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DNA Transcription, Translation, and Regulation + Mutations Elijah Drastata
Terms in this set (20)
Theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA in proteins.
Ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
The process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
An enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
The protion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
In DNA and mRNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
Codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation.
Codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein.
A region of a tRNA molecule that consists of a sequence of three bases that is complementary to an mRNA codon.
A nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene.
A unit of adjacent genes that consists of functionally related structural genes and their associated regulatory genes; common in prokaryotes and phages.
One of several nonadjacent nucleotide sequences that are part of one gene and that are transcribed , joined together, and then translated.
A nucleotide sequence that is part of a gene and that is transcribed from DNA into mRNA but not translated into amino acids.
A change in the structure or amount of the genetic material of an organism.
A mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed.
A mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nuceotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code in the reading frame.
Agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms.
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