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Zoroastrainism/ Judaism/ Christianity/ Islam
Terms in this set (127)
The language of Zarathustra and the Avesta.
The bridge of judgment which connects this world with the unseen afterlife. Humans are judged before they cross this bridge. (Z)
Originally, "grave"; later, a walled tower open to the sky where Zoroastrians expose the dead to vultures and crows for disposal of the flesh; sometimes called tower of silence.
Possibly a guardian spirit, but may also be a spirit which enters this life with a person and continues with him or her beyond death.
The winged symbol or emblem of Zoroastrianism, the precise meaning of which is open to some question. It is the most commonly used Zoroastrian symbol. The central figure is popularly believed to be either Ahura Mazda or the fravashi.
A pejorative term used by Muslims in Iran for members of the Zoroastrian faith.
Hymns or poems written by Zarathustra; considered to be the most authoritative expressions of the Zoroastrian religion.
The Primal Man; first progenitor of the human race and father of Mashye and Mashyane.
The sacred plant whose juice is used as an offering in the Yasna.
Literally, "sacred cord"; girdle received by Zoroastrians at navjote and worn at all times. It is untied and retied several times a day to the accompaniment of prayers.
The priestly caste ofancient Persia, in time associated with the Zoroastrian priesthood. The singular form, "magus," is the Greek version of the Old Persian word "magu," meaning priest.
Mashye and Mashyane
The first human couple, male and female; the Adam and Eve of Zoroastrian tradition.
A "high god" of pre-Zoroastrian Iran that survived the advent of Zoroastrianism and also continues to have a presence in the Vedas of Hindu literature in India.
The public ceremony of initiation into the Zoroastrian faith.
Urine of an ox or bull which has been consecrated by prayer and is used externally for cleansing and drunk for internal purification.
Also called Middle Persian; the language of Sassanian and early Islamic times in which later Zoroastrian books are written.
The "Persians" who settled in India in 936 c.e. to seek a land of religious freedom away from oppression in Muslim Iran. Parsis today make up the largest community of Zoroastrians in the world.
The coming Savior; the messiah figure of Zoroastrianism.
A white cotton undershirt worn next to the skin at all times (except when bathing) as a religious symbol of commitment and protection.
The spirit or soul of man
"Code against the demons"; a book of purification in the Avesta, read at night in a lengthy ritual.
A hymn to Ahura Mazda or some other immortal being. The yashts form an important part of the Avesta.
The name of the founder of Zoroastrianism in its original Avestan language form. The Greek form of the name is Zoroaster.
Broken piece of the unleavened bread set aside to be eaten at the end of the Passover meal
jewish "lore"; that part of the oral Torah which contains expositions of the biblical tests, theologies, philosophies, and stories related to Jewish life
Ruler of Syria who tried to force Jews to assume Hellenistic ways
Those Jews who come from Europe, especially eastern Europe.
Literally, "son of the commandment." refers to a boy's attainment of adulthood at age thirteen and his obligation to keep the Jewish law. In his Bar Mitzvah, a boy is called up in the synagogue to read from the Torah.
"daughter of the commandments" a ritual for twelve-year-olds girls of the Conservative and Reformed Jewish traditions similar to the Bar Mitzvah for boys.
the world outside Israel
Commentary by later rabbis on issues raised in the Mishnah
Religious divorce obtainable only at the request of the husband.
the ritual retelling of the story of Passover during the seder meal.
The part of the oral Torah which is law
festival of lights
Members of a mystical Jewish movement that emerged in eastern Europe in the eighteenth century which focuses on the love and a personal relationship with God
"The Great Hosanna" the seventh day of Succoth on which prayers are said for a good harvest cycle
prayer which reflects on the greatness of God and his ultimate triumph; also recited by mourners at prayer services during the period of their mourning
Hebrew word meaning "writings"; refers to the third portion of the Jewish Bible.
Hebrew word for the circular head covering worn by many Jewish males
a prayer said on the eve of Yom Kippur which asks God to forgive a person for the breaking of any vows which were made to God.
Means "fit"; used primarily in relation to food which Jews are permitted to eat.
The scroll read during the celebration of Purim, retelling the story of Esther
(Judaism) a candelabrum with nine branches
literally, "doorpost," ritually, it is a small prachment containing the first two paragraphs of he shema (deut 6:4-9, 13-31) which is usually placed in a xmall box or container and affixed to the doorpost
Literally, "search" for meaning; indicates the portion of the oral traditions not incorporated into the Gemara and later recorded separately.
ten males (orthodox) or males and females (conservative or reformed) required for certain prayers
The written compilation of what had been oral halacha (law). It was set down in written form about 200 C.E.
Opponents of the Hasidim who placed emphasis on learning the tradition rather than emotion
The person who performs the ritual of circumcision
Hebrew word meaning "prophets"; refers to the second part of the Jewish Bible
spring festival celebrating the salvation of the people of israel when the angel of death passed over israel's firstborn in egypt, as well as israel's ultimate deliverance from bondage
Spring festival celebrating the deliverance of the Jews in the days of Queen Esther
Means "my master", an authorized teacher.
The spiritual head of a Hasidic community.
Festival celebrating the new year
The order of the ritual of the Passover meal
Jews who have come from Spain or Arab lands
Literally,, "hear" the name for Israel's fundamental confession of faith found in Deuteronomy 6:4.
Seven-day period of mourning deceased relatives in the home, during which the family sits on low stools and receives guests.
The ram's horn sounded one hundred times on Rosh Hashanah and again to end Yom Kippur
"Rejoicing of the Torah"; the celebration of the conclusion and recommencement of the Torah reading cycle which takes place on Shemimi Atzeret.(J)
The feast of Tabernacles, commemorating divine protection of Israel during her wanderings in the wilderness
literally, 'tabernacle' a booth constructed of three walls and a partial roof in which jewish families should partake of meals and may sleep during the celebration of succoth
The Mishnah plus the Gemara; the foundational writings of Orthodox Jewish life.
the made-up name for the Jewish Bible (the Christian Old Testament) based on its three parts - Torah, Nevi'im, and Ketuvim
The custom of symbolically casting one's sins into flowing water; performed on Rosh Hashanah.
Two leather boxes which are worn on the arm and on the arm on the forehead at weekday morning prayers.
The Pentateuch, or the first five books of the Tanak
The fringes on the prayer shawl or on an undershirt which remind one of the commandments in the law.
Yiddish word for the round head covering worn by Jewish males.
The Day of Atonement
The movement to establish a Jewish state in the land of Israel
the season including the four Sundays preceding Christmas
the formula beginning with the words "O Lamb of God" recited three times by the priest in the latin mass shortly before the communion
Refers to the system of church government which is overseen by bishops
From the Greek for "thanksgiving"; also called the Mass or Lord's Supper. aka sacrament
The eucharist, or the Lord's Supper. It is the equivalent of the Latter-day Saint term sacrament
The higher grades if the Christian ministry- bishop, priest and deacon.
Flat pictures- usually painted on wood.
Refers to a portion of the Latin mass which contains the words "Lord have mercy."
40 days before Easter. Abstaining from festivities, by alsgivings.
Founder of the German Reformation, a Catholic priest, and a professor of moral philosophy and scripture
The virgin mother of Jesus
Public confession of sins, with accompanying words to allow a return to the church.
The portion of the mass which contains the words "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts"
the three persons in one God (Father, Son, Holy Spirit); central mystery of Christian faith; known through Divine Revelation
the process of anointing with oil, which may be used at baptism or confirmation or in blessing the sick
"The feast of Sacrifice." most important religion holiday in the Islamic world. In rememberance of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son.
Aeed Al- Fitr
"The feast of breaking the fast" major holiday at the end of Ramadan (month of fasting).
Muslim name for the one and only God
"Blessing power" which comes from God into creation for the benefit of human beings.
The successors of Muhammad to the leadership of the Muslim community who are not, however, considered prophets
Five Pillars of Islam
true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
a collection of Muhammad's words, sayings, explanations, and examples to help the believer follow the Quran
pilgrimage to Mecca
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
In Sunni tradition, the leader of salat prayer. Divinely guided leader.
"Submission or surrender" to God. Describes true monotheistic worship as revealed to Muhammad.
Literally means "striving or struggling" to serve God and the umma. Sometimes translated as "holy war"
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
a messianic leader who (according to popular Muslim belief) will appear before the end of the world and restore justice and religion
the birth place of Mohammed and a place of pilgrimage
"city of the prophet" second holiest site in Islam.
Tower associated with a mosque from which the call to prayer is given.
"Place of prostration" for ritual prayer. Centers of Islamic communal life, where prayer is held.
Individual who gives the call to prayer.
Founder of Islam and the prophetic figure that revealed the Qur'ran through Allah (God).
Person who practices Islam, "one who submits to God."
"recitation" the name of the holy book of Islam.
Month in which faithful Muslims fast during daylight hours. Ninth lunar months of the Muslim Calendar.
Ritual prayer. Five times a day.
Fasting as a means off promoting individual spirituality and communal well-being, one of the pillars.
The Muslim confession of faith, "There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his Messenger", the first of the five pillars.
traditional islamic law
Muslims who believe that leaderships of the community should have passed to Muhammad's son-in-law Ali and should be hereditary.
The heresy of ascribing partners to God, believing in more than one diety.
An adherent of the branch of Islam that emphasizes internal spiritual experiences rather than external rituals.
Customs and exemplary behavior of Muhammad.
Majority sect of Islam, who believe in consensual leadership and reject the Shi'ite claim to heredity or lineage determines a persons right to lead the Umma.
Doctrine of the uncompromised unity of God, "There is no god but Allah."
Religious scholars of clergy who are the authoritative interpreters of Islamic law.
Worldwide community of Muslims.
Practice of giving 2.5 percent of ones wealth- alsmgiving, one of the pillars.
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