73 terms

Geography Test 3

The Atlantic Slave Trade
slaves were sold from the africans to the europeans and then brought across the ocean to north and south america
-number one killer in africa
-over 900000 people a year die from it in africa
-there is a cure; jsut costs $$
river that makes up a lot of africa
-brittish colony
Guinea bissau
-woopie goldberg fam history
GoodLuck Johnathan
-in his second term
-member of OPEC
Islam-5 pillars
5 pillars
1.profession of faith; there is only one god and muh. is his prophet
2. pray 5 x a day facing mecca
3.giving alms
4.fasting during ramadan
5.pilgrimage to mecca
divisions of islam
83% sunni
16 % shiite
1% other
in most of middle east there is no spearation of church and state. islamic law is strictly enforced
islam recogz. adam moses jesus and muh as prophs
Judaism-14 mill world wide
law of moses
1. thou shalt have no other gods before me
2.thou shalt not make unto thee graven images
3.thou shalt not take the name of god in vain
4.remmeber the sabbath and keep it holy
5. honor thy father and thy momma
6. thou shalt not kill
7.thou shalt not comit adultery
8.thou shalt not steal
9.thou shalt not lie
10. thou shall not covet
european colonial objectives
-a water route to south asia and southeast asia
-a port along the west african coast
-1500's looking for new resources; slaves
-1850s- indust. rev. occurs in europe
* increased dmand for mineral resources
*need to expand ag. production
berlin conference
-14 states divided up africa without consideration of cultures
-results of superimposiam boundaries
*af. peeps were divided
*unified regions were ripped apart
*hostile societies were thrown together
*hinterlands were disruppted
*migration routes were closed off
-when independence returend to africa after the 1950's the realm had already acquired a leg. of pol. fragmentation
Colonial Polocies
Great Brit- indirect rule (ghana nigeria kenya zimbabwe
*indigenous power structures were left intact to some degree and local rulers were made reps of the crown
FrAnCe-assimilationists "senegal, mali, ivory coast etc"
Portugal- "exploitation" (guinea-Bissau, angola, mozambique)
Belgium- "paternalistic" (Rwanda, zaire, burundi)
*treated africans as though they were childeren who needed to be tourtered in western ways; did not try to make them belgium
*raw resources oriente; ignored the development of natives
The Legacy
-several hundred languages are spoken
-antagonism between tribes
-low level of development is linked to colonization
*trasportation facilities- movement of goods is from the interior to coastal outlets
*communications within africa is impeded by desert, dense forest and lack of navigable rivers in certain regions
*dual econ- remains infact; most states rely on a single crop or mineral and are vulderable to world markets
Sub saharan africas Economic challenge
-economic growth rate- 1.5% worlds lowest
-the regions 646 mill people have a combined GNP of less than 150$ billion roughly the same as Belgium and its 10 mill people
-Population-Growing at the rate of 2.6% annually, vs 1.7% for south america and 1.9% for south asia
Medical Geog
-exists in equilibrium with the population
-many develop an immunity of sorts
-saps energy, lowers resistance, shortens lives
-sudden outbreak at local, regional scale
-worldwide spread
Aids in africa (BOOK IT)
REligion in Africa
Long before muslims and later the christans spread their faiths thru af. it was a place of strong relig beliefs
-afs. had a consistent view of their place in nature Natrual environment (in forests, rivers and mountains) not supreme deity. Gods reward the vuruous and penalize those whom misbehave
-islam advanced out of arabia, across deserts and down east coast
-christianity began in the northeast and most of subsaharan africa is nominally althouh not exclusvely christain
Cultural Patterns-Population and Urbanization
-the realm is the least urbanized of any in the world
-but is the fastest urbanizing realm today
-about 27% of the realms pop. now resides in teh cities; many are overcrowded
Southern Africa
Apartheid- literal appareness; the afrikans terms for south africas pre 1994 policies of racial separations; a system that produced highly segregated socio-graphical patterns
Separate development-the spatial expression of south africas "grand" apartheid scheme, whereby non white groups were required to settle in segregated "homelands." the policy was dismantled when white-minority rule collapsed in the early 1990s
-over 350 aparth. laws were passed by the National Party
South African Act 1909
est. the south af union; consolidated the power in all white parliament
Mines and Work Act 1911&1926
imposed a color ban on certain jobs ; white ppl should have higher salaries than blacks at all times
Natives act 1923
est. segregation in the cities; forced blacks to carry special papers at all times to be allowed to stay in the cities
Prohibition of mixed marriages act 1949
banned iterracial marriages
Population registration act 1950
forced south afs. to register as black, white asian etc.
immorality act of 1950
banned sexual relatiosn between differnt races
B***** Education act of 1953
enforced racial segregation of schools
Nelson Mandella
The Dry World
Dry/arid Climate prevails thru realm
-peripheral regions of turkey
-northwestern section of iran
-northern morocco & Alegeria
-numerous oases
-several great river valleys
Three types of Desert
hamada-arabic for rock
reg-arabic for stone
erg-arabic for sand; 5 types of dunes:
5. star
Water-Renewable or finite?
-water is critical for life, food prod, an industrial processes
-9 out of 14 southwest azn states face water-short conditions (the most concentrated region of scarcity in the world)
-the north af states all have rates of natural increate above 2.0% increasing the stress on water sources
Hydrolic Civilization
the same or similar, organization and control continues to be needed to maintain the works and adjudicate disputes over water rights
-farmers become dependet upon the artificial water supply or securty from flooding (so the leaders who control the works can have full control over farmers)
-leaders used their power to construct non-hydraulic works such as temples, palaces, roads etc. and eventually to conduct other activites such as manufacturing trade goods
-this process leads to very powerful leaders
An Arabic Realm?
-relates to language as a cultural feature of this realm
-arabic is the dom. lang. in 16 states of the realm
-in non-arabic states, indigenous langs dom.
-israel= hebrew
Egypt and the lower nile basin
-continuous civilization > 5000 yrz
-95% of of egypts 71 mill people live 12 miles within the nile
-basin irrigation
-perennial irrigation mid 1800s
-aswan high dam 1968
*increased ag. land by 50%
*proveds 40% of electricty
The Maghreb and Libya
-maghreb-dominated by the atlas mountains
*morocco-last of the north af. kingdoms
*algeria-a secular republic with religious political probs
*tunisia-smallest and most westernized of the maghrebs
-libya-oil rich desert state with ^ costal orientation
African Transition zone
-Sahel-arabic word for border or margin
-a zone where peeps are ehnically african but culturally arab
-desertification-principal enviornment problem
-culture and political instability
-north versus south-muslim versus non muslim patterns
The middle east
-"middle" of the islamic realm
-iraq, syria, jordan, israel, lebanon
-Center of conflict between christians, jews and muslims
-sunni-shi'ite conflict (within iraq and thruout the region)
Arabian peninsula
-saudi arabia, kuwait, bahrain, qatar, uae, oman, yemem
-oil, desert, and strat. location
-saudi- 22.9 mill people with teh worlds greatest oil reserves
-pol. movement
-founded by theodore herzel
-objective: sercure a homeland for the jewish people
Balfour Declaration 1917
-supports the concept of a jewish homeland
Jewish immigration to palestine
1922-british mandate to govern palestine
Rising conflict between arabs and jews
Israel Un Partition Plan for Palestine
-division into jewish and arab areas
-brits evacuate palestine in 1948
-proc. of israel as a state (may 14 1948)
1948-Arab invasion
War of independence
-egypitian, iraqi, jordanian, and syrian forces
-israel siezes more land htan prescribed under un mandate
armistice 1949
900000 palestinian refugees
Arab-Israeli Conflicts
-1956-suez war
-1967- six day war- israel gains control of : gaza strip, sinai peninsula, west bank of the river jordan, east sector of jerusalem, golan heights in syria
-1973- yom kippur war
Struggs for Jerusalem
-holy to jews, christains and muslims
-judaism: capital of jewish kingdom 3000 years, faith took form in the first temple-destroyed by babylonians in 586 bc; rebuilt as second temple- destroyed by roamns in AD 70
-Islam: prophet muhammad ascended into heaven 7th century AD
-christanity based on the teachings of jesus chirist; cruxification &ascent
Sub Saharan africa (africa)
Big challenges facing the continent:
-poverty:average income is less than 500 US dollars per year and many areas see their citizens barely survive on less than a dollar a day
-Peace: many areas still have ongoing conflicts. the af union and the UN are providing stability in some regions
-Health: this region has 10% of teh worlds pop. and 60% of the individuals infected wiht AIDS. HIV rates are as high as 38% in some contried. 28 mill. struggle to survive with the disease today and there are 20 million orphans that have lost their parets to teh epidemic. Aids is only part of the pic. the need for adequate medical care is the biggest threat to africas future.
-Environmental issues: desertificaion in the nroth, pollution of water from the oil and mining interests, along with tropical deforestation lead the list.
Sahel Region (AFrica)
Mauritania, mali, niger, burkina faso, chad, sudan, eritrea, djibouti, ethiopia & somalia
-afs. climate and cultural transistion zone.
-most pople live in poverty
*one of hte poorest regions on earth with people living on as little as one US dollar a day
-Significant resources: niger is a source for france's uranium. Chad & Sudan are oil producers
-Challenges: Chad- civil war Suden-civil war; southern sudan too became independent, Ethiopia and Eritrea's border war; Somalia-Struggles with civil war, al Qaeda camps and pirates; US troops based in Djibouti & US navy patrol coast
West Africa
Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin & Nigeria
-Significant Resources: diamonds, bauxite, gold, agriculture exports including coffee and cocoa
-Challenges: coups & civil wars have taken place thru the region
*charles Taylor is on trail at the ICC for crimes against humanity. Liberia & Sierra Leone saw brutal civil wars & 400.000 deaths in 90s.
*Prez Ellen Johnson is on the the few female heads of state in africa
*ivory coast has been stabilized with a new democratically elected gov in power.
*Nigeria struggs with cultural & religious differences that threaten the future stability of the country. Prez good luck johnathan is trying to maintain unity
Equatorial Africa
Cameroon, central af. republic, equatorial guinea, gabon, congo & DR Congo
-Significant Resources: oil, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium and diamonds; lumber is a major export from this rain forest region
-Challenges: central af repub & Congo are still unstable. the congo has had elections in 2006 & UN peace keepers in country. The death toll here in the heart of africa is over 4 mill.
-Joseph Kabilla has just started his second term as prez of DRC
East Africa
Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi
-Significant resources: diamonds, tanzanite, gold, agriculture exports including coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco & sugar. Tourism holds the greatest potential for wealth in this region
Soutern Africa
Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambiqe, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, Swazi Land & South Af
-Resources: oil, diamonds, gold, copper, platinum
-Challenges:SEE PACKET
Empire States
turkey, iraq, iran
Israel & its neighbors
israel, lebanon, syria, and jordan
-Challenges: syrian civil war has killed over 10000 and produced thousands of refuges SEE WORKSHEET!
North Africa
morocco, algeria, tunisia, libya and egypt
CHallenges:arab spring continues to dominate teh news in this region. SEE SHEET
Arabian Peninusula
saudi arabia, yemen, oman, UAE, quatar, Bahrain, kuwait
Challenges: worksheeeet
Persian Gulf
67% of worlds oil
saudi arabia
south africa
gold coast
fruit and veg
pistachio nuts
saudi arabi agriculture
poultry, fish
ivory coast
south af agriculture
beef, wheat, grapes, citrus
east af
coffee & tea