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70 terms

Cellular Respiration

Detailed overview of Cellular Respiration
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Adenosine triphosphate
The main energy carrying molecule in cells.(No abbreviations)
Aerobic respiration
Uses oxygen to release energy from carbohydrates and sequester it into ATP.
Anaerobic respiration
Release of energy from carbohydrates without the use of oxygen.
Glycolysis
Process by which glucose is broken down into two pyruvate molecules.
Aerobic respiration
Form of respiration which produces the most ATP for each glucose molecule used.
36
The number of ATP molecules produced by aerobic respiration.
2
The net number of ATP molecules produced by anaerobic respiration.
Oxidation
The removal of electrons from an atom.
Reduction
The addition of electrons to an atom.
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Name of molecule which results from phosphorylation of Fructose-6 phosphate by Phosphofructokinase-1.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
This is what NAD stands for.
B vitamins
NAD is derived from these vitamins which are not synthesized by vertebrates.
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
Glycolysis produces this molecule which can be converted to Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by the Gly-5 enzyme.
Pyruvate
Glycolysis ends with the formation of two of these molecules.
Phosphoenolpyruvate
This molecule is converted into pyruvate.
ATP
This molecule is produced along with pyruvate when the Gly-10 enzyme de-phosphorylates phosphoenolpyruvate.
ATP
This molecule is produced along with 3-phosphoglycerate when the Gly-7 enzyme de-phosphorylates 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.
4
This is the total number of ATP molecules produced in glycolysis.
2
This is the total number of ATP molecules used in glycolysis.
2
This is the total number of NADH molecules produced in glycolysis.
2
This is the total number of Pyruvate molecules produced in glycolysis.
Lactate fermentation
Muscle cells use this form of respiration when glucose stores are low.
Alcoholic fermentation
Yeast are one organism that utilize this form of anaerobic respiration.
Cristae
This is the name of the folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Cytoplasm
Name of the location where glycolysis is performed.
ATP synthase
This protein is driven by an electrochemical gradient of proteins to drive ATP production in mitochondria.
Mitochondrial Matrix
Name of the location where the Krebs cycle is carried out.
Acetyl-coenzyme A
This molecule is produced from pyruvate when entering the inner mitochondrial matrix. NADH and CO2 are also produced in this reaction.
Citrate synthase
Acetyl CoA is combined with Oxaloacetate using this enzyme.
2
This is the number of CO2 molecules produced in the Krebs cycle per pyruvate.
3
This is the number of NADH molecules produced in the Krebs cycle per pyruvate.
1
This is the number of FADH2 molecules produced in the Krebs cycle per pyruvate.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
This is what FAD stands for.
1
This is the number of ATP molecules produced in the Krebs cycle per pyruvate.
Isocitrate
Citrate is converted into this molecule in the Krebs cycle.
Alpha-ketoglutarate
Isocitrate is converted into this molecule in the Krebs cycle.
Succinyl CoA
Alpha-ketoglutarate is converted into this molecule in the Krebs cycle.
Aconitase
This enzyme produces isocitrate from citrate.
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
This enzyme produces Alpha-ketoglutarate from isocitrate in the Krebs cycle.
Alpha-ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase
This enzyme produces Succinyl CoA from Alpha-ketoglutarate in the Krebs Cycle.
Succinate
Succinyl CoA is converted into this molecule during the Krebs cycle.
Fumarate
Succinate is converted into this molecule during the Krebs cycle.
Malate
Fumarate is converted into this molecule during the Krebs cycle.
Oxaloacetate
Malate is converted into this molecule during the Krebs cycle.
Succinyl CoA synthase
Succinyl CoA is converted into Succinate by this enzyme.
Succinate dehydrogenase
Succinate is converted into Fumarate by this enzyme.
Fumarase
Fumarate is converted into malate by this enzyme.
Malate dehydrogenase
Malate is converted into Oxaloacetate by this enzyme.
Succinate dehydrogenase
FADH2 is produced from FAD in the Krebs cycle by this enzyme.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
Pyruvate is converted into Acetyl CoA by this enzyme.
2
For each molecule of glucose this many molecules of NADH are produced in the conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
Flavin Mononucleotide
This is abbreviated as FMN and is used in the electron transport system.
NADH dehydrogenase
This enzyme transfers enzymes from NADH to CoQ in the electron transport chain.
Cytochrome
Heme containing protein used in the electron transport chain.
NADH dehydrogenase complex
Complex 1 of the electron transport chain.
Succinate-Coenzyme Q oxioreductase complex
Complex 2 of the electron transport chain.
Coenzyme Q-cytochrome c oxioreductase complex
Complex 3 of the electron transport chain.
Cytochrome c oxidase
Complex 4 of the electron transport chain.
Oxygen
Final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain.
Cyanide and Azide
These two molecules block electron transport by binding to the Fe/Cu center of complex IV
Peter Mitchell
Name of scientist who discovered the use of an chemiosmotic gradient in producing ATP in cells. He won a Nobel Peace Prize for this work in 1978.
F1
Portion of the ATP synthase that contains synthase activity.
F0
Portion of the ATP synthase that contains proton translocator activity.
Loose
L conformation of F0F1 complex stands for this.
Tight
T conformation of F0F1 complex stands for this.
Open
O conformation of F0F1 complex stands for this.
32
This is the number of ATP molecules produced in the electron transport chain.
Carbohydrates
Type of molecules mainly used in cellular respiration.
Fats
Type of molecules used secondarily in cellular respiration.
Proteins
Type of molecules used as a last resort in cellular respiration.