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The key to a successful Calorie Restricted diet is to

consume a low calorie, high nutrient-dense diet

Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionist, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of ________

anorexia nervosa

The electrolyte imbalances that are often seen with eating disorders can result in

irregular heartbeat and heart failure

Research has shown that there is no association between fetal exposure to famine and future risk of chronic disease.


The inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the ________


Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?

The extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures.

Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ________

third trimester.

During the first six months of lactation, the daily caloric needs of the mother increase by ________ calories as compared to prepregnancy levels.


The fluid needs of adolescents are higher than those of children.


To avoid dehydration, toddlers should be offered fruit juice at every meal.


Which of the following is NOT an effective long-term treatment for obesity?


Generally, surgery to treat obesity is not recommended unless an individual's BMI is ________


Breastfeeding suppresses ovulation and can be used as a reliable form of contraception.


Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for pregnant women.


Most of the members of the Caloric Restriction Society and the CRONies are males.


The process by which a fetus's metabolism, hormone production, and other physiological processes shift in response to inadequate energy intake during pregnancy is called the ________ theory.

fetal adaptation

Research has clearly shown that the media's portrayal of body image is a direct cause of eating disorders


All of these will help you avoid purchasing fraudulent or dangerous supplements EXCEPT

purchasing products labeled "natural."

Existing evidence suggests that only 5% of obese people are successful at long-term weight loss.


Vitamin C impairs the absorption of iron

False, it enhances the absorption

Milk is a good source of riboflavin.


Adolescent acne is caused by

hormonal changes

All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals EXCEPT

perspiration increases as we age.

Janie is four years old. What serving size of green beans would you recommend for her?

4 tablespoons

All of the following foods pose a choking hazard for children EXCEPT


In today's society, prejudice toward overweight people still seems to be widely practiced and acceptable.


Substances that lead to birth defects are called ________


The stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is

infant suckling

Inadequate intakes of ________ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus.


Recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the ________

mother's weight before becoming pregnant.

Obesity in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ________ percentile


All of the following are physiological changes that typically occur with aging EXCEPT decreased

fat mass

Peak bone mass is typically achieved in ________

late teens and early twenties

Federal guidelines in the U.S. specify that school lunches must contain no more than ________ percent of the total calories from saturated fat


The B-complex vitamins provide a good source of energy for the body.


Because the absorption of dietary iron varies greatly, the RDA for iron is not adequate for most people.


The loss of tooth enamel seen in bulimia nervosa is due to the insufficient intake of calcium


Children under the age of 1 should not be given cow's milk


a woman suffers from gestational diabetes she has an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life


Which of the following is NOT symptomatic of anorexia nervosa?

secretive consumption of large amounts of food in a short period of time

Which of the following BEST explains why individuals with anorexia nervosa have an increased risk for developing osteoporosis?

decreased estrogen production

All of the following statements are true EXCEPT

All supplements sold in the U.S. must contain a U.S.P. (U.S. Pharmacopoeia) symbol

Approximately how long would a person's life be prolonged if he or she did not start consuming a Calorie Restricted diet until the age of 55 years?

4 months

Which of the following is FALSE concerning research conducted on subjects born during weather- and war-related famines in Africa?

Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in adults

What is a multifactorial disease?

a disease that has many different causes

Gastric bypass surgery reduces food intake by ________

attaching the lower part of the small intestine to the stomach

Parents should force their children to eat healthy foods to avoid obesity


Limiting sugary sweets in children's diets is important only once their permanent teeth have erupted.


The offspring of mothers who experienced low pregnancy weight gain have an increased risk of obesity in adulthood.


The human body typically absorbs less than 20% of the iron consumed in the diet


If your sibling has or has had an eating disorder, it places you at a higher risk of developing an eating disorder.


Antioxidant supplements have consistently been shown to lower rates of death from heart disease and certain types of cancer.


Research suggests that there are lifelong consequences to any type of nutrient imbalance during pregnancy.


Unless a prescribed by a qualified practitioner, taking a single-nutrient supplement is not recommended because it ________

may quickly lead to a nutrient toxicity

In older adults, which of the following is a mineral important to a healthy immune system and wound healing?


The fastest growing age subgroup in the United States today is

greater than or equal to 85-year-olds

How much fat is recommended for a preschooler?

25-35% of total energy

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet?

Calorie Restriction results in decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass

Which of the following is NOT a common life-long problem following surgery for morbid obesity?

increased resistance to infection

The energy needs of older adults are higher than those of younger adults.


Although considered an epidemic among U.S. adults, obesity rates in school-aged children have remained constant since the 1970s


Studies have shown that exposure of the fetus to famine in the first trimester of pregnancy resulted in a high risk of the development of ________ in adulthood

metabolic syndrome

Which of the following does NOT describe a characteristic associated with muscle dysmorphia?

purging by the use of laxative and/or vomiting at least two times a day

Which of the following sports is frequently associated with its female athletes being at risk for developing the female athlete triad?


A normal-weight woman should gain approximately 25 to ________ pounds during pregnancy.


The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and ________.


At birth, baby Ramon weighs 8 pounds. If his growth and development are normal, what would you expect Ramon to weigh at his first birthday?

24 pounds

It is suggested that ________ percent of neural tube defects could be prevented if all women of childbearing age consumed adequate amounts of folate or folic acid


Breastfed infants have a low risk of developing heart disease in life because breast milk is very low in cholesterol.


All cases of neural tube defects are directly related to a lack of folate consumption during pregnancy.


Adiposity rebound occurs between the ages of 5 and ________ years


Antioxidant supplements are not necessary and may actually be harmful.


Adequate folate consumption is the most critical during the last trimester of pregnancy.


The ideal nutritional strategy for optimizing health is to ________

eat a healthful diet containing a variety of whole foods

Currently, the best known treatment of eating disorders is

a team-management approach

All of the following describe characteristics of the female athlete triad EXCEPT

diabetes mellitus

Poor maternal intake of calcium increases the risk of ________ in the adult offspring


The cartilage that is located at the end of long bones that closes when growth ceases is called the ________ plate.


The absorption of vitamin ________ increases in older adults.


Which of the following will NOT help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?

Use food as a reward for healthful behaviors

Overweight in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ________ percentile.


Approximately one-half to two-thirds of people who received obesity surgery do not experience long-term success.


The USDA recommends that pregnant women avoid all of the following foods EXCEPT


The point at which the ovum becomes fertilized by the sperm is ________.


The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfed infants be given a ________ supplement to decrease the risk of developing rickets.

vitamin D

Adolescents need to consume four servings of dairy foods or calcium-fortified products daily to obtain the necessary calcium intake.


If a breastfeeding woman eats a well-planned, nutrient-dense diet she does not need to take supplements.


The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and ________


Who is responsible for determining the safety and efficacy of any dietary supplement?

the manufacturer of the supplement

Obesity is NOT associated with an increased risk of

type-1 diabetes

Maria is a 3-year-old toddler and weighs 34 pounds. How many grams of protein should she consume each day?

13 grams

A reduced production of gastric secretions often seen in older adults can result in

a reduced absorption of calcium

Sodium needs during pregnancy are the same as for a non-pregnant adult woman


The growth spurt starts earlier in boys than in girls


Which of the following BEST describes why the body reduces nonvital body functions in untreated anorexia nervosa?

The body needs to conserve energy.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the intake of fruit juice be limited to ________ fluid ounces per day for children 1-6 years of age.


Which of the following BEST describes the "Milk Matters" campaign?

government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy foods

All of the following are characteristic of adolescent eating habits EXCEPT

regular consumption of three meals per day.

Due to the additional losses via the menstrual cycle, adolescent girls require more iron than do adolescent boys


Multivitamin/mineral supplements should never be recommended for preschoolers.


Female athletes who experience amenorrhea are at risk for developing osteoporosis


Which of the following birth defects has NOT been linked to maternal obesity?


Individuals suffering from a zinc deficiency should include more whole and enriched grains in their diets.


High zinc intakes can inhibit the absorption of copper


Recommendations for weight gain vary according to a woman's weight before pregnancy


Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ________

Third thrimester

A low-birth-weight infant is one that weighs less than ________ pounds


Rich dietary sources of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) include ________

mackerel and salmon

Although promising, research that could precisely study and measure the benefits of a Calorie Restricted diet in humans may never be conducted because of logistical and ethical concerns


A dietary supplement would NOT contain

soil samples

Studies have shown that the higher the body mass index is in childhood the greater the risk of developing insulin resistance in adulthood.


Why are newborn infants given a single injection of vitamin K?

The infant's intestinal bacteria are not yet able to synthesize vitamin K

Metabolic effects of CR reported in several human studies include all of the following EXCEPT _______

increased energy expenditure

Maria typically eats 2000 kcals per day. How many calories per day should she strive to consume if she wanted to safely lose one pound per week?

1500 kcals

The total amount of energy needed per day for any given age is called the ________ energy requirement.


Which of the following is associated with the premature closure of the epiphyseal plate?

reduced activity level

Surgery is considered the last resort for morbidly obese people.


Iron-deficiency anemia is uncommon in young children


Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the consequences of the following maternal nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy?

Maternal zinc deficiency has no known consequences in adult offspring.

Snaking between meals is developmentally and nutritionally appropriate for toddlers


the primary cause of gastrointestinal reflux and constipation during pregnancy is

relaxation of the smooth muscles

the RDA for _____ decreases as we age


on average, Americans have a life expectancy that extends into the ____

late seventies

which of the following is NOT associated with binge-eating disorder?


Which of the following BEST explains why adolescents are more vulnerable to the unrealistic media images of the "perfect body" than are adults?

Adolescents are developing their personal identity.

Which of the following is NOT a risk in the offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy?


The majority of obese children will become healthy-weight adults.


Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is harmless to the fetus because it cannot cross the placenta.


What nutrient is added to municipal water supplies to promote healthy teeth formation?


What are dental caries?


Iodine is naturally found in many foods and beverages.


Which of the following would NOT be good advice to give to a parent regarding the introduction of solids to their six-month-old infant?

Add honey to cereal and fruit to improve infant acceptance of these new foods.

Which of the following hormones is referred to as the "let down" hormone?


In which trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens?


Which of the following is NOT a factor that indicates an infant is ready to accept solid foods?

The infant has high stores of iron.

A Calorie Restricted diet (CR) is defined as a diet containing 1000 or fewer calories per day.


An eating disorder is a psychiatric condition.


Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant?

The fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest.

Because of a condition known as atrophic gastritis, older adults sometimes need to be given periodic injections of B12 to prevent anemia.


Eating disorders do not occur in adolescent boys.


Thiamin, consumed in excess, is toxic.


The negative impact of fetal exposure to malnutrition is worsened if followed by low nutrient intakes shortly after birth.


Blood is the only fluid tissue in the human body.


Adolescent food patterns are strongly influenced by all of these EXCEPT


Which of the following is NOT related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?

Iron utilization slows down.

All of the following are risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome EXCEPT

lower than normal bone density.

Which of the following is NOT an appropriate weight control recommendation for an overweight 11-year-old?

Decrease caloric intake by 1000 calories a day.

Frequent purging can result in rapid weight loss.


Why is it strongly recommended that infants NOT consume honey?

Honey contains spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

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