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need for affiliation
quantity: wants to be with people all of the time and like to have lots of friends
need for intimacy
quality: needs to have at least one really close relationship that they share everything with
low self esteem
dont feel good about themselves,hesitant to form initiate relationships,less likely to respond to a date, if in a relationship they are more willing to work at a relationship
have to physically come in contact with someone,more likely to become close to someone who is "close"
ex.someone in your dorm rather than another dorm
mere exposure effect
you tend to like or get to know someone better if you come in contact with them on a regular basis, we want to like people unless we initially dislike them
we usually end up with someone who is similar to us in physical attractiveness, can be for relationships and friendships
easy to get close to, comfortable depending on companion and vice versa, doesnt worry about being abandoned
beginning of a relationship consists of revealing intimate facts, best if done slowly and reciprocated
overtime>more intimate> broader topics
partner is constantly in thoughts,want to spend all time with partner,unrealistic perceptions of each other
romeo and juliet effect
parental interference creates additional emotional arousal which can be perceived as "intense love"
become best friends, similarity of interest,relationship important to both partners,reciprocity,respect,little to no jealousy
good mood effect
anything that puts us in a good mood increases likelihood of helping Ex. something good happens to you, you are much more likely to help someone,nice weather also helps
why the person needs help,dispositional >> less helping
ex. they are homeless because they are lazy
situational>>more helping Ex. they are homeless bc they are disabled and cant work
level of moral reasoning
why we do something,used moral dilemmas, higher=more helping, the more education you have (reading) the more likely you'll have higher reasoning
more likely to receive help and get it faster esp females getting help from males
more likely to help people of the same age, race and gender because you can relate to that person, we find similar other more attractive which increases empathy
noted what types of music was being played and how many drinks were being sold,slow sad music=more drinks sold
may and hamilton
type of music females like most and least
favorite=classic rock / least fav= classical
freshman could come to concert free if they showed up with an assigned date, the number one predictor of which ones began to date was phy. attractiveness, specifically similarity of attractiveness
rewards and punishments
calculate potential gains and losses, if gain= will help, if loose=wont help (must be an emergency situation)
the intentional infliction of some type of harm upon others who are motivated to avoid it
death wish, says aggression is really towards ourselves, but instead we go out and take it out on others
ethologist, aggression as functional (form of protection and ensures survival of the fittest) believed that humans are more likely to run then we dev. weapons and began to fight
frustration aggression theory
Dollard, not biological, looked at external factors, aggression is not always a consequence of frustration, frustration always leads to aggression
gives 3rd grade students a movie and candy, he turns the movie off and takes away the candy at the best part and the children began to misbehave
opposition to instinct theories
Kuo, kittens raised in three different conditions, external influences such as learning is involved with aggression
cut in front of the line of people using a copy machine, people closer to the front got much more upset and aggressive than the people 12th in live bc they were about to get what they wanted
deliberately displacing aggression to let it out (studies have shown that it does not work and can increase aggression)
theory of aggression cues
Berkowitz, aggression paradigm= the main way research on aggression is done
DV=amount and duration of the shock
social learning theory
(albert bandura) we learn aggression, most of it is learned from our parents,
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