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111 terms

Byzantine Empire

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viking who was invited to rule Novgorod
Rurik
Slavic territories along Dnieper River
Kievan Rus
came up with an alphabet that helped convert Slavs to Christianity
Cyril
people who attend church
Laity
Serbs, Croats, Slovenes
South Slavs
battles to protect Christianity
Crusades
center of religion, government, and culture in Russia
Kremlin
when the church split between Eastern and Western
Schism
major industry in Constantinople
Silk
worked to improve women's position in Byzantine Empire
Theodora
1st country to officially adopt Christianity
Armenia
landowning nobles in Russia
Boyar
Slavic people who were Muslims
Bosnians
chemicals used in war that explode
Greek Fire
Islamic group who took over Constantinople
Ottoman Turks
tried to unite Eastern and Western Roman Empire
Justinian
center of Orthodox church after fall of Constantinople
Muscovy
elaborate, decorated books
illustrated manuscripts
where women went to live to dedicate themselves to God
convent
conquered Byzantine Empire
Ottoman Turks
brought Russian principalities under his control
Ivan III
also known as Mongols
Tatars
conquered most of Russia
Mongols
large, grassy, semiarid land of Euasia
steppe
study of religious questions
Theology
farmers chop down trees and burn stumps; ashes used as fertilizer
slash and burn agriculture
colored tiles, glass, stones used to make a picture
mosaic
religious portraits, paintings, mosaics, etc.
icons
hired to protect trade routes
vikings
place where monks lived in seclusion dedicating themselves to God
Monastery
church in Constantinople
Hagia Sophia
an immense semiarid grass-covered plain gound in southeastern Europe and Siberia
steppe
married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor in AD 1472 and claimed the title tsar (caesar) and claimed himself Sovereign of All Russia
Ivan III
a member of the council of landowners and wealthy merchants who assisted princes in early Russia
boyar
longest river in Europe, it begins in the Valdai Hills and flows 2,290 miles southeast to the Caspian Sea, cutting across the steppes and forests of eastern Europe
Volga River
the western penninsula of Asia, lying between the Black and Mediterranean Seas
Asia Minor
a separation of the church in AD 1054 that created the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox church in the East
schism
lay members of a church (not ordained)
laity
became Grand Prince in AD 980 and brought Eastern Orthodoxy to Kievan Russia
Vladimir
representation or picture of a sacred Christian person, the picture or statue itself regarded as sacred
icons
a person speaking the Turkic language, and from the area of Asia Minor
Turks
strategic city of the Byzantine Empire lovated on the penninsula between Europe and Asia, and the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea; birthplace of the Eastern Orthodox religion
Constantinople
an emperor of early Russia
tsar
a river flowing 1,420 miles south into the Black Sea and the 3rd longest in Europe, it cuts across the steppes and thick forests of eastern Europe
Dnieper River
the Turks from central Asia who converted to Islam, they degeated the Byzantines at Manzikert
Seljuk
the emperor who ordered all icons to be removed from churches in AD 726
Leo III
Alexander Nevsky became ruler of this small town and expanded the influence of Muscovy and which eventually replaced Kiev as the capital of Russia
Moscow
the Emperor Who Never Sleeps, he ruled the Byzantine Empire at its height
Justinian
located high on a bluff on the Dnieper River; in AD 880, this became the 1st capital of Russia
Kiev
a missionary who invented an alphabet for the Slavic languages in order to spread the Orthodox Christianity
Cyril
Roman emperor that built Constantinope in 330 AD in the very strategic penninsula between Europe and Asia, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
Constantine
the prince of Novgorod who degeated the invading Swedes in AD 1240
Alexander Nevsky
people, such as priests and bishops, ordained for religious services
clergy
a penninsula in southeastern Europe bounded by the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas to the east and the Adriatic and Ionian Seas to the west and the Black Sea to the east
Balkan Penninsula
an arm of the Mediterranean Sea extending between Italy and the Balkan Penninsula
Adriatic Sea
supportive wife of Justinian and an active participant in government, she advocated that a wide had the right to own land equal to her wealth at betrothal
Theodora
viking leader who accepted the invitation of the Slavs to instill orfer in the area called Russia
Rurik
what was the Byzantine Empire known as?
the new Rome
included most of the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt
Byzantine Empire
many different types of people and cultures
multicultural society
What language did people in the empire speak?
Greek
Revolt of taxpayers in 532 AD- Theodora encouraged Justinian to remain and assert his power
Nika Revolt
Who conquered Italy, North Africa, and Spain, but eventually lost the land?
Justinian
during what period/what:
-appointed a commission to codify or classify the Roman Empire's laws
-got rid of outdated laws, simplified many, and got the rest in categories?
Justinian's Rule (code of law)
what was the center of social life?
family
what kind of society did the Byzantine Civilization have?
hierarchy
a person could move from one group to another
hierarchy
temporary rulers
regents
what were most Byzantines?
famers, herders, laborers
what was the main base of economy?
trade
What was the natural center for trade?
Constantinople
study of religious questions
Theology
religious community for men (monks)
monasteries
religious community for women (nuns)
convent
Who were the two brothers that were sent to convert Slavic people?
Cyril and Methodius
What alphabet is used today by Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, and Serbs?
Cyrillic alphabet
what was the subject of art?
religion
who conquered the Middle East and North Africa?
Arabs
who conquered Eastern Byzantine Empire?
Persian
who conquered the Balkans?
Slavs
Where were the Seljuk Turks from?
Central Asia
What religion were the Seljuk Turks?
Muslims
Who weakens the Byzantines?
Seljuk Turks
When were Christians persuaded by Venetians to attack Constantinople?
4th Crusade in 1204
Who controlled Constantinople and its trade for 50 years?
Venetians
Who invaded from Central Asia and attacked the Byzantine Empire?
Ottoman Turks
When did the Ottoman Turks attack and conquer Constantinople?
1453
When was the beginning of Ottoman Empire?
1453-1917
How many years did the Byzantine Empire last for?
over 1,000 years (476-1453)
Largest group living in Eastern Europe
Slavs
Major trade routes for Eastern Slavs
Black Sea, Dnieper River, and Baltic Sea
city on Dnieper River trade route- mother of Eastern Slavic cities
Kiev
rulers of Kiev
Grand Princes
territory ruled by a prince
principalities
What were the Grand princes duties?
administer justice and defend frontiers
represented all free adult male citizens
assembly
who sent observers to learn about monotheistic religion?
Vladimir
mass baptism to Eastern Orthodoxy
989 ACE
What was part of the importance of Byzantine Architecture?
onion shaped domes
Who's reign was height of Kievan culture?
Yaroslav
mongol invaders captured and destroyed Kiev
1240
Who conquered most of Russia, except for Novgorod and ruled for 2 centuries?
Mongols
Expanded lands through conquest and marriage
Moscow
most powergul Eastern Slavic in:
1350
Rule of Ivan III
1480
known as Ivan the Great
Ivan III
What was the Russian Empire also known as?
the third Rome
Moscow became center of Eastern Orthodox church in:
1453
Ivan III married niece of last Byzantine Emperor in:
1472
In Moscow, the churches used _____ in worship and writing
Russian
A great example of Russian architecture is:
the Kremlin fortress in Moscow