According to Goffman what institutional characteristics result in isolation and the inability to act?
●Staff members supervise all spheres of daily life, such as where inmates eat,
work, and sleep.
● The environment is highly standardized, with one set of activities for everyone.
● Rules and schedules dictate how inmates perform all aspects of their daily routine.
What aspects of inmate culture are unique?
values, traditions, roles, expectations, language, and customs while in prison.
What elements are from Irwin & Cressey 1960's list of inmate behavior?
Do your own time (don't get involved in the business of other inmates)
● Be a stand-up guy (be someone that other inmates can count on)
● Don't rat on other inmates (do not tell staff what other inmates have done or
are doing—don't be a "snitch")
● Don't trust the guards (don't become overly friendly with staff, don't show
them respect, and talk to them only when you have to)
● Don't exploit other inmates (don't take advantage of others or their problems
or steal from them)
● Maintain dignity and respect (don't show staff a weakness and show respect
to other inmates)
● Settle conflict between inmates (don't go to staff with problems between
inmates, settle it yourself)
● Respect the real "cons" (the inmates who have done a lot of time, know the system, and live the inmate code deserve respect)
What are some reasons for change in inmate culture?
The first is that, with a greater reliance on prison than on probation for many offenders, there are more square johns in prison, and even though they serve short sentences and
turn over rapidly, they represent a larger percentage of inmates who do not adhere to the inmate culture. Second, there are many young and impulsive inmates who respect only physical power or intimidation. Finally, the fact that
prisons are not as isolated as in the past undermines the solidarity and formation of the inmate code.
How do pshychopathic offenders behave in prison?
are predatory, cold, and calculating, and usually act
violently for no good reason. They do not feel compassion and will be violent simply for their own enjoyment.
Recognize measures to control prison gangs.
Transferring gang members to maximum-security prisons
2. Limiting inmates' access to money, which often plays a critical role in inmates' underground economy
3. Placing the most violence-prone gang members in special facilities
4. Developing gang intelligence
5. Recruiting informers
6. Observing inmates' daily routine activities to identify patterns of activities and association of gang members.
What actions are recomended by the national major gang task force to monitor gang members?
Posted picture file: A centralized photo and data file on significant gang members, suspects, and associates.
● Confidential reports: All staff report gang-related grouping activity on the daily confidential reports.
● Gang communications: There should be a priority with prison staff to intercept notes passed between gang members.
● Identify gang visitors: Visitors of gang members should be identified and their names shared with other prisons. Often visitors of gang inmates at multiple institutions pass along gang information and "hit contracts."
● Gang control efforts: Staff should watch for efforts by gangs to dominate any physical area of the institution or access to any inmate program.3
The prison rape elimination act requires what?
the collection of information on the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities and the development of national standards for the prevention, detection, and reduction of sexual violence in prison
To reduce sexual assualts in prisons what measures may the staff use?
To try to reduce the number of sexual assaults in prisons, correctional staff use several preventive and reactionary measures. First, they advise inmates during the reception process that sexual assault is a possibility and that they have the option of telling staff and being separated from
the aggressors. Second, staff watch for signs of such aggressive acts and question potential targets about such pressure. Finally, staff investigate every allegation of
sexual pressure or assault and will separate the inmates from one another as a precautionary measure
What non-certified positions may you find in prison?
Chaplain Counselor or case manager
Computer specialist, Institution administrator,
Substance abuse counselor Employee development specialist, Facility maintenance worker,Financial manager
Food service worker,Health care worker (physician or nurse), Industrial supervisor, Laundry supervisor
Psychologist, Personnel manager, Recreation specialist, Safety manager, Secretary/clerical worker,Classification specialist,Teacher, Staff training instructor
Which prison officer manages resources, acts as a role model for staff and defines professional expectations?
What should housing unit officers do first when starting their shift?
Report for duty and read the logbook of the prior shift's activities.
What are causes of stress among correctional officers?
Organizational sources of stress include understaffing, overtime, shift work,and supervisor demands.
Work-related sources of stress include the threat of violence, inmate demands and manipulations, and problems with co-workers.
There is stress from outside the system such as poor public image and poor pay.
What results from understaffing?
high turnover or officers taking excessive sick leave and forces too much work on correctional officers in too little time, apprehension about the supervision of large numbers of inmates without potential backup support, and an inability to get time off for special occasions or family crises
How do inmates come into posession of contraband?
First, inmates may receive prohibited items hidden in mail or packages.
Second, inmate visitors may bring contraband items into the prison and give them to an inmate.
Third, inmates may gain possession of contraband that is available in the prison, but should not be in possession of inmates without staff supervision.
Finally and unfortunately, unethical staff may provide contraband items to inmates.
Whats a benefit of prison industry?
1. Industrial work assignments that are similar to private-sector operations provide inmates realistic work experience and instill positive work habits.
2. Work experience can provide valuable training and skill development that inmates can use after release.
3. Inmate earnings can be used to support families, pay fines and restitution, and provide inmates money to purchase their own personal items allowed in
4. Earnings by the industry can be used to offset the cost of incarceration.
5. Industrial work assignments are a positive way to reduce idleness and serve as an incentive for good behavior; therefore, they are valuable for inmate