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a mucilaginous commercial product of multicellular algae; widely used as a thickening an emulsifying agent


the growing or farming of plants and animals in a water environment under controlled conditions


able to be broken down by natural processes into simpler compounds

biological resource

a living animal or plant collected for human use


the ability of some organisms at higher levels in the food chain to concentrate toxic substances in their flesh


animals unintentionally killed when desirable organisms are collected

chlorinated hydrocarbons

the most abundant and dangerous class of halogenated hydrocarbons, synthetic organic chemicals hazardous to the marine environment


the process of removing salt from seawater or brackish water


a set of physical, chemical, and biological changes brought about when excessive nutrients are released into water


the farming of marine organisms, usually in estuaries, bays, or nearshore environments or in specially designed structures using circulating seawater

marine energy resource

any resource resulting from the direct extraction of energy from the heat or movement of ocean water

marine pollution

the introduction by humans of substances or energy into the ocean that changes the quality of the water or affects the physical and biological environment

maximum sustainable yield

the maximum amount of fish, crustaceans, and mollusks that can be caught without impairing future populations

nonextractive resource

any use of the ocean in place, such as transportation of people and commodities by sea, recreation, or waste disposal

nonrenewable resource

any resource that is present on Earth in fixed amounts and cannot be replenished


harvesting so many fish that there is not enough breeding stock left to replenish the species

physical resource

any resource that has resulted from the deposition, precipitation, or accumulation of a useful nonliving substance in the ocean or seabed


a substance that causes damage by interfering directly or indirectly with an organisms biochemical processes


(polychlorinated biphenyls) chlorinated hydrocarbons once widely used to cool and insulate electrical devices and to strengthen wood or concrete. They may be responsible for the changes in and declining fertility of some marine mammals

potable water

water suitable for drinking

renewable resource

any resource that is naturally replaced on a seasonal basis by the growth of living organisms or by other natural processes

sewage sludge

semisolid mixture of organic matter, microorganisms, toxic metals and synthetic organic chemicals removed from wastewater as a sewage treatment plant

territorial waters

waters extending 12 miles from shore and in which a nation has the right to jurisdiction

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