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need for affiliation

quantity: wants to be with people all of the time and like to have lots of friends

need for intimacy

quality: needs to have at least one really close relationship that they share everything with

low self esteem

dont feel good about themselves,hesitant to form initiate relationships,less likely to respond to a date, if in a relationship they are more willing to work at a relationship

physical proximity

have to physically come in contact with someone,more likely to become close to someone who is "close"
ex.someone in your dorm rather than another dorm

mere exposure effect

you tend to like or get to know someone better if you come in contact with them on a regular basis, we want to like people unless we initially dislike them


having things in common brings people together

matching hypothesis

we usually end up with someone who is similar to us in physical attractiveness, can be for relationships and friendships


we like people who like us, we find it rewarding

halo effect

we tend to think if we get someone good looking, they will be good in other aspects


a good looking person will make us look good


easy to get close to, comfortable depending on companion and vice versa, doesnt worry about being abandoned


afraid to have a relationship


afraid of being left so they become clingy

self disclosure

beginning of a relationship consists of revealing intimate facts, best if done slowly and reciprocated
overtime>more intimate> broader topics

romantic love

partner is constantly in thoughts,want to spend all time with partner,unrealistic perceptions of each other

romeo and juliet effect

parental interference creates additional emotional arousal which can be perceived as "intense love"

companionate love

become best friends, similarity of interest,relationship important to both partners,reciprocity,respect,little to no jealousy

bystander effect

the greater the number of potential helpers, the less help

diffusion of responsibility

others present are just as responsible


must define the situation as an emergency

fear of social blunders

the more people there are, the more afraid we are to make a mistake

good mood effect

anything that puts us in a good mood increases likelihood of helping Ex. something good happens to you, you are much more likely to help someone,nice weather also helps

good samaritan study

seminary students that were in a hurry were less likely to stop

negative state relief

if you feel it will make one feel better you are more likely to help

attributions made

why the person needs help,dispositional >> less helping
ex. they are homeless because they are lazy
situational>>more helping Ex. they are homeless bc they are disabled and cant work

level of moral reasoning

why we do something,used moral dilemmas, higher=more helping, the more education you have (reading) the more likely you'll have higher reasoning

physically attractive

more likely to receive help and get it faster esp females getting help from males

similar others

more likely to help people of the same age, race and gender because you can relate to that person, we find similar other more attractive which increases empathy






noted what types of music was being played and how many drinks were being sold,slow sad music=more drinks sold

may and hamilton

type of music females like most and least
favorite=classic rock / least fav= classical

classical conditioning

we associate the person with something positive, we like them and vice versa


freshman could come to concert free if they showed up with an assigned date, the number one predictor of which ones began to date was phy. attractiveness, specifically similarity of attractiveness

rewards and punishments

calculate potential gains and losses, if gain= will help, if loose=wont help (must be an emergency situation)


the intentional infliction of some type of harm upon others who are motivated to avoid it


driven by anger, performed as an end in itself


motivation to live and reproduce


death wish, says aggression is really towards ourselves, but instead we go out and take it out on others


ethologist, aggression as functional (form of protection and ensures survival of the fittest) believed that humans are more likely to run then we dev. weapons and began to fight

frustration aggression theory

Dollard, not biological, looked at external factors, aggression is not always a consequence of frustration, frustration always leads to aggression


interference with behavioral sequence (people hinder you from getting what you want)


gives 3rd grade students a movie and candy, he turns the movie off and takes away the candy at the best part and the children began to misbehave

opposition to instinct theories

Kuo, kittens raised in three different conditions, external influences such as learning is involved with aggression


cut in front of the line of people using a copy machine, people closer to the front got much more upset and aggressive than the people 12th in live bc they were about to get what they wanted


deliberately displacing aggression to let it out (studies have shown that it does not work and can increase aggression)

theory of aggression cues

Berkowitz, aggression paradigm= the main way research on aggression is done
DV=amount and duration of the shock

social learning theory

(albert bandura) we learn aggression, most of it is learned from our parents,


childern who are aggressively punished are more liely to be aggressive out side of the home

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