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Anatomic and Physiologic Relationships of the Body
Terms in this set (61)
Name the 9 abdominal regions.
right hypochon. epigastrium left hypoch.
right lumbar umbilical left lumbar
right iliac fossa hypogastrium left iliac fossa
What is another name for organ?
What are the two main body cavities called?
dorsal and ventral
What is contained within the dorsal cavities?
cranila cavity and spinal cavity
What is contained within the ventral cavities?
abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
What is the diaphragm?
Muscular structure that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
What lies within the pleural sacs?
each lung separated by the mediastinum
What lies within the mediastinum?
heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea
What is the pericardial sac?
cavity that surrounds the heart
Where does the liver lie?
within the right hypochondrium, and epigastrium
Where does the spleen lie?
The left hypochondrium, posterior structure
Where does the GB lie?
Free hanging structure on the inferior surface of the liver, between the rt and lt lobes of the liver
Where does the pancreas lie?
Obliquely across the epigastric area
Where do the kidneys lie in relation to one another?
The right kidney lies slightly lower due to the large size of the right lobe of the liver
What is the stomach a connection between?
The esophagus and the small intestine
Where does the stomach lie?
transpyloric plane in the epigastric area
Where does the small intestine extend from?
The pylorus of the stomach to the large intestine
Where does the large intestine extend from?
Small intestine to the anal canal
What are the 3 parts of the large intestine?
ascending, transverse, descending
Describe the shape of the diaphragm?
crescent/dome shaped muscle with convexity towards the thorax
What is the principal muscle of respiration?
What is a crura?
diaphragmatic bands/extensions that anchor the arcuate ligaments
What are the only structures to pierce through the diaphragm?
ao, ivc, esophagus
Describe the aorta in relation to its piercing through the diaphragm.
The aorta is the most posterior of the three, pierces at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra
Describe the IVC in relation to its piercing through the diaphragm.
The most anterior of the three, pierces the diaphragm at the level of the 8th or 9th vertebra
Describe the esophagus in relation to its piercing through the diaphragm.
The middle, pierces the diaphragm at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra
What is the fibrous band that extends from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis called?
What is the linea alba?
fibrous band that extends from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis
Describe the rectus abdominus.
long vertical muscle that extends from the pubic bone to the xiphoid process
Describe the external oblique muscle.
Most superficial, extends from the lower lateral ribs to the lower pelvis
Describe the internal oblique muscle.
middle muscle, extends from the iliac crest to the lower ribs
Describe the transverse abdominus muscle.
Deepest muscle, extends from the xiphoid process to the lower ribs
What is the peritoneum?
serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal cavity, covering the abdominal viscera
What are the two layers of the peritoneum called?
parietal and visceral
What is mesothelium?
a single layer of cells that forms a membrane through which substances can be absorbed directly into capillaries
What is serous fluid?
acts as a lubricant to reduce friction between the abdominal structures (normally not seen on ultrasound)
What is the parietal peritoneum?
lines the abdominal wall but does not cover an organ
What is the visceral peritoneum?
the portion that covers an organ
What happens when the peritoneum is damaged or removed?
Adhesions may form where two layers of peritoneum stick together and cause restriction of the normal movements of abdominal organs
What is the peritoneal cavity?
A potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
What is ascited?
The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Name the intraperitoneal organs.
liver, spleen, small intestines, gallbladder and bile ducts, stomach
What structures are located in the retroperitoneum?
S- suprarenal (adrenal glands)
K- kidneys and bladder
Describe morison's pouch.
Fluid located between the right lobe of the liver and the right kidney
Describe the pouch of douglas.
Fluid located between the rectum and uterus
Describe the anterior cul-de-sac.
Fluid located between the bladder and the uterus
Where is the lesser sac located?
behind the lesser omentum and stomach
How does the greater and lesser sac communicate?
through the epiploic foramen
Where is the epiploic foramen located?
stomach, pancreas, caudate lobe of the liver
What is the omentum?
double fold of peritoneum that attaches the stomach to another viscous organ
Describe the lesser omentum.
Connects the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach
Describe the greater omentum.
Hangs down like an apron from the the greater curvature of the stomach to the small intestine and anterior abdominal wall
What is the inguinal canal?
It is an oblique passage through the lower anterior abdominal wall
What is the purpose of the inguinal canal in men?
allows structures to pass from the testes to the abdomen
What is the purpose of the inguinal canal in women?
allows passage of the round ligament of the uterus from the uterus to the labium
What are the significance of paracolic gutters?
can communicate fluid materials from one part of the body to another (abscesses, ascites, blood, pus, bile, or mets)
What are the 4 paracolic gutters?
supracolic, infracolic, right, and left paracolic gutters
fluid in the abdominal cavity
Describe pleural effusion.
fluid in the thoracic cavity
What does ascites look like sonographically?
Ascites will push the diaphragm away from the liver, liver will lose its echogenic border
What does pleural effusion look like sonographically?
Pleural effusions will be superior to the diaphragm, above the echogenic band
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