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gene expression

the process of converting archived information into molecules that actually do things in the cell.

the one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis

ach gene is made of only one enzyme

knock-out mutants

alleles that do not function at all


messenger RNA are short-lived molecules that carry info from DNA to the site of protein synthesis

RNA polymerase

polymerizes ribonucleotides into strands of RNA.

central dogma

summarizes the flow of info in cells. an accepted version of the way things are/happen.


the process of copying hereditary information in DNA to RNA.


the process of using the information in nucleic acids to synthesize proteins.

genetic code

the rules that specify the relationship between a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA and the sequence of amnio acids in a protein.

triplet code

a three-base code


the group of three bases that specifies a particular amino acid

start codon

signals that protein synthesis should begin at that point on the mRNA molecule.

stop codon

termination codons that signal the protein is complete and end the translation process.


any permanent change in an organism's DNA

point mutation

a single base change

missense mutations

a point mutation that causes a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein. Change in primary polypeptide structure. ch

silent mutations

a point mutation that does not change the amino acid sequence of the gene product. A change in the genotype but not the phenotype

nonsense mutation

change in nucleotide that results in early stop codon


increase the fitness of the organism


mutation has no affect on fitness


lower fitness


addition or deletion of a nucleotide


a change in the number of each type of chromosome present


the addition or deletion of a chromosome


segments become flipped and rejoin


become attached to a different chromosome


the complete set of chromosomes in a cell

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