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How genes work ch. 15
the process of converting archived information into molecules that actually do things in the cell.
the one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
ach gene is made of only one enzyme
alleles that do not function at all
messenger RNA are short-lived molecules that carry info from DNA to the site of protein synthesis
polymerizes ribonucleotides into strands of RNA.
summarizes the flow of info in cells. an accepted version of the way things are/happen.
the process of copying hereditary information in DNA to RNA.
the process of using the information in nucleic acids to synthesize proteins.
the rules that specify the relationship between a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA and the sequence of amnio acids in a protein.
a three-base code
the group of three bases that specifies a particular amino acid
signals that protein synthesis should begin at that point on the mRNA molecule.
termination codons that signal the protein is complete and end the translation process.
any permanent change in an organism's DNA
a single base change
a point mutation that causes a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein. Change in primary polypeptide structure. ch
a point mutation that does not change the amino acid sequence of the gene product. A change in the genotype but not the phenotype
change in nucleotide that results in early stop codon
increase the fitness of the organism
mutation has no affect on fitness
addition or deletion of a nucleotide
a change in the number of each type of chromosome present
the addition or deletion of a chromosome
segments become flipped and rejoin
become attached to a different chromosome
the complete set of chromosomes in a cell