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23 terms

Chapter 15 Oceanography (Final Exam)

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algin
a mucilaginous commercial product of multicellular algae; widely used as a thickening an emulsifying agent
aquaculture
the growing or farming of plants and animals in a water environment under controlled conditions
biodegradable
able to be broken down by natural processes into simpler compounds
biological resource
a living animal or plant collected for human use
biomagnification
the ability of some organisms at higher levels in the food chain to concentrate toxic substances in their flesh
bycatch
animals unintentionally killed when desirable organisms are collected
chlorinated hydrocarbons
the most abundant and dangerous class of halogenated hydrocarbons, synthetic organic chemicals hazardous to the marine environment
desalination
the process of removing salt from seawater or brackish water
eutrophication
a set of physical, chemical, and biological changes brought about when excessive nutrients are released into water
mariculture
the farming of marine organisms, usually in estuaries, bays, or nearshore environments or in specially designed structures using circulating seawater
marine energy resource
any resource resulting from the direct extraction of energy from the heat or movement of ocean water
marine pollution
the introduction by humans of substances or energy into the ocean that changes the quality of the water or affects the physical and biological environment
maximum sustainable yield
the maximum amount of fish, crustaceans, and mollusks that can be caught without impairing future populations
nonextractive resource
any use of the ocean in place, such as transportation of people and commodities by sea, recreation, or waste disposal
nonrenewable resource
any resource that is present on Earth in fixed amounts and cannot be replenished
overfishing
harvesting so many fish that there is not enough breeding stock left to replenish the species
physical resource
any resource that has resulted from the deposition, precipitation, or accumulation of a useful nonliving substance in the ocean or seabed
pollutant
a substance that causes damage by interfering directly or indirectly with an organisms biochemical processes
PCBs
(polychlorinated biphenyls) chlorinated hydrocarbons once widely used to cool and insulate electrical devices and to strengthen wood or concrete. They may be responsible for the changes in and declining fertility of some marine mammals
potable water
water suitable for drinking
renewable resource
any resource that is naturally replaced on a seasonal basis by the growth of living organisms or by other natural processes
sewage sludge
semisolid mixture of organic matter, microorganisms, toxic metals and synthetic organic chemicals removed from wastewater as a sewage treatment plant
territorial waters
waters extending 12 miles from shore and in which a nation has the right to jurisdiction