem
1) cannot be easily granted to you
2) low self esteem people may struggle with psychological problems
3) people pursue self esteem in ways that fit with their cultural worldview
4) striving for self esteem can have constructive or destructive consequences for the individual
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: Dramatigural perspective
the idea that people like actors perform according to a script. If we all know the script and play our parts well, then like a successful play, our social interactions flow smoothly and seem meaningful, and each actor benefits
CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK: self determination theory
people function best when they feel that their actions stem from their own desires rather than from external forces
-intrinsic motivation is fostered by three basic needs: relatedness, autonomy, competence
POST MIDTERM 2*** Examples of historical conflict
-Iroquios vs Huron First NAtions were enemies long before Europeans in North America
-Crusades: Catholics vs muslims
-WWII: 30 countries involved
Syrian War
UN estimate: 220,000 died
4 million refugees have left syria
We are capable of cooperating in large numbers, also capable of conflict in large numbers
a negative attitude to an individual based on a perceived group membership -- disliking members of a group
(sometimes described as negative feelings)
e.g. I hate black ppl
-most heavily studied topic in social psychology
why is prejudice not appropriate to social psychologists? 1)
invovles judging someone before you know them, which results in inaccurate judgements
-disliking someone for something they did not do is less acceptable-- this isnt fair
-maybe acceptable to dislike someone for SPECIFIC behaviors e.g. he put gum in my hair
why is prejudice not appropriate to social psychologists? 2)
the reasons for prejudice will often be wrong for some of the members (tremendous variability)
-e.g. dislike group bc they are stealing jobs (some may have taken jobs that could have gone to natives BUT immigration generally increases jobs)
-more people need services and they invest in economy by paying rent and buying products
why is prejudice not appropriate to social psychologists? 3)
prejudice has led to countless acts of violence and opression
-Nazi Holocaust resulted in death of 6 million Jews and 5 million other groups (Roma, Slavs)
Related concepts to prejudice: Stereotypes
beliefs that link all members of a group together (cognitive schemata)
-"Jews are cheap, Asians are bad drivers"
-sterotypes often form basis for prejudice
e.g. "Blacks are violent"
-operate both consciously and implicitly
Related concepts to prejudice: discrimination
is a negative behavior towards someone based soley on group membership e.g. not hiring most competent job applicant bc they are from a certain group
Rob Lowe good looking people and Prejudice, sterotype and discrimination
Prejudice: dislike for goodlooking actors in specific role
Stereotype: Good looking actors cant be deep/ in pain
Discrimination: Good looking actors dont get the deep roles
Gordon Allport
Studied personality and prejudice
-his brother Floyd considered modern father of experimental social psych
-dervied basic causes of prejudice-- linked to two basic human tendencies: people likely to feel hostility when they are frustrated/ threatended, or when they witness things they think are unpleasant or unjust. People tend to form schemas and then view new stimuli as members of these categories (CATEGORIZATION) e.g. women, teens, asians. Prejudice results from coupling of experience of hostile feelings and categorization. We typically jump from single experiences with an outgroup member to an overly broad generalization about the outgroup (we tend to prefer our INGROUP). This experience then influences our WORLDVIEW and our perception of others.
Gordon Allport: Prejudice and categorization
-automatically categorize people into groups based on common attributes e.g. Age, gender, Race
-when categorizing people, it is called social categorization
Categorization is often good
-helps us make sense of world: biologists classify species
-likely adaptive > saves time and effort, form impression quickly, use past experiences to guide new interactions
-can contribute to prejudice
Example of categorization and prejudice: Robber
Euro-canadian robbed by another Euro-Canadian
-common repsonse would be anger, disliking the person
-but Euro-Candian robbed by black guy-- same anger and fear but also likely to direct that anger to others group (blacks linked to particular group)
Negative experiences and outgroup (realistic group conflict theory)
a few negative experiences (or single one) with outgroup can be enough to form prejudice
-After Pearl Harbor, prejudice towards Japs went up
-Similar to terrorist attacks and prejudice towards muslims
-relaistic group conflict theory states that the initial negative feelings between groups are often based on a real conflict or competition regarding scarce resources (water, land, jobs) e.g. why new immigrants aren't wanted
Donald Trump and prejudice
Suggested to ban all muslims from entering US
-Policy would harm innocent people because of their percieved group membership
Ingroups and Outgroups
categorize by what group people belong to
-ingroup: members who belong to same group/category as you do "us" e.g. uni students (potential evolutionary purpose and self-serving bias "us" )
-outgroup: members not in your in your ingroup -- "them"
Ingroups and Outgroups differences
-overestimate differences between groups-- learn about majority first, what we learn about another group is often based on differences from majority (this can emphasize differences)
-differences can seem more rigid than they are in reality
-tend to prefer the ingroup more than dislike the outgroup
Chinese people and height (ingroup vs outgroup)
-Chinese people are on average shorter than Americans but there is tremendous overlap
-BUT literally millions of chinese are taller than the average american
-differences are exaggerated
-people underestimate differences within outgroup, assume they are all the same
Outgroup homogenity bias
-assumption that outgroup members are more similar to one another than ingroup members are to one another
-they are all alike
-1 study found that fraternity members at one university thought their own members had different traits, values, activities than other frats
Outgroup homogenity bias westerners view of asian
-westerners view Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, and Japanese as "Asian"
-members of these groups see their ingroup as distinct
why does Outgroup homogenity bias happen?
-more experience with ingroup
-dont notice subtle differences in outgroup
-small sample of outgroup that we are exposed to
-not usually a diverse sample
-process outgroup members differentially
-study: undergrads exposed to unfamiliar faces of same race
-categorized as in group (same school) or outgroup (dif school)
-categorized ingroup faces hollistically, why we recognize ingroup faces better
Ingroup Bias
tend to like the familiar things and things connected to ourselves
-they're predicatbale and more understandable
-tend to dislike unfamiliar things and things not connected to ourselves
-harder to predict/ understand
-tend to create more anxiety/ uneasiness
-most people like their family and hometown more than a strangers
why like the familiar?
might be adaptive to like familiar: might be safer to stay close to people and things you can predict
-being exposed to other groups can put you at risk (e.g. new diseases)
-there is interesting psychological links between outgroups and diseases
-outgroups often blamed (e.g. Jews blamed for Black Death)
-outgroup often labeled in terms that represent non-human animals that spread diseases e.g. rodents
--often accused of eating unclean foods e.g. Haggis only for a dog
-this is dehumanizing
Disease avoidance and prejudice study at UBC
-UBC participants primed with disease or not
-saw images that convey that diseases spread (Exptl) or accidents could happen (control)
-then rated if immigrants could come to Canada-- Irish or Nigerian
-Unfamiliar groups (nigerians): Dont want them to come in experimental group (no effect when accidents are salient)
-feeling vulnerable to diseases motivates negative reactions to foreigners
why do we like the ingroup
-provides us with sense of worth (social identity theory)
-feels better to think highly of own groups and worse about others
-evident with olympics= more patriotic
-takes very little to show ingroup bias-- study: judge number of dots and classified as over/underestimator and favor your own group more
cultural worldview
all raised to have cultural worldview-- way to view world
-teaches us what is right and wrong, good and bad
-learn prejudices that are "normal" for your culture-- conform to that view
-more a person confroms in general, the more they are prejudice in Southern USA in 1950s
-prejudice against Roma in Canada= minimal, widespread in Romania and other parts of Europe
judging other groups based on your own cultural values
-they do something different= bad
prejudices can change
-much stronger anti-irish prejudice in USA many years ago than today
-in 1950s majority disapproved of mixed race marriage (now majority approves), support for same sex marriage is increasing
Covert racism now more common than overt racism (Crack cocaine example). This shows institutional discrimination
institutional discrimination: unfair restrcitions on opportunities for gorups of people through institutional policies, sturctural power relations, and formal laws
-in USA 50g of crack cocaine - 5 years in prison (associated with black people), need 5x that amoung of powder cocaine for the same sentence (associated with white people)
-same phenomenon with black and white people being treated differently at mcdonalds. A Big Mac costs 15 cents more, on average, in Black neighbourhoods than White neighbourhoods in the USA
Aversive Racism
•When you simultaneously hold negative feelings towards a group and egalitarian values
-A more complex form of modern racism
•Aversive racists believe in equality, but also feel uncomfortable around minorities
-White Americans (high on aversive racism) sit further away, maintain less eye contact, and end discussions sooner when talking with an African American than with other White Americans
Who Experiences Prejudice and Discrimination?
•Although anyone can be subject to prejudice, some groups are more often targets
-Minority groups tend to experience more prejudice and discrimination than majority groups
•Those with physical features that distinguish them from the majority will likely experience more prejudice
-Skin colour
-It is easier to categorize them
Indigenous North American Stereotypes
-Many sports teams have mascots that Native Americans, First Nations, and Inuit find offensive
-Redskin is considered offensive Native American is often preferred
-Eskimo is considered offensive Inuit is preferred (Edmonton Eskimos)
Mascots and Native Americans
•Two sides have emerged in the controversy over these mascots
•For the mascots
-Some people don't mind them (some indigenous people find pride in some of the mascots)
-There is a history for the mascot, and no harm is intended
•Against the mascots
-Some find the mascots highly offensive
-The terms have been compared to the equivalent of the n-word for African Americans
Are These Harmless Mascots? study
Mascot ("Chief Wahoo") for the Cleveland Indians baseball team
•Will this seemingly friendly mascot have negative effects on Native Americans?
•Presented Native Americans with stereotypical images (e.g., Chief Wahoo)
•Completed a variety of measures (e.g., self-esteem)
•Those presented with stereotype reported:
-Lower self-esteem
-Less pride in community
-Fewer achievement goals
•Even though they appear harmless, these images can have detrimental effects on those they depict
what is it like to be a target?
prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination affects those who are targets
-targets often have the stigmatized aspects on their mind: black people more aware of skin color than white people (at least in some areas of USA)
-easier to occur for obvious trait (e.g. stuttering during speech, skin color, obesity)
Examples of being a target: Aurthur Asche and Concha Buika
-Aurthur Asche- won Wimbledon, us open, Australian open
-always count number of black and brown faces present to see how many are employed by the hosts
-Concha Buika: Spanish singer of African American parents
-she said she was the only black in movie theatre, only black in class, at the discotheque and she always felt observed and judged
Perceiving prejudice and stigma consciousness
those who highly identify with groups that are subject to prejudice tend to precieve prejudice more often
-they become vigilent to prejudice
-stigma consciousness: Expectation of being percieved by other people, particularly those in the majority group, in terms of ones group membership.
Interactions with others and vigilence to prejudice: STUDY
-minority participants e.g. Latin, Black, Asian
had conversation with white person (confederate)
-participants classified as high or low in identifying with their ethnic group
-confederate interacted with participants but avoided eye contact, gave one word responses and left conversation early (might indicate bias)
-before interaction, participants either learned:
-confederate held anti-diversity attitudes (blatant bias)
-OR confederate held equalitarian attitdues (subtle bias)
-people low in identifying with ethnic group- subtle (dont percieve much discrimination) When it is blatant discrimination, they percieve more
-people high in identifying with ethnic group - percieve discrimination in both subtle and blatant situatiiions
-why higher in subtle for high identification group? it is more aggrevating bc it is harder to confront
-similar results for prejudice
Self fulfilling prophecy
-sometimes people percieve prejudice and discrimination where there isnt any
-these perceptions of prejudice and discrimination can change the way they behave in such a way as to confrim the discrimination
Study on Self fulfilling prophecy
-female and male participants discussed their arguments for certain award candidates
-female participants were high/ low on stigma consciousness
-female participants told their male participant was either sexist, non-sexist, or given irrelevant info (control)
-males actually all had moderate attitudes toward women
-female participants evaluated male participants argument, then male participants evaluated female participants
-high stigma conscious group: female participants rated male participants arguments as low
-sexist beliefs had less impact on low stigma conscious women
-guys view can be predicted by girls
-men rated women's arguments worse depending how women percieved them
-women percieve then as sexist= worse ratings by men
self fulfilling prophecy!
prejudice affects people. Psysiological examples and psychological examples
-physiologically, prejudice can have detrimental impact on target
-inc in stress (cortisol) and chronic stress is associated with multitude of negative things
-poor cardiovascular functioning, build up of plaque in arteries

-people report increased depression, lower life satisfaction
A woman's body: sexual objectification and self objectification
-society focuses on woman's body
-sexual objectification: thinking about women as objects (just based on physical appearance)
-this can lead some women to view themselves as objects- called self objectification (Can have negative impacts for women) e.g. shame about body, appearance anxiety, self-disgust
Swimsuit/sweater study
-female participants took part in study on consumer behavior
-either tried on swimsuit/ sweater in change room (alone and looked in mirror to evaluate clothing)
-filled out questionnaires while wearing the clothing
-redresses, sampled some cookies and drink taste test and filled out more questionnaires
-wearing swimsuit increased body shame
-those who scored high on self objectification were more likely to show body shame than those who scored low on this
-some participants started to eat the cookie then stopped before completing it (didn't want to cross psychological barrier) called symbolic restraint
-no restraint= eating 1+ cookie
-high body shame showed symbolic restraint, reverse was true for low body shame participants
Swimsuit/sweater study involving men and women and math
again men/women wore sweater/ swimsuit and math performance measured using the GMAT
-replicated basic effect for women as before but not in men
-body shame more likely to restrain eating for women, less so for men
-men's math performance not affected by wearing swimsuit women's math performance showed significant decrease, when focused on appearance
Stereotype threat and study example
concern that you might do something to confirm a negative stserotype
-Claude steele and Joshua Aronson
-metaanlysis of 116 studies
-2 studies had black and white students complete challenging questions
-Questions labelled as either: being diagnostic of intelligence or no info about diagnostics
-completed difficult GRE verbal questions
-another study did the same thing but measured how activated race stereotypes were with completing word fragments e.g. __ __ C E (Race) and also looked at how activations of self doubt would show in word completion e.g. F L __ ___ ___ (flunk)
-white participants unaffected by label of test
-black particiants= worse if labelled diagnostic
-both racial stereotypes and self doubt were activated in Black participants when the test was described as diagnostic
Supplementary examples of stereotype threat
impairs memory performance in older adults
-decreases driving performance in women
-decreases men performance on emotional task
-decreases women performance on negotiation task
Stereotype threat and golf performance study
Black and white participants played a version of golf like mini golf
-task framed as sports intelligence or as natural athletic ability
-measure # of strokes they took, more = worse
-balcks did worse when called sports intelligence
-whites did worse when called natural ability
Positive stereotyoes? and convoluted stereotypes
asians= good at math, blacks= naturally athletic
-asian women (Female aspect)= bad at math, asian aspect= good at math
-randomly assigned to prime being asian or being a woman or control
-completed math test
-female identity primed did worse (stereotype threat)
-asian ideneity primed did better (stereotype boost)
Senile/ wise elderly and stereotype threat/ boost?
give series of memory tasks
-subliminally primed with senility stereotypes (e.g. alzheimers) or wise stereotypes (e.g. sage)
-memory test completed again
-those primed with neg seterotype, performance went down. Primed with pos stereotype, performance went up
stereotype lift
inc in performance from neg stereotypes about outgroup
-occurs because of downward social comparisson with outgroup, which inc self efficacy and decrease self doubt and anxiety
boost and lift compared
boost= pos stereotype about you
lift= neg stereotype about outgroup
how to combat prejudice?
work together!
-certain circumstances inc the likelihood that this will occur
-they should have equal status
-should get acquainted with various forms of contact (interact)
-superordinate golas (common goals, they have to work together to accomplish them)
-institutional support (authorities, laws, customs)
how to combat prejudice Sherif's robbers cave study
-assigned boys at summer camp to two groups: rattlers and eagles
-week 1: kept seperate from eachother and got to know their group
-week 2: met and competed in competitive tasks e.g. baseball and tug of war. This inc prejudice and people were stealing from eachother, fighting, calling names, flag burning
-week 3: worked together to accomplish common goal (find leak in water supply and free a stuck truck) Started to like eachother
-by end of week all wanted to sit together on same bus ride home
changing the ingroup
-if a christian and a muslim are together in same class, categorize eachother as such or categorize eachother inclusively e.g. as students or canadians
this decreases prejudice
-seen after tradgedy
Jigsaw classroom
-late 1960s/ early 70s schools in southern USA were desegregated
-prejudice and intergroup conflict did not always improve
Aronson: dec prejudice though jigsaw class
-each student becomes an expert on a portion of specific topic and teaches this portion to their group
-1) divide into diverse groups (race, gender)
2) divide topic into separate segments (e.g. psych into cog, behaviour, affect) and assign one student from each group to one segment and become an expert
3) experts teach others in their groups once they come back from expert groups
-affective in elementary, high school and college
-dec in stereotypes, prejudice, improved social relations, inc school performance.
What is Aggression?
•Any physical or verbal Behaviour intended to hurt another
-Behaviour; not anger
-Intentional; accidents don't count
-Hurt; not assertiveness (assert confidence)
Not Acting Can Also Be Aggressive
E.g., if someone knew you were about to get assaulted but did not tell you because he/she wanted to see you get hurt
Different Flavours of Aggression
-Direct aggression-->Face-to-face
-Indirect aggression-->Not face-to-face, victim doesn't have to be present
-Emotional aggression (or affective aggression)-->Stems from angry feelings e.g. angry person starts a fight
-Instrumental aggression-->To accomplish a goal e.g. get ball in soccer or to rob bank
insults are also agression
verbal aggression- intended to psychologically hurt
Different Flavours of Aggression chart
Direct and emotional: angry driver fights someone who cut them off
Direct and instramental: Bank robber shoots guard
Emotional and indirect: angry employee deflates boss' tires
Instrumental and indirect: romour about someone's partner so they break up and you can go out with him/her
Aggression Can Harm People
•There are different types of harm that can occur from
•Physical harm
-Cuts, bruises, broken bones, etc.
-Some of these heal (e.g., bruises), but some are permanent (e.g., loss of limbs, brain damage)
•Psychological harm
-Stress, anxiety, fear, self-blame, etc.
-Posttraumatic stress disorder
•Physical harm tends to only occur to the victim of
aggression, but psychological harm can also occur to
those who witness aggression or help people deal with
Witnessing Traumatic Events
Those who witness traumatic events (e.g., shootings, assaults, etc.) often report experiencing trauma themselves (even PTSD)
-This can occur even if they weren't the targets of
the aggression
-Trauma can occur for events where no aggression
was present (e.g., car accidents)
Vicarious Trauma
•Vicarious trauma can occur when support workers
(e.g., counsellors, psychotherapists) deal with the trauma of other people
-The longer they work in the field, the more likely it is
to occur
•In other words, dealing with the trauma of other
people can be traumatizing
-Support workers hear a lot of negative things, which
can cause considerable stress
-Support workers can start to feel vulnerable because
of all the negative experiences they've heard about
Culture and Aggression
-US in 2007 there was on average:
-One murder every 31 minutes
-one rape every 6 minutes
-one aggrevated assualt every 37 seconds
-one violent crime every 22 seconds
•The USA is a violent place
-Among industrialized Nations
•Not the most violent
Murder Rates
•Tremendous cultural variation
•The Americas are particularly violent
-Linked to single-parenthood
-Lots of reasons why this might be (single-parent families have more stress, less economic stability, etc.)
-Equador has highest murder rates
-The Americas are particularly violent--> linked to single parent-hood
-tremendous cultural variation
Types of Aggression and Culture- gun usage for murder in canada vs us and opinions on wife slapping
•USA & Guns
-70-75% of murders
-Canada: 30%
•Husband slapping a wife
-80% Indian did not strongly disapprove
-24% USA did not strongly disapprove
Culture and Aggression STUDY with china, USA, Poland
•Collectivist cultures
-Greater sense of obligation, social harmony, avoiding conflict
•Individualist cultures
-Personal desires of individual, personal rights
•Poland is somewhere in-between
•Predict more aggression in USA, then Poland, then China
•College students from China, USA, and Poland
-Filled out a survey on their aggression
-Measured direct and indirect aggression
•Americans show most aggression, then Polish, then
Are There Nonviolent Cultures?
•Bruce Bonta (1997) identified 25 peaceful societies
-Virtually no violence
-Anabaptist Christian
-Committed to nonviolence
•First Amish convicted of murder-1993
•Beard cutting assaults (Strong symbolism in community)
Amish School Shooting
•Shot 10 girls, killing 5, committed suicide
•Attacker wasn't Amish
•Attacker was angry at God for death of child
•The Amish immediately forgave
•"We must not think evil on this man"
Why Are They Nonviolent?
•Oppose competition-Link it to aggression (no competitive sports)
•Devalue individual achievement
•Focus on cooperation-Modesty, humility, etc.
•Not related to sharing-Some share, some don't
•Infants get attention, age 2-3 get ignored
-Socialized into community
-No one is better than anyone else
Domestic Violence
One area we can start to look at gender differences is in domestic violence (also called intimate partner violence)
•Growing research suggests that men and women are
roughly equivalent in terms of committing aggressive acts in domestic violence
-Called "gender symmetry"
•East Indian painting (1875) depicting a woman assaulting a man with a broom
Gender and Intimate Partner Violence
•One study (Straus, 2004) looked at university-aged dating partners in 16 different countries
•In many places, women seem to commit more acts of violence against men than men against women
•Female perpetrators often are not reported in popular media
-Stigma and machismo
-Women tend to cause less damage than males, which means less hospital visits and police involvement
•The severity of the injury varies more drastically by gender
•Men tend to cause more damage than women
•Overall, it appears like both men and women commit violence in relationships
-This is supported by the several studies, but also by
clinical experience
-One meta-analysis found that woman were more violent overall than men (d= .05, which is a small effect), but men cause more damage (Archer, 2000)
•This is a highly controversial area
-It is not meant to minimize the violence that happens
towards women
Are Men More Aggressive Than Women in General?
•Direct physical aggression: generally, yes
•Homicides in USA-85-91% male since 1960s
•Globally, males commit 90% of all murders
•Women more indirect aggression
•Gay men less physical aggression than straight men
Why Are People Aggressive?
•Aggression is present virtually everywhere (though
relatively rare in some places), so maybe it is
human nature?
•In nature, other species seem to be aggressive for
several reasons:
-To gain valuable resources (e.g., nesting sites, food,
-When their young are in danger
-To gain status
•People seem to aggress in these situations too
Origins of Aggression
•Aggression is Innate
•Evolutionary psychology
-Defense from threat; deterrence
-Competition for Mates
•Males compete for high status with aggression
-Women prefer high status mates
•Male to male violence
-Status, jealousy
•Male to female violence
What About Women and jealously?
•Women generally are the primary caretakers
•Harm to the mother is more costly to children than harm to father
•Traditional societies
-No father: decreases survival of child
-No mother: nearly eliminates chances of reaching
•Women compete for mates too
-Prefer indirect aggression, which is safer
•Men and women recalled instances of aggression
•Men report more direct aggression
•Women report more indirect aggression
Aggress to Impress
•Both men and women aggress for status
-To compete for mates
•But they use different strategies
-Men: direct aggression
-Women: indirect aggression
o males have 7-8 times more than females (females are more sensitive to testosterone)
o testosterone contributes to masc. features
o aggression- hand- larger ring finger= more prenatal testosterone
Correlation between ring finger length and aggression
•Studies aren't always consistent
•Male aggression is related to finger ratio
•Aggression increases
•Stress increases both testosterone and aggression
Testosterone cause aggression?
-Cant ethically manipulate testosterone
-Transsexual sex reassignment treatments
oFemales to males (increase)
oMales to females (decrease)
oFemales to males showed increase aggression proneness
oMales to females showed decreased aggression proneness
-However this study is flawed, as they could be adopting the opposite gender role
Origins of aggression; aggression is learned BOBO doll
oAdult hits bobo, as the child watches and then the kid mimics the adults aggressive behaviour towards the bobo doll
Social Learning Theory
-Albert Bandura
-BA from UBC
-Most cited living psychologist
-learn from observing models; i.e. we copy what other people do
-this is also important in cultural psych as this is how we learn culture, values, beliefs, etc..
Aggressive models
-teach aggressive behaviour; when we see aggressive models we tend to express more aggressive behaviour
-Model can be;
•Live models
•Videos of models
•Cartoon models
•The model doesn't need to be present
•Teaches aggression is ok
-If he/she uses it, it must be normal!
-A good way to solve problems
•Teaches aggression scripts
-When someone insults you, you hit him!
Hockey Aggression
-Hockey fights more
common in North
America than Europe
•More likely exposed to
aggressive hockey models in NA
-More aggressive penalties when you are north American born vs than when you are European born
-However N. American born have slightly more penalites than European born regardless of if they are aggressive or not
Violent offenders
•93% seen someone beaten badly
•75% seen someone knifed
•92% seen someone shot
•77% seen someone killed
•Interviewed inmates
-They used violence to deal with conflict
-They used violence to attain status
Does Media Violence Affect Aggression?
-Violent movies, TV, & video games
-i.e. correlation-common knowledge of the correlation of smoking and lung cancer is around R=0.38, as the correlation b/w media violence and aggression is R=0.32
Copycat aggression
-400 copycat incidents in USA and Canada after Columbine shooting (1 month after) most not lethal
-Common for increase in incidents when there is a highly public shooting
Media violence and aggression
-Many studies show that exposure to media violence (i.e. movies, tv shows, and violent games) increase subsequent violence
-*important to remember it does not cause it but it is correlated; not always increase but it can provoke
-However, not for everyone all the time
oPeople generally need to be provoked/ frustrated or high in aggressive tendencies
oYou don't generally just become aggressive; not everyone who plays call of duty will hit their siblings; but you are more likely to if they provoke you, as it more likely to be in your mind/thinking about it
Cultural norms
Culture of honor
-Status is important
-Protect status with aggression
-Minor disputes can trigger aggression
ie: White men in American South
-when your culture has high honour it is more likely to be correlated with high aggressive behaviour
Cohen et al: Southerners vs Northerners and insult study
•Drop off questionnaire
at end of hall
•Someone bumps you
and calls you "*******"
as you return to lab
-Perceived masculinity (IV being that someone called you an *******)
-Distance to confederate (did you move out of the way when you saw the person coming? At what point in the hall did you move?
Perceived Masculinity;
-Southerns perceive self as less masculine after insult.
-Southerners show
increase testosterone
after insult
-Distance to confederate;
Southern don't move out of the way nearly as quickly as Northern participants; -Southerners when they aren't insulted they give a lot of space but when they are insulted they give way less space
Honour and acceptance of violence
-Participants from Chile and Canada;
oListened to tape of a man describing violence towards his wife;
•IV; the reason why the man was giving violence towards his wifie
•Either triggered by flirting with another man
•Either triggered something unrelated to jealously or honour
•Results; Chile participants increase acceptance of violence towards women when she was flirting with another man; as the man's honour was being disvalued
Influence of aggression
-Frustration; unpleasant state from interruption towards a goal (think of it as a feeling; someone is preventing you from achieving a goal)
Examples of frustration and aggression
-i.e. you yell at the people next to you in the library because they are being loud and you can't study because you can't focus
-i.e. road rage
-i.e. children get frustrated when they don't have the vocab to explain what they want to/their thoughts
-i.e. when you think someone isn't listening to you (good example as it is your individual perception of a situation)
-i.e. sports; rioting
frustration aggression hypothesis
-The idea that aggression is always preceded by frustration and that frustration inevitably leads to aggression. Revised to suggest that frustration produces an emotional readiness to aggress. Frustration is the result of a blockage to a desired goal
•What if you can't aggress?
-No access to target or fear of target--> Displacement (considered a defence mechanism freud)
-Aggress against a substitute target
-Someone weaker, lower status, etc.
•Evidence: Employees of abusive supervisors take it out on family
•We typically don't just displace our aggression, we tend to get triggered first
-Frustrated -> safer target that annoys -> aggression on safer target
-OR catharsis
Displacement When Triggered
•Participants solved anagrams and were either provoked or not
-Provoked: told they did poorly and should redo it, but it would just be a waste of time
-Unprovoked: told they did average
•Answered trivia questions read out by an RA
-Trigger: The RA misread questions, rushed through things, and were told they did poorly on the trivia
-No Trigger: The RA did things smoothly, and told they had an average score
•Then were told by someone else that the RA was interested in a job and asked if they would rate her
-Rated poorly = aggression
•When there was no initial provocation, there was no substantial aggression on the safer target (comparable to control state)
•When there was provocation, there was
aggression on the target if there was a trigger
Frustration-aggression hypothesis
•There is another way to take out our aggression if we can't aggress on the target
-Reduction in aggressive drive from aggression
(observed or real)
-You can blow off steam
-Often mentioned in terms of watching violent sports
-HOWEVER; considered a myth; acting aggressive (or viewing it) tends to INCREASE AGGRESSION, NOT DECREASE IT
-Catharsis is still believed by many; more than 2/3 participants believe it is real
Anger Room
•Can make you feel better for breaking alot of stuff
•Increases aggression
•Feeling better and decreasing aggression are two different things
Excitation-Transfer Theory
•Emotional arousal mistaken for anger and
leads to aggression
-Increased heart rate
-Sweaty palms
-Elevated blood pressure
•Can happen from exercise, watching erotic
film, etc
•STUDY: Interacted with confederate about attitudes
-confederate shocks when disagree
•Manipulated arousal
-Rode on stationary bike (high arousal)
•Select shock level for confederate
•When you are provoked with high arousal you show more perceived aggression and selected higher shocks
Heat and aggression
-Hot weather is uncomfortable, which can lead to aggression
-Correlation evidence; violent crimes are more common in hottest regions of countries
-Field evidence; when a car is stalled at a green light people honk more (often continuously) on hotter than colder days
-i.e. violent crimes increase depending on the weather; across all crime types
-i.e. baseball pitchers hit more batters in hot weather; people get frustrated more and they take it out on other people
Situational cues: Weapons effect
-Mere presence of weapons increases aggression (our cognition is primed when a gun is sitting in front of us for subsequent behaviour)
-Especially when frustrated
-Cues aggression
Situational cues: Weapons effect study
•Participants were shocked by a confederate saying it is a way of grading their ideas
-Gave max 7 shocks = likely angered the participants
-Gave min 1 shock = likely not angered as much
•Participants then were able to shock the confederate-amount they shocked them back was the DV
•Present in the room was either:
-A badminton racket
-12-gauge shotgun and .38 caliber revolver
•No effect of weapon when not angered
•When angered, participants are more aggressive and likely to shock the confederate with higher shocks
-Especially when there is a weapon present!
Weapons Effect
•Weapons cue violence, so when angered/ frustrated and people see weapons, violent thoughts tend to
be primed
-These thoughts can then increase aggression
•Handling weapons also increases testosterone
(which is associated with aggression)
•Weapons effect is probably a specific form of a more general aggression effect
-Anything (not just weapons) that cues violence can increase aggression
-E.g., walkie-talkies increase aggression if they are first associated with violence
-E.g., more aggressive to someone named Kirk if watched a violent movie with Kirk Douglas
What About Hunters?
•Hunters use guns in a different way than non-
-Many use guns to get food
-Often required to take gun safety training
-Associated with a pleasant activity,
often with family
•Non-hunters association with guns
might be based on media (e.g., news, movies), which tends to be more aggressive against people
•Guns do not increase aggression with hunters, unless show them
assault rifles which aren't used in hunting
Social rejection and aggression
-Social rejection threatens us
-It hurts our self-esteem, personal pride, sense of worth
-These can increase anger and a desire to aggress (i.e. hurt those who have hurt you, restore sense of pride )
-Study; those who have been rejected tend to punish others more frequently with loud noise blasts
School Shootings and Social Rejection
•As of October 10, 2015, there were 52 school shootings in the USA for 2015 alone
-53 injured, 30 killed
•One study looked at 15 school shootings between 1995 and 2001
•All but two perpetrators had some form of social rejection
-E.g., ostracism, bullying,
romantic rejection
Examples of people going out of way to help others
Ebola, Vancouver riot cleanup
Kids and chimp helping behavior
toddler goes to open cupboard for adult who is bumping into it with books, toddler picks up item off ground for experimenter, toddler helps with stacking
-place barriers in front of children to see how much they'll help-- even with barriers in the way they will still help experimenters pick something up
-chimps also engage in helping behavior
prosocial behavior
actions intended to benefit another person
-also include work by artists, entertainers, scientists and others
-artists create art for others to enjoy
-entertainers to entertain others
Sempo Sugihara
Japanese Diplomat in Lithuania
-200 Polish Jews
-requested travel visas 3 times and denied
-disobeyed their orders
-18-20h/day hand writing visas
-writing visas as his train left
-saved around 6000 Jews
-he lost his job, sold light bulbs door to door
Prosocial behavior and Kahn
actor--> different than sugihara
-Kahn's purpose is for enjoyment
-cost is different --> Kahn= time spent/ effort to act
Pure altruism and Sugihara
he saved lives
-lost his job
-pure altruism: actions intended to solely benefit another person with cost
why help others?
seems to operate against own survival
-takes away resources (time, energy, money)
-can risk own life by helping others e.g. stopping mugger might make you target
-we should maximize our own potential and not help others
-William James asserts through functionalism that prosocial behavior is related to self-interest
-Batson beleived in altruism
Inclusive fitness theory and altruism
helping relatives spreads these genes, so we favor those we share genes with (less so people we dont share genes with)
-sometimes called kin selection (synonymous)
W.D. Hamilton: hamilton's rule
-not a theory/ explanation of behavior
-Hamiltons rule: altruistic genes evolve when actor cost (c) is less than recipient benefit (b) multiplied by probability has some gene (r)
-c <rb
-genes that help offspring are more likely to evolve than genes that help cousins
-drowning example: to risk own life
-you'd have to save 3 brothers
1< .5 x 3
-you'd have to save 9 first cousins
1< .125 x 9
-also have to consider how many offspring survivor likely to have
Key Points about hamilton's rule
-not all genes maximize copies of themselves--> liver genes dont care about liver genes
-not proportion of shared genes--> probability share altrustic genes, values= typically the same
-NOT descriptive theory
Alarm calls
Belding's ground squirrels--> alarm calls when predator
-others flee, caller at greater risk
-caller tends to be female--> remain with natal group: aunts, nieces, sisters, daughters
-consistent with inclusive fitness account
Grandparents and grandmother hypothesis
grandparents and grandchildren related r= .25
-Grandmother hypothesis: menopause evolved to invest in grandchildren, cost of reproduction are high, more defects with age, dependent offspring die when mother dies
-shift to focus on grandchildren
Grandmothers and grandfathers and certainty of maternity/paternity
-women 100% certain of maternity
-men uncertain of paternity
-grandmothers 100% certain of genes in grandchildren
-grandfathers more uncertain of gene contribution to grandchildren
-prediction: mothers mother contribute most and fathers father contribute least
Grandchildren's feelings toward grandparents
-greatest feelings toward mom's mom, then mom's dad, then dad's mom, then dad's dad
-similar for closeness, time spent together, resources
How to recognize kin? (4)
1) early associations- leads to sexual aversion
2) odor- can identify siblings but not step or half siblings
3) terminology- kin classification systems follow universal grammar (e.g. parents vs cousins), rank (older= higher), membership (maternal vs paternal)
4) similarity- facial similarity is cue for kinship
Helping unrelated others: reciprocity
helping unrelated others
-might help us back at a different time
e.g. different hunters have different success at different times, there is advantage to sharing
-cooperators out-perform non- cooperators
reciprocal altruism
cooperation between 2+ individuals for mutual benefit-- direct receprocity
-evolution gave us: cheater detection mechanisms
Vowel and number cards
if card has vowel on one side, then it has even number on other side
-turn over two cards to test truth
-correct: a and 3
-this is hard
-but same task with social exchanges is easy (non-alc bev vs. beer and 25 vs 16)
Cheater detection
humans didn't evolve to solve abstract reasoning
-evolved to respond to social exchanges
-Cosmides and Tooby: people do well on tasks that look for cheaters
-appears to be cross-cultural
-seperate brain areas light up for cheater detection
Strong reciprocity
-cooperate with others and punish those who don't cooperate--> altrusic punishment, helps group but cost to punisher e.g. neg reputation hit
Indirect reciprocity
-altrusitc acts advertize cooperation and generosity
-others see it, talk about it, more attractive to other parties
costly signaling
a signal (e.g. behavior) that has a cost associated with act of signaling--> people are less likely to fake a signal if there is a cost
-cost increases likelihood that signal will be honest
-altruistic acts might be costly signals to advertise that the altruistic person is a good ally. Someone you can trust and work with
Costly signaling study
Asked participants to publically/ anonymously vollunteer
-varied cost: least= measure BP, most= give assistance for mentally handicapped
-public: public charity (harder)
-private: private acts (easy)
As the cost goes up, people are more likely to do public charity and less likely to do private acts
-Consistent with it being a costly signal
Potlatch video
potlatch= costly signal
-people invited from many villages
-Northwest Pacific Coast Tribes
-give food, gifts (often get into debt, broke)
-giving away resources legitimizes status
-prosocial behavior for approval and status
Helping to feel better: arousal/ cost- rewarded model
-arousal/ cost- rewarded model : help people to relieve distress from observing suffering or need in emergenices e.g. car crash
Helping to feel better: Negative state relief model of helping
-helping is rewarding, helping to relieve sadness
Can money buy happiness?
-given 20$ randomly assigned to A) spend on yourself/ B) someone else
-happier? Happier if we spend it on someone else
-prosocial behavior is rewarding
Painless route to better mood
helping that costs alot can hurt your mood
-study: primed mood: happy, neutral, sad
-given chance to vollunteer-- large benefit (American Cancer Society) or small benefit (little league baseball)
-cost varied: high-door to door, low- sit at donation desk
-HAPPY: generalized overall increasing helping behavior (more than neutral). In happy condition most helping with low cost and least helping with high cost
-SADNESS: Saddened Individuals Volunteer When Easy To Do (low cost) & Large Benefit--> negative state relief
How to remember painless route to better mood
gourmet= conisseur of fine food
-gourmand= nearly indiscriminate appetite
-saddened= gourmet
-happy= gourmand
why help more when happy?
positive mood, like and trust others, feel more competent, more optimistic (in 26 countries, stalks go up in good word), emember and think about positive things
Kin selection and reciprocal altruism work well in smaller groups: bigger groups?
-watched people are nice people
-big gods increase moral cooperation
-allow large societies to form
Study about children being watched
-children told not to look in box- those told princess Alice watching= less likely to look
study about god and secularism prime
-primed with god, secularism, neutral prime
-more generous primed with god and secularism (doesn't matter if its god or the government watching you)
Selfish helping
spread genes, makes us feel better, reciprocity
-consistent with social exchange theory
is helping always selfish? Social exchange theory
this theory posits yes!
-people help someone because the benefits of helping outweighs the costs
-support: people help less when someone needs help and has blood on them
e.g. trained research assiant collapses in subway, with a cane they are helped 90% of the time (within one minute), when appeared to be drunk only 20% helped. Reason we help is to reduce arousal we feel when we see someone in distress.
example of selfless act?
Katniss vollunteering as tribute for her sister-- also helps fellow competitors whose goal is to kill her
-but may have some relation to inclusive fitness in the first example
Daniel Batson: Empathy-altruism hypthosis
is helping always selfish?
-feeling empathy increases helping to relieve the target's distress, not for own benefit (even at considerable cost to self)
study to determine if helping is always selfish
manipulated emathetic concern with Elaine
-identified with her or not
-watch elain recieve shocks
-Easy to escape condition: take her place, or leave
-Difficult to escape condition: take her place or watch her get shocked
-empathy low: only help her if more distressing to you to watch her get shocked in the difficult escape condition. If in easy condition, most will just leave
-high empathy: still willing to take the shocks even if they are in the easy escape condition
Empathy and helping
feel empathy, want to help--> dont just take the easy way out
-dont feel empathy--> take easy way out, help for self-interest to relieve unpleasant feeling
-empathy might indicate that were related to eachother-- small tribes of genetically similar
-similarity: increased empathy for similarity and for kin
-we see ourselves in others
Learning to help
taught to people through culture and the socialization process
-positive parenting behavior contributes towards this
-taught to share with siblings
-many elementary/ highschools encourage community service and funraising for charity
-first children learn to be helpful to get things they want e.g. saying please and thank you
Media and prosocial behavior: STUDY
-can learn prosocial behavior from media (just like violence)
-1 study had participants play a prosocial video game (Lemmings), a neutral one (tetris) and aggressive one (Lamers)
-R.A. drops pencils and sees if people help
-Lemmings: try to save lemmings from dying
-Tetris: move shapes
-Lemers: kills them instead
-participants more likely to help the researcher when they first played a prosocial game
Media and prosocial behavior: STUDY w/ vollunteering
asked participants how much time they would commit to vollunteer in another study
-prosocial game: more time willing to vollunteer than neutral
Media and prosocial behavior: STUDY w/ city crisis game
city crisis is prosocial, rescue game (helicopter pilot saving people)
-Angry ex harassed the female experimenter (yelling, kicking trash can)
-watched to see whether participant would help or not
-prosocial gamers helped much more than neutral
Kitty Genovese Murder
Genovese coming home after work
-Mosley chased her in parking lot
-stabbed her two times in back, she screamed, many people heard ~12-28
-Mosley left, but came back later, stabbed her, raped her and robbed her
aftermath of Kitty Genovese Murder
someone might have called the police at initial attack, someone should at the attacker to leave her alone
-most of the attack was out of view
-someone called police after attack
-no one saw entire incident
-one person saw stabbing
-many people thought it was a lovers quarrel/ someone was drunk
-Jon Darley and Bibb Latane started research on this
Bystander intervention decision tree
1) Notice event (or not notice and take no action) 2) Interpret event as emergency ( or pluralistic ignorance-- everyone else is passing by so you do nothing) 3) Assume responsibility (or diffusion of responsibility) 4) know appropriate form of assistance (or lack of knowledge/ competence) 5) implement decision (or dont because of danger to self/ legal concerns/ embaressment)
Bystander intervention decision tree
1) Notice the event study
told to go to another building to make a speech
told either:
1) you're late, hurry! Or 2) no rush
-confederate slumped in doorway who needs help
-no rush: 63% help, rush: 10% help
-speech: being a good semaritan (ironic)
Bystander intervention decision tree
2) interpreting as emergency Study
-pluralistic ignorance: nothing is wrong bc no one else is acting on it
-Study: Participant in room that starts to fill with smoke
-alone: 75% did something about smoke
-groups of 3: 38% did something
-2 confederates told to do nothing: 10% did something
Bystander intervention decision tree
3) assume responsibility: Study
-diffusion of responsibility: sense of responsibility declines as number of others increases
-study: heard someone having a seizure over the mic
-alone: 85% help
-1 other heard: 62% help
-4 others heard: 31% help
Bystander intervention decision tree
4) know how to help
-can only help if know how
-when expert is present, they're often 1st to help--> depending on emergency: Nurses, doctors, police
-today call 9/11 in most cases
-sometimes this isn't possible/ requires quicker action
-grand mal seizure: cushion head, remove glasses, loosen tight clothing, turn on side, time seizure, look for ID, seizure ends, offer help
Bystander intervention decision tree
5) implement decision
-many things prevent people from helping at this stage
-see someone being attacked, know how to help, but might be afraid of getting hurt
-someone needs CPR. know how to perform, but afrain you might hurt them or be sued
-laws to counter these fears
-good sumaritan laws
-women help less in physical altercation
Rural vs urban living and helping behavior study
steretotype: smaller communities are friendlier
-staged different scenarios in 24 different USA communities
1) confederate dropped pen, acted as if they didnt notice
2) confederate appeared to have sore leg and struggling to pick up papers
3) confederate asked for change for quarter
-less help in larger, denser cities
-0.55, -.54, -.47 respectively
Urban overload hypothesis
city life is overwhelming (e.g. honking horns, loud noises)
-so we tune things out and end up missing genuine instances of distress
-it might not be that city folk are helpful-- where you currently live is a better predictor of helping than where you were born or raised
-this might mean a) more to do with environment b) personalities select the evironment
Why you cant always help
in large cities, can be asked for help consistently on a daily basis e.g. homeless asking for change
-can be time consuming/ costly to help everyone
-many people cant afford to help
-in large cities, people always need more help
Who helps Biological basis?
altrusitic personality: a colection of personality traits, such as empathy, that render some people more helpful than others
-some consistency across time- those high on empathy at 13, still high on empathy 10 years later
-children who feel sorry for others (personality) more likely to donate to charity
-adults who risked their lives to save others during the holocaust= inc empathy, moral reasoning, sense of social responsibility
-helping behavior shows correlations of higher than .60 whereas fraternal twins showed correlations lower than .40--> therefore the trait has some genetic component
gender and helping
stereotype: women are more helpful
-women likely to have helping professions: counselling 70%, social work 81%
-higher in agreeableness, empathy
meta-analysis on gender and helping
combined 172 studies on helping
-62% of studies found men helped more than women --> 0.34 effect size
-consistent with social role theory: men expected to be more chivalrous with stranger, women helpful with family and close others
-most studies are done with strangers in chivalrous manner/ when others around (status boost)
what do men help more with?
picking up hitchhiker, helping victim on subway, help woman pick up package, donating to united way, holding door, signing petition, 20 cents to stranger
what do women help more with?
vollunteer with kids, mailing enveloppe for someone to stranger, generous tips
Who gets more Carnegie hero fund awards?
men--> for brave, heroic things
who gets more caring canadian awards?
women--> vollunteering time
"tend and befriend"
-in stressful situations, hormones (primarily oxytocin--linked to bonding) is released which spurs women to seek safety, cofort, and build social networks--> biological explanation
-dominant response for men: fight/ flight
-socialization also plays a role: girls see women as caregivers
-girls score higher on empathy and their parents are more likely to talk to them about feelings
whom is helpful?
most people help those they know more than strangers
-tend to care for them more
-for strangers, tend to help those that are more smilar to us e.g. dress in a similar way
-prejudice plays a role-- stigmatized helped less
-white people help black people less
-parents help their normal weight children more than obese children (less likely to pay for their tuition)
causal attributions and helping
-whether we believe people deserve their misfortune affects whether we help
-many of us assume people deserve their misfortune- dispositional inferences are the norm in individualistic cultures
-belief in just world suggests people get what they deserve
within their control and helping
-more likely to donate to charities that helped those with issues outside of control e.g. heart disease
-less likely to donate to charities where people seem more responsible for their issues e.g. drug abuse
-drug addicts/ homeless elicit disgust not sympathy from most people
CHAPTER 10: Intergroup anxiety theory
theory proposing that intergroup prejudice leads individuals to experience anxiety when they think of or interact with members of an outgroup--fear of rejection, domination, exploitation, violence, guilt, uncertainty... etc
CHAPTER 10: Allports 3 causes of prejudice
categorization , ingroup bias, and cultural worldview
CHAPTER 10: symbolic racism
tendency to express negative biases held about a racial outgroup not at the group directly, but as social policies as seen as benefiting that group
CHAPTER 10: TMT and worldview
raising problem of mortality causes people to support the ingroup who has the same cultural worldview as them and disregard the outgroup e.g. Christians vs. Jews
CHAPTER 10: Ambivalent racism
the influence on White Americans racial attitudes by two clashing sets of values: a belief in individualism (each person should be able to make it on their own) and a belief in egalitarianism (all people should be given equal opportunity)
-Many white hold anti-black and pro-black attitudes
-if people think about values related to individualism (e.g. protestant prime) they tend to be more prejudiced, but if thinking about egalitarianism (pro-black) they are less prejudiced
CHAPTER 10: Implicit prejudice
negative attitudes or affective reactions associated with an outgroup for which the individual has little or no conscious awareness and which can be automatically activated in intergroup encounters
-this can be picked up through physiological measures e.g. facial muscles , hearts pump more blood and veins and arteries contract, amygdala fear response and the dorsolateral frontal cortex tries to control this
CHAPTER 10: cognitive measures of implicit bias
Black IAT
-how quick are people to associate black with bad and white with good?
CHAPTER 10: Gordons Allport's kernel of truth hypothesis
even when stereotypes are broad overgeneralizations of what a group is like, some (but not all) stereotypes may be based on actual differences in the average traits or behaviors assocated with two or more groups
CHAPTER 10: Social Role Theory
We infer stereotypes that describe who people are from the roles that we see people play
-e.g. "Hispanic people are so hard-working" (as driving by a construction site)
-this same theory has been used to explain strong and persistent stereotypes about men and women
-men stereotyped to be: agentic (assertive, aggressive and achievement motivated)
-women stereotyped to be communal: warm, empathic and emotional
CHAPTER 10: The Stereotype content model
Stereotypes develop on the basis of how groups relate to eachother along two dimensions: status and cooperation (likeability)
-these leads to predictions about the traits that are likely to be ascribed to the group e.g. High warmth, low competence= elderly, disabled (pity). Low warm, low competence= drug addict, homeless (disgust). High competence, high warmth= Student, American (pride). High competece low warmth= rich, professional (envy)
CHAPTER 10: illusory correlations
a tendency to assume an association between two rare occurrences, such as being in a minority group and performing negative actions
CHAPTER 10: Why do we apply stereotypes?
1) Stereotypes are cognitive tools for simplifying everyday life e.g. consulting a librarian for a book title that is on the tip of your tongue rather than a vet. Stereotyping leaves more cognitive resources for other mental tasks
2) Stereotypes Justify Prejudices: People are motivated to hang onto these beliefs to help justify their prejudices (this is essentially the justification supression model)
3)Stereptypes help justify violence and discrimination against outgroups: main technique is dehumanization (tendency to view outgroups as somehow less human by referring to them as rodents or soleless. A more subtle type of dehumanization is infrahumanization (not comparing to animals but suggesting they lack the key qualities of what it is to be human)
-Sexual objectification is also used to justify violence and discrimination: sees women as objects rather than full humans, as if their physical appearance is all that matters
4) Stereotypes justify the status quo: e.g. people in society with power and money will often look at disadvantaged groups as having low intelligence and will power
5) Stereotypes are self esteem boosters: e.g. viewing members of outgroup as stupid or lazy makes us feel better.
CHAPTER 10: Ultimate Attribution Error
the tendency to believe that bad actions by outgroup members occur because of their internal dispositions and good actions by them occur because of the situation, while believing the reverse for ingroup members
CHAPTER 10: Linguistic intergroup bias
tendency to describe stereotypic behaviors (positive ingroup and negative outgroup) in abstract terms while describing counterstereotypic behaviors (negative ingroup, positive outgroup) in concrete terms.
CHAPTER 10: Stereotypes affect memory
bias how we attend to and encode information as well as what we remember. e.g. black man in business suit being threatened by white man with razor and this situation being reversed upon recall
CHAPTER 11: master status
the perception that a person will be seen only in terms of a stigmatizing attribute rather than the total self
CHAPTER 11: person-group discrimination discrepancy
tendency for people to estimate that they personally experience less discrimination than is faced by the average member of their group
CHAPTER 11: under what conditions is stereotype threat most prevalent
-the stigmatized identity is made salient in the situation (e.g. being the only women in a high-level math class)
-that identity is chronically salient, due to high stigma consciousness or high identification with the group
-the task is characterized as a dianostic measure of an ability for which one's group is stereotyped as being inferior
-individuals are led to believe their performance is going to be compared with that of members of the group stereotyped as a superior on the task
-individuals are explicitly reminded of the stereotype
CHAPTER 11: how to combat stereotype threat
identification with role models, reappraisal of anxiety (do better if they reinterpret the stereotype as normal challenges), self affirmation: people need to view themselves as good and competent e.g. black people affirm thier values and get better grades,
CHAPTER 11: target empowerment model
model suggessting that targets of bias can employ strategies that deflect discrimination, as long as those methods aren't percieved as confrontation (when confrontation is percieved the person is viewed negatively)
CHAPTER 11: social strategies for coping with prejudice:
confrontation (often not well recieved), compensation (try to cope by compensating for the neg stereotypes other ppl have about you e.g. compensating for weight biases by being extra friendly)
CHAPTER 11: rejection identification theory
the idea that people can offset the negative consequences of being targeted by discrimination by feeling a strong sense of identification with their stigmatized group (there is strength in numbers)
CHAPTER 11: Psychological strategies for coping with prejudice and discrimination
Discounting: dismissing the opinions of others meanwhile upholding your own self esteem
Devaluing: devalue those areas of life where you face pervasive experiences of prejudice and discrimination e.g. getting bad grades may seem unimportant compared to your social calendar
CHAPTER 11: authoritarian peronsality
see things in terms of black and white, complex of personality traits: uncritical acceptance of authority, preference for well-defined power arrangements in society, adherence to conventional values and moral codes. Predicts prejudice to outgroups
CHAPTER 11: need for structured knowledge
personality trait defined as a general preference for thinking about things in simple, clear cut ways
CHAPTER 11: right wing authoritarian
an ideology that holds that the social world is inherently dangerous and unpredictable and that maintaining security in life requires upholding society's order, cohesion, and tradition. Predicts prejudice against groups seen as socially deviant or dangerous
CHAPTER 11: social dominance oritentation
an ideology in which the world is viewed as a ruthlessly competitive jungle where it is appropriate and right for powerful groups to dominate weaker ones
CHAPTER 11: how to change prejudice
work from the top down by changing the culture e.g. stopping segregation of black and whites in schools. fostering more interaction between groups, attempts to control negative stereotypes by using more system 2 type strategies (but this leads to ego depletion)
CHAPTER 11: Jane Ellitot's classroom
Just after Martin Luther King was assassinated, Jane Elliot, 3rd grade teacher in Iowa, thought of a lesson plan to teach her students about prejudice (they were all white)
-divided class into two groups, those that had brown eye and those that had blue eyes
-she spent one day defining one group as the priviliged and the other the downtrodden
-she observed remarkable sensitivity to prejudice
-very important for understanding perspective taking
CHAPTER 11: diversity described through metaphor
Melting pot: colorblind approach- people should be recognized soley for their merits (avoiding group membership)
Salad bowl: multiculturalism-different cultural identities and viewpoints are acknowledged and appreciated
CHAPTER 12: Affective aggression vs instrumental aggression
affective: harm-seeking done to another person that is elicited in response to some negative emotion
instrumental: harm seeking done to another person that serves some other goal e.g. bully hits classmate to get attention from a girl
CHAPTER 12: eros
Freud's term for what he proposed is the human inborn instinct to seek pleasure and create
CHAPTER 12: thanatos
Freud's term for what he proposed is the human inborn instinct to aggress and destroy
CHAPTER 12: brain regions and aggression
-detection of social threat: dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (daCC)--> alerts us when there is conflict between our expectations and situation we are in e.g. being cut off by another driver
-increased activation after insults -hypothalamus and amygdala are involved in the emotional experiences, which often illicit aggressvie behaviors
-hypothalamus: fight or flight
-amygdala: fear and anger
-the daCC is regulated by the prefrontal cortex in particualr the MPFC and the DLPFC-- these regions are active when we introspect, consider consequences of actions and control behavior. Through connections with amygdala and daCC, they act as emergency break on aggressive impulses
-PFC has many receptors for seratonin which dampens our aggressive impulses
CHAPTER 12: Uniquely human aspects of aggression
-Technology outstrips natural controls on aggression (makes us more aggressive than animals--two animals of same species fight, they almost never kill eachother. But with modern warfare, we can kill eachother with the click of a button)
-The human mind specializes in self-control (makes us less aggressive than animals) - self regulatory capacities of the cerebral cortex
CHAPTER 12: The cognitive neoassociationism Model
Expands the frustration agression hypothesis in three important ways:
-variety of unpleasant situations can make a person more likely to aggress--> applies to physical and emotional hurt. Heat also plays a role, when its very warm outside people are more likely to aggress
-negative affect in the form of anger or hostility is a central feature of aggression--> excitation transfer theory: physiologically aroused by initial event, no longer thinking about what made them aroused, residual arousal can be trasnfered into new event
-there are features of situations that prime aggression --> e.g. weapons effect
CHAPTER 12: why do people find violence on the screen intruiging?
far removed from themselves, it is capitivating
-people high in sensation seeking or those who are bored may turn to this
CHAPTER 12: Why do some cultures have so much vioence?
researchers have focused on the difference between individualism and collectivism accross cultures
CHAPTER 12: Trait aggressiveness and its source
some people are more likely to aggress more than others over time and across situations
-sucseptible to hostile thoughts, express anger and engage in physical and verbal aggression
-these differences emerge as early as three years
-What causes thus?
-bad parenting: parents aggressive behavior is modeled for their children to see. They may have coercive parenting styles, inconsistent dscipline, and physical abuse.
-Genetic factors: twin studies MZ twins more similar in aggressiveness than DZ twins. Low MAO-A (enzyme that eliminates seratonin may be linked to aggression)
-poor intellectual functioning is also related to aggression
CHAPTER 12: Personality factors contributing to aggression
-low self esteem, narcissists (actually have low self esteem)
-individual differences in impulsivity (some violent criminals are undercontroled but some were overcontroled- letting their hostility build up until one day they exploded)
CHAPTER 12: role of alcohol and aggression
alcohol is involved in about half of all violent crimes and sexual assualts --> especially aversive for people with aggressive tendencies
-experimental research: those under threat or in competition with administer more electric shocks/ loud noises to another person than sober individuals
-why does alc lead to aggression? alcohol impairs higher order thinking and self-awareness, reduces impulse control and inhibition
-another reason? We expect it to!
CHAPTER 12: societal interventions in aggression
1) reduce frustration by improving the quality of life (e.g. improving economy and funding better housing conditions, teach aggression prone children how to better deal with problems)
2) gun control (mere presence of guns can prime aggression, interacting with guns can boost testosterone, and aggression becomes more lethal)
3)punishing aggression (punish aggressive offenders, but this can also have the opposite effect if it increases frustration -- e.g. children who get physically punished at home are more aggressive outside the home. Death penalty is not effective in deterring crime -- murder rates higher in states with death penalty -- bc communicates idea that killing sometimes is okay, link between actions and punishment are temporally remote bc there is long time between conviction and death, the act of murder was likely committed in fit of rage
4) reduce or reframe media depictions of aggression: minimize people's exposure to aggression. Direct people to media that models prosocial behavior or negative consequences for aggression
CHAPTER 12: interpersonal interventions in aggression
1) improve parental care--> train more effective parenting methods
2) strengthen social connections--> greater community involvement, more cooperation, less competition. Connecting with other people even briefly reduces aggression.
3) enhance empathy--> aggressive behaviors suggest a low awareness for other people's pain and suffering. Inverse relationship between aggression and empathy.
CHAPTER 12: individual interventions
1) improve self awareness-->being aware of what makes you stressed can make you choose not to let the distress trigger aggressive behavior.
2) increase self-regulatory strength--> practice controlling behavior
3) teach how to minimize hostile attributions--> e.g. through games, roleplay excersizes etc to determine when someones actions are deliberate or accidental
4) improve peoples sense of self worth and significance--> when people have higher self esteem they respond to threats with lower levels of hostility. Kids who Formed secure attachments with staff at treatment programs were less aggressive and antisocial.
CHAPTER 13: Negative State relief hypothesis
the idea that people help in order to reduce their own distress--> not alot of support for this
-helping triggered by empathy is still egotistic because it reduces ones own pain
CHAPTER 13: The empathy gap
the underestimation of other people's experience of physical pain as well as the pain of social rejection
-may lead to failing to get help
-can close the empathy gap by: asking people to experience pain or rejection, take the perspective of the person in need
-people are more likely to help when they focus on suffering of single individual than a group
CHAPTER 13: Prosocial feelings-- Guilt
failing to live up to social standards can cause guilt (usually stemming from belief that we have not treated another person or group properly)
CHAPTER 13: TMT and prosocial behavior
mortality salience should promote prosocial behavior
-increases donations to valued charities
CHAPTER 13: Individual differences in motivations for helping
-high on trait agreeableness show more prosocial behavior--> sensitive to the needs of others
-helping others can satisfy a basic need to feel connected to others
-helpful people more likely to see themselves as helpful (Central to their identity so they are helpful)
-conservatives more likely to withhold public assistance to people who are viewed as responsible for their own predicament
-liberals support assistance to other regardless of how they got there
-people who are high on moral reasoning, sense of social responsibilty, and empathy predict altruism
28 days/ I am Legend and Intimate Contact
•These movies start off with individuals in isolation
•Isolation is uncomfortable
-We struggle along with them
•Isolation is punishment in prison
•As a social species, we seek out intimate contact
•Imagine living without friends, family, romantic partners
-They are a key aspect of our lives
•We aren't completely indiscriminate
-We are attracted to certain people
Examples of attraction culturally worldwide
-Mentawai Indonesia: Teeth filed to be sharp
-Masai Kenya and Tanzania- Jumping men (higher = more attractive)
-Ainu Japan- tattooed lips
-Mursi Ethiopia- clay inserts into lips and ears
-Paduang Thailand- shoulders pushed down to give illusion of elongated neck
-Tremendous cultural variation in what is considered physically attractive
Cultural universals in attraction: Clear Complexion
-Blemishes, blotches, sores, and rashes are universally viewed as unattractive
-Cosmetics: even Ancient Mesopotamian women wore lipstick thousands of years ago
-Photoshop: A new way of concealing blemishes
Cultural universals in attraction: Why Prefer Clear Complexion?
•Attracted to healthy mates
•Clear complexion conveys health
•Blemished skin can indicate presence of parasites and disease
-its evolutionary that we want to pass on good genes to our offspring
Universal: Parasites and Physical Attraction
•Physically attractive tend to be healthier (no parasites)
•Ancestors who preferred healthy mates more successful than those who didn't
-Inherited preference for attractive mates
•Other characteristics can be attractive
-Intelligence, kindness, sense of humor
•But prefer physically attractive in environments with parasites (it is evoked)
Cultural universals in attraction: Bilateral Symmetry
-Gary Busey has very unsymmetrical face
-Halle Berry has very symmetrical face
-Symmetrical faces are attractive
•Indicates developmental stability
•Genetic mutations, pollution, pathogens, stressors in the womb lead to asymmetrical development
-Barn swallows also prefer symmetrical feathers/ wings
Cultural universals in attraction: Average features
•Sir Francis Galton
-Charles Darwin's half-cousin
-Known for stats, eugenics...
•Composite photographs of vegetarians and criminals--> looking for facial features to distinguish them
•Composite photographs were more attractive
Rhodes et al., 2005: Composite photos of Asians and Whites study
Composite photos of Caucasians, Asians, and Eurasians (people with European & Asian parents)
•Mixed race composites and Eurasian composites rated as most attractive
•Mixed race faces may represent the average of all faces seen
Why Prefer Average Features?
1.Processed easily because prototypical
-Quick processing is associated with feeling good
2.Genetic health
-Less likely to have genetic abnormalities
Red and Attraction
•Women and men are more attracted to the opposite sex when they wear red
•Might be a universal
-Villagers from Burkina Faso, not much experience with outside world
-they were given pictures of individuals they judged for attractiveness and all the photos were the same but they manipulated the background color
-when there was red in the background, they were thought of as more attractive
Why might we be more attracted to those wearing red?
•It is a sexual signal--> especially with primates, in mating season, their genitals swell up
•People blush when flirting and aroused
Women and Red
•Women are more likely to wear red when at peak fertility
-Argued this is to advertise their fertility
-But it depends on the weather
•Does this happen when it's hot or cold out?
-Cold weather! But why?
•Speculation by authors: When it is hot out, women can attract men through other means (e.g., wearing minimal clothing)
Emotions and attraction
•Emotions are ubiquitous in human life
•What emotion is the most attractive?
•Happy -> friendly, trust, approachability
•Pride -> high-status, provider, masculinity
Propinquity Effect
•People are more likely to form romantic relationships and friendships with those they encounter often
•Has powerful effects
-e.g. dorm room study by stairwell= more friends because you will bump into people in the hallway
•Police Academy recruits (Segal, 1974)
•Alphabetical order determined where they were seated in class and the location of their dorm rooms
•Asked who their closest friends were
-45% of all friendships had last name adjacent in
alphabet, so friendships were not so much based on things like similar attitudes, similar interests etc.
Cultural universal: Why are we more attracted to those we encounter most (propinquity effect)?
•Mere exposure effect
-The more exposure to a stimulus, the more attracted to it
-Not just with people, with many, many stimuli
-propinquity effect is driven by the mere exposure effect
•Cultural universal
-Japanese and Americans like those they interact
with most frequently
•Chickens are more attracted to chickens they have been exposed to the most--> peck less if they like eachother
Similarity-Attraction Effect
•People are attracted to those who are most like
•Attitudes, economic background, personality, religion,
social background, and activities
Big bang video
-Sheldon and his girlfriend are essentially the same (similarity attraction effect)
Costly Signals: Advertising quality of mate
•"Look at how wasteful I am, I must be a catch!"
•Hard to fake -> reliable signal
•Content varies by culture
-now jewelery is an unreliable signal (could be costume jewelery)
Risk Taking as a Costly Signal
Recreational risk taking signals physical ability
-Considered attractive
•Not all risks are attractive
-Health risks (e.g., eating poorly) ethical risks (e.g., cheating) typically considered unattractive
Body Features and attraction
-Body features (weight, height, muscles, breasts, hips, etc.) that vary from the average are often attractive
Mauritania fat farms video
pressured to eat lots of food
What's Beautiful is Good: Halo effect
•Halo effect: cognitive bias that positive features
go together
-authors get evaluated more positively
- politicians get more votes
- children are rated smarter and better behaved
-MBA grads get better pay
-criminals get lighter sentences
Disney Characters and Halo effect
•Attractive characters tend to have other positive
-Moral virtue
-Character outcome
-Socioeconomic status
-Romantic involvement
Physical Attraction and Life Satisfaction: Comparisson of Ghana and American
•Ghana and American participants
•Rated how satisfied they were with various life outcomes (e.g., career, abilities, friendships, romantic
relationships, etc.)
•Photo of participants was rated on physical attractiveness
•Physically attractive Americans were more satisfied with their lives (positive correlation)
•Physically attractive Ghanaians were not more satisfied with their lives (negative correlation)
•Attraction and life satisfaction doesn't generalize well outside Western contexts
Why Are Attractive Ghanaians Less Satisfied with Life?
1.Low relational mobility (hard to change relationships), attractive people a threat and poorly treated
2.Global culture (attractive is good, benefits) conflicts with local culture
Love defined
a strong positive feeling toward someone else
-typically love your parents, siblings, other family, romantic partners
-for some people, pets
Romantic love
-most research is focused here
-strong positive feeling toward another person, typically associated with sexual attraction between adults
-some link romantic love with madness--> people make decisions that appear less rational e.g. man shot himself to gain sympathy from his ex
Survival and romantic love
might be an adaption to ensure children have adequate resources and protection-- hard to break up, keeps them together
-might see romantic love in animals that form pair bonds
-children with two parents have better survival rate than children with mom (Especially poor without mom)
-romantic love likely exists everywhere: 89% of socieities its clear, but other 11% likely have it aswell --> methodological issue to not find it (not actively searching)
-love-based maairages are not universal however
hormone related to social bonding
-female participants relived certain emotions- remember past experience involving love, videotaped, then coded romantic love cues e.g. smiles, leaning in, head nodding
-blood samples taken (baseline and at points during emotional task)
-oxytocin change was correlated with romantic love cues r= .5
-This is consistent with romantic love serving a commitment function
Types of arranged marriages
-parents or guardians of a child decide- individual has no choice
-parents/ guardians decide- individual is consulted, can refuse
-individuals select- parents/ guardians consulted and they can refuse
-sometimes couples meet before, sometimes not
-sometimes arranged during childhood (sometimes before born) or in late adulthood
-Miai-Gekkon in Japan, couples (typically 30+) are introduced with goal of getting married
Mail order brides
women list themselves online for men to select and marry- typically American men. Dates back to 1800s in USA- Fronteir men had financial success, women lacking on fronteir, men advertized in magazines, Asian women typically responded (poor economic situation)
Modern times and mail order brides
eastern europeans and asian women dominate (also colombian)
-poor economics/ being "old" are typical factors
mail order brides and contingency
sometimes never meet before marriage
-some companies offer packages to come to the country and browse potential brides in person
-some garuntee virgintiy/ some offer replacement if bride runs away
-not typically arranged, but not love
-males can pay up to 20,000 by the end of this trip (as seen in video)
Are arranged marriages satisfying?
-puzzling to westerners, but often successful
-can become loving relationships
-Arranged marriages at least as happy as love marriages (e.g., Turkish, Israeli, Indian, Chinese, & Japanese—although not by women in China and Japan)
Comparisson of love based and arranged marriages in happiness
-love based marriages start out higher at beginning, then plummit
-arranged, less happy at start, then most reach level of love in marriage that partners who were initially in love started out with
-decline in partner selected marriage may be because of initial high
Testosterone and marriages
-T is linked to masculinity-- associated with taking risks, being competitive, increases sex drive
-seems related to finding mates, not maintaing relationship
-T peaks in males at around 20 (when men compete for mates) then declines when men have families
-males who interact with female vs male confederate show increased T
-when men become fathers, T drops
-T drops when expecting father holds doll that came into contact with baby (had baby smell)
Diverse men and levels of T
married men- lower T
-divorced, remarried- slightly higher
-never married-slightly higher
-married, now divorce- highest T
-single and divorced (not remarried= highest T)
-married men and those who remarry show low T
Sternberg's triangular model of love
-different types of love emerge from different combos of the three factors
-intimacy: liking, attachment, closeness
-passion: infatuation- excitement and sexual attraction
comittment: investment in maintaining the relationship
examples of relationships and Sternberg's triangular model of love
close friend- intamacy (liking-intamacy alone)
some long term couples (companionate- intamacy and comittment)
sometimes old couples have committment (commitment alone- empty love)
sometimes young couples jump into marriage-(fatuous love- passion and commitment)
young couples- passion (infatuation)
couple with no real committment to staying together over time (romantic love- intimacy and passion) --> step towards consummate love
-consummate love is the best with intimacy, comittment, and passion
Sternberg's triangular model of love: represented through different shaped triangles
Romantic depicted by long sides of the triangle for intimacy and passion but short side for comittment
-companionate depicted by long sides for initmacy and comittment but short side for passion
Friendship- role of friends?
-offer advice
-getting advice is beneficial for the recipient bc they get new info
-in N.A. might be percieved as threat to autonomy
-in Russia, advice is viewed as supporting a relationship
-study: advice giving on American and Russian online parenting forums
-researchers posted a questions of a parenting challenge and requested advice/ did not request advice
-recorded whether they answered/ did not
-then categorized whether they were Russian or American
-with advice cue, both gave advice but russians MORE
-with no advice cue hardly and Americans gave advice, but Russians still did
-In collectivist contexts advice is given more as the benefits of supporting others
outweigh the threats to autonomy
relational mobility and friends
in low relational mobility contexts, you dont choose who your friends are- you have to deal with them
-similar to Westerners relationship with in-laws
-Ghanians report fewer friends than Americans and think having many friends is foolish
Ghanians report more enemies than Americans (71% vs 26%)
-Westerners avoid those they dont like
-Ghanians view enemyships as natural state of life
-Westerners identify enemy as outgroup
Ghanaians identify enemy as ingroup
2 basic types of relationships: exchange relationships
based on reciprocity and fairness, people do things for eachother and except something in return
2 basic types of relationships: communal
based on mutual love and concern. PEople do things for eachother without expecting to be repaid
example of exchange relationship
dentist- exchange of dental care for money
example of communal relationship
2 sisters= communal, do things for eachother, no expectation of return
Communal vs exchange comparisson
-communal better for intimate relationships-- couples more likely to remain together and get married if they pool their money than if they keep separate bank accounts
-people help eachother more often
-more responsive to other persons needs
-promote greater unity and shared identity
-make people feel safe and secure
-get care regardless how much you contribute
-Exchange promotes indivudals acheievment and wealth
-advantageous in business
how adults relate to each other (e.g. romantically) is influenced by early childhood experiences
-formulated by john bowlby
-originally had three styles of attachment:
-anxious/ ambivalent: fears abandonment, clingy
-avoidant: uncomfortable when others got close, keeps distance
-secure: happy to be close, dont worry about being abandoned
Modern Attachment Theory
•Originally a single continuum from anxious to avoidant (with secure in the middle)
•Gradually shifted to two dimensions
•Anxiety: relates to attitudes about the self (some say concern with whether partner is attentive)
-Low = positive attitudes of self, high = negative
•Avoidance: relates to attitudes toward the other person
-Low = positive attitudes of partner, high = negative
•Each dimension should be viewed as a
continuum, but we can split them into high/low
for simplicity
Anxiety and Avoidance
•Secure: low anxiety, low avoidance
-Trust partners, share feelings, and provide support;
relationships are strong and durable
•Preoccupied (or anxious/ambivalent): high anxiety, low
-Want to be close to others (often suffocate them) but have negative views about themselves; cling to others and fear abandonment
•Dismissing avoidant: low anxiety, high avoidance
-Don't want people too close, but still see themselves as worthy; rely on themselves and see others as unreliable or uncaring; seen as withdrawn
•Fearful avoidant: high anxiety, high avoidance
-Low opinions of themselves and keep others at a distance; view others as untrustworthy and worry that they are unlovable
Stress Test Study- Testing attachment style
•Romantic couples were brought into the lab and told the male must participate with a "machine"
-Told the machine will stress them out
•Experimenter leaves couple alone for 10 minutes
-Secretly videotaped
•Male participant feels stressed
•How does his female partner respond?
•Avoidant females were least likely to show support
-If anything, they showed annoyance at partner's
•Secure females were most likely to show support
•Our attachment styles (which are influenced by childhood experiences) affect our adult relationships
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: When Need to belong is satisfied
People who have pleasant interactions with network of close friends, lovers, family members and coworkers have high self-esteem, feel happier, and more satisfied with their lives
-accross cultures, people who marry and stay married are happier
-people who are socially connected have stronger cardiovascular, immune, and endocrine systems and are less likely to face premature death
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: the need to establish and maintain intimate bonds with others has an evolutionary basis, heres why:
-the motive to belong is universal
-innate affiliation behaviors (soon after infants exit the womb they begin engagement with others-->mimic facial expressions, look at faces, responsive to baby talk
-rejection hurts (literally): causes distress. Human nervous system responds to rejection with stress response similar to physical pain (inc in cortisol)
-reproductive success: adults who form stable close relationships are more likely to reproduce
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: the reward model of liking
people like other people whom they associate with positive stimuli and dislike people whom they associate with negative stimuli
--person begins as neutral stimulus, if exposure is linked to second stimulus you already like, the positive feelings evoked by the second stimulus start to become evoked by the person
-association is based on the mood were in- good/ bad e.g. if room is uncomfortably hot participants will not like the stranger as much whose standing in it
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: transference
susan anderson and collegues discovered that if a newly encountered individual resembles a significant other in your life whom you like or dislike you will carry over the feelings to the new person
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: perception of similarity
it is more important that people percieve their similiarity than actual similarity -- important for attraction and relationship comittment
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: few ways in which opposites attract
-highly masculine men prefer highly feminine women
-female students high in dominance prefer submissive partner
-people who save often marry those who spend (but leads to less marital well-being)
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: ME share vs I share
-we "me-share" when we feel we are the same kind of person
-"i-share" when we believe that our subjective experiences of the world are the same, even if our "me's" are very different
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: gain-loss theory
a theory of attraction that posits that liking is highest for others when they increase their positivity toward you over time e.g. a compliment from a stranger or someone whose never complimented you before is more potent
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: why is physical attractiveness important?
-contributes to sexual appeal, more pleasant to look at attractive people, typically first attribute we notice about someone, BIRGing
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: waist to hip ration women find attractive
0.9-- this is a V shape, signals power, virility, and masculinity (compared to men's preference for 0.7)
-prefer more masculine features while ovulating
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: discrepancy between women's report of prefering finanacial success and their lack of choosing these partners
-the need to find a mate with status and economic resources in a place where gender equality is higher and women are in the workforce is lower.
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: gender differences in men and womens attitudes towards sex
-men more likely to say they would enjoy casual sex
-most young men cannot wait to lose virginity, only 1/3 of young women have this same opinion
-men regret not pursuing sexual opportunity more than women
-men want to have sex sooner than women in romantic relationship
-men experience sexual desire more
-men spend more money on sex- pornos, toys, prositutes
-men masturbate more frequently
-men more likely to be sexually unfaithful
CHAPTER 14 TEXTBOOK: mate guarding
process of preventing others from mating with one's partner in order to avoid the costs of rearing offspring that do not help propagate one's genes--> led to sexual jealousy for men
-opposite for women: view emotional bond more important because when this disapates, their partners may leave them with the task of child-rearing
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: parasocial relationships
people's relationships with people in the media: celebrities, television characters, and athletes
-lack interdependency
-typically involve knowledge, care, comittment
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: what makes close relationships special?
closeness involves knowledge, caring, interdepedence (what one person does influences the other), mutuality (think of themselves more as "us," lives intertwined), trust, and commitment
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: self-expansion model of relationships
the idea that romantic relationships serve the desire to expand the self and grow -- start doing different activities, eating different foods, listening to different music, reading different books etc.
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: equity theory
the idea that people are motivated to maintain a sense of fairness or equity, whereby both partners feel that the proportion of outcomes (rewards) to inputs (costs) that each receives is roughly equal
-both feel badly about the situation if there is an imbalance
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: matching phenomenon
people seek others who are similar to them in physical attractiveness
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: stimulus value role theory
when partners first meet, their attraction is primarily based on stimulus information-- age and physical appearance
-then enter the value stage- share their attitudes and beliefs e.g. about religion/ sex for example. This helps them decide their compatibility
-after partners comitted to one another for awhile, they begin communicating about their roles -- their attitudes and plans when it comes to life tasks and parenting / careers
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: positive illusions
idealized perceptions of romantic partners that highlight their positive qualities and downplay their faults --> this is why people stay together, they reduce their cognitive dissonance
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: Model of relational turbulence
level of turbulence increases as the partners become more interdependent, spending more time together and interfering with each others routines. If the partners stay together and negotiate how to facilitate each other's goals, then turbulence declines
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: declines in marital satisfaction
-slacking off: people stop so hard to be consistently courteous e.g. not holding in burps, not holding door open
-small issues get magnified: interdependency acts like a magnifying glass- partner can cause us more harm than anyone else (more upset at their cranky moods and job stress than others)
-sore spots are revealed: we reveal all of our not-so-pleasant information to our partners. When conflict occurs, they have an entire arsenal of emotional weaponry
-unwelcome surprises appear: fatal attractions (things we intially thought positive) OR people disover things they did not know at all/ expect. e.g. couples often overestimate the pleasantness parenthood will bring them
-partners have unrealistic expectations: disappointed if expectations too high
-passionate love loses steam:
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: two emotions experienced after break up
anger and sadness
-attachment style is important to how you deal with break up
-those high in anxiety cling to the relationship
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: Gottman's indication of unhappy marriage
criticism (telling partner their faults)
contempt (making sarcatic remarks/ rolling eyes)
defensiveness (denying responsibility)
stonewalling (withdrawing)
-four horsemen of relational apocolypse
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: Rusbult's Interdependence Model
The commitment to a relationship is influenced not just by a person's satisfaction with that relationship, but also by how much the person has invested and the quality of the alternatives the person thinks are elsewhere (comparison level of alternatives). When satisfaction and investment are high, and the quality of alternatives is low, stronger commitment and relationship maintenance generally follow.
-must take into account satifaction (rewards, costs, comparison level e.g. parents have good/ bad relationship), comparison level of alternatives and investments
people can deal with conflict in active and passive and constructive and destructive ways.
involves four outcomes:
-exit (active and destructive): walking out, physical or emotional abuse
-voice (active and constructive): seeking outside help, negotiation, changing own behaviors
-Loyalty (constructive and passive): hoping for conditions to improve, making benign contributions
-Neglect (passive and destructive): ignoring and withdrawing from partner, refusing to confront problems
CHAPTER 15 TEXTBOOK: how to keep love alive
-emotional support: not just for big-life things but also for the daily things--> mutually responsive partners enhance the relationship
-keeping the fire burning: keep trying new things together, going new places