viking who was invited to rule Novgorod
Slavic territories along Dnieper River
came up with an alphabet that helped convert Slavs to Christianity
people who attend church
Serbs, Croats, Slovenes
battles to protect Christianity
center of religion, government, and culture in Russia
when the church split between Eastern and Western
major industry in Constantinople
worked to improve women's position in Byzantine Empire
1st country to officially adopt Christianity
landowning nobles in Russia
Slavic people who were Muslims
chemicals used in war that explode
Islamic group who took over Constantinople
tried to unite Eastern and Western Roman Empire
center of Orthodox church after fall of Constantinople
elaborate, decorated books
where women went to live to dedicate themselves to God
conquered Byzantine Empire
brought Russian principalities under his control
also known as Mongols
conquered most of Russia
large, grassy, semiarid land of Euasia
study of religious questions
farmers chop down trees and burn stumps; ashes used as fertilizer
slash and burn agriculture
colored tiles, glass, stones used to make a picture
religious portraits, paintings, mosaics, etc.
hired to protect trade routes
place where monks lived in seclusion dedicating themselves to God
church in Constantinople
an immense semiarid grass-covered plain gound in southeastern Europe and Siberia
married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor in AD 1472 and claimed the title tsar (caesar) and claimed himself Sovereign of All Russia
a member of the council of landowners and wealthy merchants who assisted princes in early Russia
longest river in Europe, it begins in the Valdai Hills and flows 2,290 miles southeast to the Caspian Sea, cutting across the steppes and forests of eastern Europe
the western penninsula of Asia, lying between the Black and Mediterranean Seas
a separation of the church in AD 1054 that created the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox church in the East
lay members of a church (not ordained)
became Grand Prince in AD 980 and brought Eastern Orthodoxy to Kievan Russia
representation or picture of a sacred Christian person, the picture or statue itself regarded as sacred
a person speaking the Turkic language, and from the area of Asia Minor
strategic city of the Byzantine Empire lovated on the penninsula between Europe and Asia, and the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea; birthplace of the Eastern Orthodox religion
an emperor of early Russia
a river flowing 1,420 miles south into the Black Sea and the 3rd longest in Europe, it cuts across the steppes and thick forests of eastern Europe
the Turks from central Asia who converted to Islam, they degeated the Byzantines at Manzikert
the emperor who ordered all icons to be removed from churches in AD 726
Alexander Nevsky became ruler of this small town and expanded the influence of Muscovy and which eventually replaced Kiev as the capital of Russia
the Emperor Who Never Sleeps, he ruled the Byzantine Empire at its height
located high on a bluff on the Dnieper River; in AD 880, this became the 1st capital of Russia
a missionary who invented an alphabet for the Slavic languages in order to spread the Orthodox Christianity
Roman emperor that built Constantinope in 330 AD in the very strategic penninsula between Europe and Asia, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
the prince of Novgorod who degeated the invading Swedes in AD 1240
people, such as priests and bishops, ordained for religious services
a penninsula in southeastern Europe bounded by the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas to the east and the Adriatic and Ionian Seas to the west and the Black Sea to the east
an arm of the Mediterranean Sea extending between Italy and the Balkan Penninsula
supportive wife of Justinian and an active participant in government, she advocated that a wide had the right to own land equal to her wealth at betrothal
viking leader who accepted the invitation of the Slavs to instill orfer in the area called Russia
what was the Byzantine Empire known as?
the new Rome
included most of the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt
many different types of people and cultures
What language did people in the empire speak?
Revolt of taxpayers in 532 AD- Theodora encouraged Justinian to remain and assert his power
Who conquered Italy, North Africa, and Spain, but eventually lost the land?
during what period/what:
-appointed a commission to codify or classify the Roman Empire's laws
-got rid of outdated laws, simplified many, and got the rest in categories?
Justinian's Rule (code of law)
what was the center of social life?
what kind of society did the Byzantine Civilization have?
a person could move from one group to another
what were most Byzantines?
famers, herders, laborers
what was the main base of economy?
What was the natural center for trade?
study of religious questions
religious community for men (monks)
religious community for women (nuns)
Who were the two brothers that were sent to convert Slavic people?
Cyril and Methodius
What alphabet is used today by Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, and Serbs?
what was the subject of art?
who conquered the Middle East and North Africa?
who conquered Eastern Byzantine Empire?
who conquered the Balkans?
Where were the Seljuk Turks from?
What religion were the Seljuk Turks?
Who weakens the Byzantines?
When were Christians persuaded by Venetians to attack Constantinople?
4th Crusade in 1204
Who controlled Constantinople and its trade for 50 years?
Who invaded from Central Asia and attacked the Byzantine Empire?
When did the Ottoman Turks attack and conquer Constantinople?
When was the beginning of Ottoman Empire?
How many years did the Byzantine Empire last for?
over 1,000 years (476-1453)
Largest group living in Eastern Europe
Major trade routes for Eastern Slavs
Black Sea, Dnieper River, and Baltic Sea
city on Dnieper River trade route- mother of Eastern Slavic cities
rulers of Kiev
territory ruled by a prince
What were the Grand princes duties?
administer justice and defend frontiers
represented all free adult male citizens
who sent observers to learn about monotheistic religion?
mass baptism to Eastern Orthodoxy
What was part of the importance of Byzantine Architecture?
onion shaped domes
Who's reign was height of Kievan culture?
mongol invaders captured and destroyed Kiev
Who conquered most of Russia, except for Novgorod and ruled for 2 centuries?
Expanded lands through conquest and marriage
most powergul Eastern Slavic in:
Rule of Ivan III
known as Ivan the Great
What was the Russian Empire also known as?
the third Rome
Moscow became center of Eastern Orthodox church in:
Ivan III married niece of last Byzantine Emperor in:
In Moscow, the churches used _____ in worship and writing
A great example of Russian architecture is:
the Kremlin fortress in Moscow