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Nutrition exam 4

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The key to a successful Calorie Restricted diet is to
consume a low calorie, high nutrient-dense diet
Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionist, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of ________
anorexia nervosa
The electrolyte imbalances that are often seen with eating disorders can result in
irregular heartbeat and heart failure
Research has shown that there is no association between fetal exposure to famine and future risk of chronic disease.
False
The inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the ________
blastocyst
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?
The extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures.
Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ________
third trimester.
During the first six months of lactation, the daily caloric needs of the mother increase by ________ calories as compared to prepregnancy levels.
330
The fluid needs of adolescents are higher than those of children.
True
To avoid dehydration, toddlers should be offered fruit juice at every meal.
False
Which of the following is NOT an effective long-term treatment for obesity?
liposuction
Generally, surgery to treat obesity is not recommended unless an individual's BMI is ________
35kg/m2
Breastfeeding suppresses ovulation and can be used as a reliable form of contraception.
False
Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for pregnant women.
True
Most of the members of the Caloric Restriction Society and the CRONies are males.
True
The process by which a fetus's metabolism, hormone production, and other physiological processes shift in response to inadequate energy intake during pregnancy is called the ________ theory.
fetal adaptation
Research has clearly shown that the media's portrayal of body image is a direct cause of eating disorders
False
All of these will help you avoid purchasing fraudulent or dangerous supplements EXCEPT
purchasing products labeled "natural."
Existing evidence suggests that only 5% of obese people are successful at long-term weight loss.
False
Vitamin C impairs the absorption of iron
False, it enhances the absorption
Milk is a good source of riboflavin.
True
Adolescent acne is caused by
hormonal changes
All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals EXCEPT
perspiration increases as we age.
Janie is four years old. What serving size of green beans would you recommend for her?
4 tablespoons
All of the following foods pose a choking hazard for children EXCEPT
yogurt
In today's society, prejudice toward overweight people still seems to be widely practiced and acceptable.
True
Substances that lead to birth defects are called ________
teratogens
The stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is
infant suckling
Inadequate intakes of ________ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus.
folate
Recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the ________
mother's weight before becoming pregnant.
Obesity in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ________ percentile
95th
All of the following are physiological changes that typically occur with aging EXCEPT decreased
fat mass
Peak bone mass is typically achieved in ________
late teens and early twenties
Federal guidelines in the U.S. specify that school lunches must contain no more than ________ percent of the total calories from saturated fat
25
The B-complex vitamins provide a good source of energy for the body.
False
Because the absorption of dietary iron varies greatly, the RDA for iron is not adequate for most people.
False
The loss of tooth enamel seen in bulimia nervosa is due to the insufficient intake of calcium
False
Children under the age of 1 should not be given cow's milk
True
a woman suffers from gestational diabetes she has an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life
True
Which of the following is NOT symptomatic of anorexia nervosa?
secretive consumption of large amounts of food in a short period of time
Which of the following BEST explains why individuals with anorexia nervosa have an increased risk for developing osteoporosis?
decreased estrogen production
All of the following statements are true EXCEPT
All supplements sold in the U.S. must contain a U.S.P. (U.S. Pharmacopoeia) symbol
Approximately how long would a person's life be prolonged if he or she did not start consuming a Calorie Restricted diet until the age of 55 years?
4 months
Which of the following is FALSE concerning research conducted on subjects born during weather- and war-related famines in Africa?
Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in adults
What is a multifactorial disease?
a disease that has many different causes
Gastric bypass surgery reduces food intake by ________
attaching the lower part of the small intestine to the stomach
Parents should force their children to eat healthy foods to avoid obesity
False
Limiting sugary sweets in children's diets is important only once their permanent teeth have erupted.
False
The offspring of mothers who experienced low pregnancy weight gain have an increased risk of obesity in adulthood.
True
The human body typically absorbs less than 20% of the iron consumed in the diet
True
If your sibling has or has had an eating disorder, it places you at a higher risk of developing an eating disorder.
Answer
True
Antioxidant supplements have consistently been shown to lower rates of death from heart disease and certain types of cancer.
False
Research suggests that there are lifelong consequences to any type of nutrient imbalance during pregnancy.
True
Unless a prescribed by a qualified practitioner, taking a single-nutrient supplement is not recommended because it ________
may quickly lead to a nutrient toxicity
In older adults, which of the following is a mineral important to a healthy immune system and wound healing?
zinc
The fastest growing age subgroup in the United States today is
greater than or equal to 85-year-olds
How much fat is recommended for a preschooler?
25-35% of total energy
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet?
Calorie Restriction results in decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass
Which of the following is NOT a common life-long problem following surgery for morbid obesity?
increased resistance to infection
The energy needs of older adults are higher than those of younger adults.
False
Although considered an epidemic among U.S. adults, obesity rates in school-aged children have remained constant since the 1970s
False
Studies have shown that exposure of the fetus to famine in the first trimester of pregnancy resulted in a high risk of the development of ________ in adulthood
metabolic syndrome
Which of the following does NOT describe a characteristic associated with muscle dysmorphia?
purging by the use of laxative and/or vomiting at least two times a day
Which of the following sports is frequently associated with its female athletes being at risk for developing the female athlete triad?
gymnastics
A normal-weight woman should gain approximately 25 to ________ pounds during pregnancy.
35
The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and ________.
prolactin
At birth, baby Ramon weighs 8 pounds. If his growth and development are normal, what would you expect Ramon to weigh at his first birthday?
24 pounds
It is suggested that ________ percent of neural tube defects could be prevented if all women of childbearing age consumed adequate amounts of folate or folic acid
70
Breastfed infants have a low risk of developing heart disease in life because breast milk is very low in cholesterol.
False
All cases of neural tube defects are directly related to a lack of folate consumption during pregnancy.
False
Adiposity rebound occurs between the ages of 5 and ________ years
7
Antioxidant supplements are not necessary and may actually be harmful.
True
Adequate folate consumption is the most critical during the last trimester of pregnancy.
False
The ideal nutritional strategy for optimizing health is to ________
eat a healthful diet containing a variety of whole foods
Currently, the best known treatment of eating disorders is
a team-management approach
All of the following describe characteristics of the female athlete triad EXCEPT
diabetes mellitus
Poor maternal intake of calcium increases the risk of ________ in the adult offspring
hypertension
The cartilage that is located at the end of long bones that closes when growth ceases is called the ________ plate.
epiphyseal
The absorption of vitamin ________ increases in older adults.
A
Which of the following will NOT help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?
Use food as a reward for healthful behaviors
Overweight in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ________ percentile.
85th
Approximately one-half to two-thirds of people who received obesity surgery do not experience long-term success.
True
The USDA recommends that pregnant women avoid all of the following foods EXCEPT
Honey
The point at which the ovum becomes fertilized by the sperm is ________.
conception
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfed infants be given a ________ supplement to decrease the risk of developing rickets.
vitamin D
Adolescents need to consume four servings of dairy foods or calcium-fortified products daily to obtain the necessary calcium intake.
True
If a breastfeeding woman eats a well-planned, nutrient-dense diet she does not need to take supplements.
True
The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and ________
prolactin
Who is responsible for determining the safety and efficacy of any dietary supplement?
the manufacturer of the supplement
Obesity is NOT associated with an increased risk of
type-1 diabetes
Maria is a 3-year-old toddler and weighs 34 pounds. How many grams of protein should she consume each day?
13 grams
A reduced production of gastric secretions often seen in older adults can result in
a reduced absorption of calcium
Sodium needs during pregnancy are the same as for a non-pregnant adult woman
True
The growth spurt starts earlier in boys than in girls
False
Which of the following BEST describes why the body reduces nonvital body functions in untreated anorexia nervosa?
The body needs to conserve energy.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the intake of fruit juice be limited to ________ fluid ounces per day for children 1-6 years of age.
6
Which of the following BEST describes the "Milk Matters" campaign?
government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy foods
All of the following are characteristic of adolescent eating habits EXCEPT
regular consumption of three meals per day.
Due to the additional losses via the menstrual cycle, adolescent girls require more iron than do adolescent boys
True
Multivitamin/mineral supplements should never be recommended for preschoolers.
False
Female athletes who experience amenorrhea are at risk for developing osteoporosis
True
Which of the following birth defects has NOT been linked to maternal obesity?
Cancer
Individuals suffering from a zinc deficiency should include more whole and enriched grains in their diets.
True
High zinc intakes can inhibit the absorption of copper
True
Recommendations for weight gain vary according to a woman's weight before pregnancy
True
Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ________
Third thrimester
A low-birth-weight infant is one that weighs less than ________ pounds
5.5
Rich dietary sources of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) include ________
mackerel and salmon
Although promising, research that could precisely study and measure the benefits of a Calorie Restricted diet in humans may never be conducted because of logistical and ethical concerns
True
A dietary supplement would NOT contain
soil samples
Studies have shown that the higher the body mass index is in childhood the greater the risk of developing insulin resistance in adulthood.
True
Why are newborn infants given a single injection of vitamin K?
The infant's intestinal bacteria are not yet able to synthesize vitamin K
Metabolic effects of CR reported in several human studies include all of the following EXCEPT _______
increased energy expenditure
Maria typically eats 2000 kcals per day. How many calories per day should she strive to consume if she wanted to safely lose one pound per week?
1500 kcals
The total amount of energy needed per day for any given age is called the ________ energy requirement.
estimated
Which of the following is associated with the premature closure of the epiphyseal plate?
reduced activity level
Surgery is considered the last resort for morbidly obese people.
True
Iron-deficiency anemia is uncommon in young children
False
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the consequences of the following maternal nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy?
Maternal zinc deficiency has no known consequences in adult offspring.
Snaking between meals is developmentally and nutritionally appropriate for toddlers
False
the primary cause of gastrointestinal reflux and constipation during pregnancy is
relaxation of the smooth muscles
the RDA for _____ decreases as we age
iron
on average, Americans have a life expectancy that extends into the ____
late seventies
which of the following is NOT associated with binge-eating disorder?
Purging
Which of the following BEST explains why adolescents are more vulnerable to the unrealistic media images of the "perfect body" than are adults?
Adolescents are developing their personal identity.
Which of the following is NOT a risk in the offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy?
Osteoporosis
The majority of obese children will become healthy-weight adults.
False
Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is harmless to the fetus because it cannot cross the placenta.
False
What nutrient is added to municipal water supplies to promote healthy teeth formation?
Fluoride
What are dental caries?
Cavities
Iodine is naturally found in many foods and beverages.
False
Which of the following would NOT be good advice to give to a parent regarding the introduction of solids to their six-month-old infant?
Add honey to cereal and fruit to improve infant acceptance of these new foods.
Which of the following hormones is referred to as the "let down" hormone?
Oxytocin
In which trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens?
First
Which of the following is NOT a factor that indicates an infant is ready to accept solid foods?
The infant has high stores of iron.
A Calorie Restricted diet (CR) is defined as a diet containing 1000 or fewer calories per day.
False
An eating disorder is a psychiatric condition.
True
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant?
The fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest.
Because of a condition known as atrophic gastritis, older adults sometimes need to be given periodic injections of B12 to prevent anemia.
True
Eating disorders do not occur in adolescent boys.
False
Thiamin, consumed in excess, is toxic.
False
The negative impact of fetal exposure to malnutrition is worsened if followed by low nutrient intakes shortly after birth.
False
Blood is the only fluid tissue in the human body.
True
Adolescent food patterns are strongly influenced by all of these EXCEPT
Parents
Which of the following is NOT related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?
Iron utilization slows down.
All of the following are risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome EXCEPT
lower than normal bone density.
Which of the following is NOT an appropriate weight control recommendation for an overweight 11-year-old?
Decrease caloric intake by 1000 calories a day.
Frequent purging can result in rapid weight loss.
False
Why is it strongly recommended that infants NOT consume honey?
Honey contains spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Which of the following statements is FALSE
regarding vitamin B12 during pregnancy?
The RDA for vitamin B12 doubles during pregnancy.
Without adequate vitamin K, blood does not clot properly and bleeding problems can develop.
True
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Engaging in at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity can promote longevity
Some of the earliest research on the fetal origins theory took place in ________ adults.
Dutch
Which of the following fatty acids is critical to fetal brain and eye development?
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
During pregnancy what amount of alcohol consumption is considered safe?
None
Macrocytic anemia results from a deficiency of ________
vitamin B12
For proper growth and development, toddlers should consume ________ percent of their total daily energy intake as fat.
30-40
All of the following are associated with developing toddlers' healthy eating habits EXCEPT
rewarding meal completion with dessert
High intake of fiber may be harmful in young children, as it may interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
True
In the elderly a ________ deficiency can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell.
Zinc
All of the following are associated with gestational diabetes EXCEPT
delivery of a low-birth-weight infant.
Once the placenta has formed, the fetus's and mother's blood supplies will co-circulate.
False
Maintaining an energy-restricted diet that is high in nutrients requires significant planning and preparation of most of your own meals.
True
Individuals suffering from binge-eating disorder and night-eating syndrome are often overweight.
True
Malnutrition decreases a man's fertility.
True
The average weight and height for a healthy newborn in the United States is ________ pounds and 18-22 inches long.
7 1/2
The only thing that will "cure" eclampsia is ________
delivery of the infant
Social factors that appear to influence obesity risk include all of the following EXCEPT
abnormal thyroid hormone levels
The nutrient needs of young boys and girls do not differ until about the age of 8 or 9 years.
True
Preliminary research studies suggest that a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet can improve metabolic measures of health in humans and, therefore, may be able to extend the human life span.
True
Research has identified the "eating disorder gene" as the major cause of eating disorders.
False
Growth acceleration in adolescence is primarily driven by
hormonal changes
Federal guidelines specify that school lunches must provide ________ of the 1989 RDAs for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and energy.
1/3
Iron-deficiency anemia is uncommon in young children.
False
Non-heme iron is found in both animal- and plant-based foods.
True
Which of the following psychiatric disorders causes the most deaths among women?
anorexia nervosa
The development of the ________ system is particularly dependent on adequate consumption of fat during the toddler years.
nervous
Which of the following is NOT a reason that vitamin D and calcium supplements are recommended for elderly individuals?
Absorption of calcium and vitamin D is reduced as we age.
Milk that is low in fat and produced first in a nursing session is known as ________
foremilk
During the second and third trimesters, the caloric needs of a pregnant woman increase by 350 to ________ kilocalories per day.
450
Vitamin K deficiency is associated with an overgrowth of intestinal bacteria.
False
The fetal adaptation theory indicates that a fetus exposed to starvation or malnutrition goes into a survival mode. Which of the following is NOT a fetal physiological response in this situation?
The size and function of body organs, such as liver or kidneys, does not change.