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AP Human Geography Unit 3
Unit 3 terms. Eric Welter's AP Human Geography Class 2014-2015
Terms in this set (81)
Cultural modification or change that results when one culture group or individual adopts traits of a dominant or host society; cultural development or change through borrowing.
Genetic modification making a population more fit for existence under specific environmental conditions.
A belief that natural objects may be the abode of dead people, spirits, or gods who occasionally give the objects the appearance of life.
The material manifestations of culture, including tools, housing, systems of land use, clothing, and the like.
A two-part behavioral and structural process by which a minority population reduces or loses completely its identifying cultural characteristics and blends into the host society.
A universalizing religion, primarily of eastern and central Asia, based on teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, that suffering is inherent in all life but can be relieved by mental and moral self-purification.
That part of the physical landscape that represents material culture; the buildings, roads, bridges, and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape.
The maximum population numbers that an area can support on a continuing basis without experiencing unacceptable deterioration.
The process by which migration movements from a common home area to a specific destination are sustained by links of friendship or kinship between first movers and later followers.
In plural societies, the early arriving ethnic group that created the first effective settlement and established the recognized cultural norms to which other, later groups are expected to conform.
A monotheistic, universalizing religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ and of the Bible as sacred scripture.
A Chinese value system and ethnic religion emphasizing ethics, social morality, tradition, and ancestor worship.
A form of expansion diffusion that depends on direct contact. The process of dispersion is centrifugal, strongly influenced by distance, and dependent on interaction between actual and potential adopters of the innovation.
A language developed from a pidgin to become the native tongue of a society.
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organization structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.
The likelihood or tendency for cultures to become increasingly dissimilar with the passage of time.
The study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they occupy.
The interconnectedness of all aspects of a culture; no part can be altered without creating an impact on other components of the culture.
The natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society; the built environment.
A society's collective beliefs, symbols, values, forms of behavior, and social organizations, together with its tools, structures, and artifacts created according to the group's conditions of life.
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity.
A nuclear area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas, and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply.
A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems.
A formal or functional region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.
A generalization suggesting shared, identifying traits uniting two or more culture complexes.
A single distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system.
The body of traditional practices, usages, and conventions that regulate social life.
A language variant marked by vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation differences from other variants of the same common language.
The spread or movement of a phenomenon over space or through time.
Any condition that hinders the flow of information, the movement of people, or the spread of an innovation.
The view that the physical environment, particularly climate, controls human action, molds human behavior, and conditions cultural development.
People sharing a distinctive culture, frequently based on common national origin, religion, language, or race.
Ethnic quality; affiliation with a group whose racial, cultural, religious, or linguistic characteristics or national origins distinguish it from a larger population within which it is found.
A religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it. Such a religion does not seek converts.
The spread of ideas, behaviors, or articles through a culture area or from one culture to neighboring areas through contact and exchange of information.
First Effective Settlement
The influence that the characteristics of an early dominant settlement group exert on the later social and cultural geography of an area.
The body of institutions, customs, dress, artifacts, collective wisdoms, and traditions of a homogeneous, isolated, largely self-sufficient, and relatively static social group.
Oral traditions of a folk culture, including tables, fables, legends, customary observations, and moral teachings.
A forced or voluntarily segregated residential area housing a racial, ethnic, or religious minority.
A form of diffusion in which spread of an innovation can proceed either upward or downward through a hierarchy.
An ancient and now dominant value system and religion of India, closely identified with Indian culture but without central creed, single doctrine, or religious organization.
An economic and social system based primarily or exclusively on the hunting of wild animals and the gathering of food, fiber, and other materials from uncultivated plants.
The complex of ideas, beliefs, knowledge, and means of their communication that characterize a culture.
Innovations developed in two or more unconnected locations by individuals or groups acting independently.
Introduction of new ideas, practices, or objects; usually, an alteration of custom or culture that originates within the social group itself.
A monotheistic, universalizing religion that includes belief in Allah as the sole deity and in Mohammed as his prophet completing the work of earlier prophets of Judaism and Christianity.
A mapped boundary line marking the limits of a particular linguistic feature.
A monotheistic, ethnic religion first developed among the Hebrew people of the ancient Near East; its determining conditions include descent from Israel, the Torah, and tradition.
The system of words, their pronunciation, and methods of combination used and mutually understood by a community of individuals.
A group of languages thought to have descended from a single, common ancestral tongue.
Any of various auxiliary languages used as common tongues among people of an area where several languages are spoken.
The central, enduring elements of a culture expressing its values and beliefs, including language, religion, folklore, artistic traditions, and the like.
The belief that there is but a single God.
The predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity.
A concept of independent but parallel cultural development advanced by the anthropologist Julian Steward.
A governmentally designated language of instruction, of government, of the courts, and other official public and private communication.
An auxiliary language derived, with reduced vocabulary and simplified structure, from other languages.
The loss of locally distinctive characteristics and identity and replacement by standardized landscapes.
Belief in or worship of many gods.
The constantly changing mix of material and nonmaterial elements available through mass production and the mass media to an urbanized, heterogeneous, nontraditional society.
The philosophical viewpoint that the physical environment offers human beings a set of opportunities from which people may choose according to their cultural needs and technological awareness.
An assumed, reconstructed, or recorded ancestral language.
A subset of human population whose members share certain distinctive, inherited biological characteristics.
The religious or philosophical concept that the soul or spirit, after biological death, begins a new life in a new body.
A personal or institutionalized system of worship and of faith in the sacred and divine.
The transfer of ideas, behaviors, or articles from one place to another through the migration of those possessing the feature transported; also, spatial relocation in which a phenomenon leaves an area of origin as it is transported to a new location.
A measure of the degree to which members of a minority group are not uniformly distributed among the total population.
The polytheistic, ethnic religion of Japan that includes reverence of deities of natural forces and veneration of the emperor as descendent of the sun-goddess.
The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational, and religious institutions.
The totality of expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations common to a culture or subculture.
A form of expansion diffusion in which a fundamental idea, though not the specific trait itself, stimulates imitative behavior within a receptive population.
One of the two main branches of Islam, commonly described as orthodox, and differing from Shia in its understanding of the Sunna and in its acceptance of the first three caliphs.
One of the two main branches of Islam, followed especially in Iran, that rejects the first three Sunni caliphs and regards Ali, the fourth caliph, as Muhammad's first true successor.
The development of a new form of culture trait by the fusion of two or more distinct parental elements.
A Chinese value system and ethnic religion emphasizing conformity to Tao.
The complex of material objects together with the techniques of their use by means of which people carry out their productive activities.
A system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.
The degree of neighborhood racial or ethnic mixing that induces the former majority group to move out rapidly.
A place name.
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other.
A religion that claims global truth and applicability and seeks the conversion of all humankind.
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