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Psychology/Sociology Question Set
Terms in this set (69)
What is the best explanation for the difference in the number of intrusions in Phase 1?
Verbal inputs to the left ear, which first go to the auditory cortex it the right hemisphere must be processed by the language areas of the lefthemispheres.
Linguistic info (both production and comprehension) are lateralized in the left hemisphere.
By limiting the initial sample to low SES participants living in a large US city, the researchers..
reduced variability due to differences in the quality of the public school
Interpretation of intelligence test scores is based on the assumption that scores are normally distributed within a population such that:
more than 2/3 of the children will score between 85-115
The Weschler Scales of Intelligence scores are normalized to a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 so 68% would be between 85 and 115.
Cocaine is a...
stimulant and would therefore have a physiological effect similar to stress and hence glucose metabolism in the fetal brain would increase
B is incorrect b/c transport of cocaine to the fetal circulation does not indivate whether the drug is pharmacologically active in the fetus.
bind to a receptor on the postsynaptic membrane within the CNS
Which statement best explains why continuous reinforcement is best for beginning the acquisition phase of operant conditioning?
The schedule unambiguously informs the subject which behavior is correct
Which phenomenon will an animal trainer most likely avoid when training a rabbit for a television commercial?
this is the phenomenon whereby established habits, learned using operant techniques eventually are replaced by innate food-related behaviors. So the learned behavior "drifts" to the organism's species-specific instinctual behavior.
Research on cognitive aging has demonstrated that, in general, aging does NOT diminish a person's
ability to retrieve general information
The capacity for retreiving general info (i.e. semantic memory, crystallized intelligence) is unaffected by aging
Popular culture is identified as an...
agent of socialization
the stimulus registered by the sensory receptor (i.e. the pattern of light falling on the retina)
The distal stimulus is an object which provides information for the proximal stimulus. The proximal stimulus registers, via sensory receptors, the information given by the distal stimulus.
Psychophysican discrimination testing
directly assess our perception of stimuli in relation to their true physical propertiess
Partial report technique
Due to the fact that participants did not know which row would be cued for recall, performance in the partial report condition can be regarded as a random sample of an observer's memory for the entire display.
Word association testing
Word Association is a common word game involving an exchange of words that are associated together. The game is based on the noun phrase word association, meaning "stimulation of an associative pattern by a word" or "the connection and production of other words in response to a given word, done spontaneously as a game, creative technique, or in a psychiatric evaluation."
Operational Span Testing
A task in which subjects are asked to perform a simple mathematical verification (e.g., 4/2 +1 = 3) and then read a word, with a recall test following some number of those verify/read pairs. The maximum number of words that can be recalled is the "operation span".
are individual neurons - or groups of neurons - in the brain which code for perceptually significant stimuli.
the phenomena discussed in the passage reflect how both the context in which stimuli are presented and the processes of perceptual organization contribute to how people perceive those stimuli. and also that the context can establish the way in which stimuli are organized
Under certain circumstances such as having received news about something traumatic on a particular day, many people claim that they remember every detail of what they were doing when they received the news
Which observation disconfirms the theory that the hunger drive is based on a person's interpretation of stomach contractions, while satiety is based on a person's stomach distension?
People without stomachs still experience hunger
Memory report which is inaccurate but expressed with extreme confidence
According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development, a person giving which reason for moral behavior is at the highest level?
To promote social welfare
In operant conditioning studies, the subject's motivational status is typically operationally defined by
depriving the subject of some desirable stimulus for a period of time
life course approach to health
a holistic perspective that calls attention to developmental processes and other experiences across a person's life and is consistent with findings from both studies that earlier life exposures can influence later disease risk
Which finding from the follow up studies proposed by the researchers would best support the hypothesis about genetic predispositions to stroke?
Monozygotic twins who were raised in different states one outside of SB and one in SB have excess risk of stroke in adulthood
identifies a point in early development that can have a significant influence on physiological or behavioral functioning in later life
Which psychological theory best explains the role of community values in the preliminary studies of tobacco cessation?
Incentive theory; the incentive theory of motivation calls attention to how factors outside of individuals, including community values and other aspects of culture can motivate behavior.
focuses on the contribution of social and cultural favtors to disease patterns in the United States
refers to knowledge, skills, education, and similar characteristics that are used to make social distinctions that are associated with differences in social status
intersectionality calls attention to how identity categories in systems of social stratification.
race/ethnicity and social class
how healthcare providers establish rapport, show empathy, and navigate disagreements with their patients. based on this description, researchers are most likely taking a theoretical approach that is consistent with which sociological paradigm?
looking glass self
the person will internalize the perceived stigmatization against him or her
Demographic transition theory
this theory addresses changes in the birth rate and the death rate that are associated with economic development (specifically, related to industrialization). The typical pattern begins with a drop in the death rate leading to population growth, followed by a drop in birth rate, leading to population stabilization
What stage of sleep is characterized by sleep spindles?
2-6 or 7 is what childhood development stage
If the researchers were focused on an evolutionary perspective of human motivation, what aspect of the study results would be of most interest to them?
Hunger ratings for images of food
Because humans have developed a preference for high caloric foods b/c they are a good source of fuel in the form of fat
5 universal emotions
fear, anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, and sadness
Which major developmental milestone best explains the difference between the results seen for the 6- vs 9-month olds in Study 1?
Stranger anxiety is the fear of strangers or other race faces that infants commonly begin to express around 8 months of age
Parallel processing is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality. This becomes most important in vision, as the brain divides what it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth.
the action of interposing someone or something.
one is able to hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea's basilar membrane
Accommodation is a term developed by psychologist Jean Piaget to describe what occurs when new information or experiences cause you to modify your existing schemas. Rather than make the new information fit into an existing schema, you change the schema in order to accommodate the new information.
reveals areas of increased blood flow
In which situation is neurotransmitter release form a presynaptic cell most likely to stimulate an action potential in a postsynaptic cells?
In a postsynaptic neuron where a depolarizing change in membrane potential exceeds threshold
A person looking at the night sky notices that she no longer sees a dim star when her gaze remains fixated on it, but the dim star reappears when she shifts her gaze to one side of the star. What is the most likely cause of reappearance of the dim star in her vision? Shifting her gaze moved the image of the dim star...
away from the fovea toward the periphery of the retina
The fovea is part of the retina that contains a high density of cones for daytime vision, whereas the periphery of the retina contains a high density of rods which are more photosensitive and can detect dim light
the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results
A researcher find a +0.38 correlation between a test of verbal intelligence and a test of spatial intelligence. Speculating about a common factor, g, the researcher concludes that:
performance on both tests is partly determined by g
A correlation of +0.38 shows a potential common factor but with a significant degree of potential error
defined as the absence of appropriate behaviors and emotion
Negative priming requires which memory process?
are the first antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia and though they are effective at treating positive symptoms, their side effects include cognitive dulling which can exacerbate negative symptoms
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
The positive symptoms of schizophrenia (delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech) can look like a manic episode of bipolar disorder, while the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (apathy, social withdrawal, and low energy) can look like a depressive episode.
Positive vs negative symptoms
Positive symptoms (those additional to normal experience and behavior) 'Positive symptoms' describe psychosis and typically include delusions, hallucinations and thought disorder.
Negative symptoms describe inappropriate or nonpresent emotion, poverty of speech, and lack of motivation.
Criticisms of self reports
-potential for poor reliability
-vulnerable to subjective interpretation
-the results are not easily compared with those from others
General adaptation syndrome
the body's stress response that consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
An individual enters the stage of exhaustion only after that individual has encountered the stressor for a prolonged period of time
What is the dependent stressor associated with the need for reassurance?
The isolation resulting from others being driven away
Unidirectionally related vs reciprocally related
Unidirectonal: stressor leads to depressive symptoms
Reciprocal: stressors not only influence depression but could in themselves be influenced by depression
Without conscious effort, people are unlikely to automatically visually process:
Due to the brain's capacity for parallel processing, information about space, time, and the frequency of events is automatically processed, however it takes conscious effort to process new info
Signal detection theory
the detection of a stimulus is not only dependent on its strength but also on the psychological state (Tired) of the individual
What experimental set up is most likely to result in a person with a severed corpus callosum saying "ball" after the researcher asks, What do you see?
The word ball is projected to the right visual field while room is presented to the left visual field
Two friends accept internships with a city council member even though they do not agree with many of the council member's policies. Which is most likely to happen if they are in a state of dissonance?
adapt their attitudes to be more in line with the council member
cognitive dissonance has found that people tend to change their attitude to match their behaviors rather than change their behavior
The aggression scale in Study 1 allowed the researchers to isolate socially influenced aggressive behaviors. Which alternative method would best determine if aggression was actually being modeled as opposed to already learned?
A biographical sketch of the children's social life up until the study
Symbolic interactionist perspective
predicated on interaction and interpretation, the stigmatizing example created a negative label to which the participants interpreted and responded
Incentive theory is most closely aligned with which theoretical framework in sociology?
Exchange theory because this addresses decision making via cost benefit analyses
As described in the passage, a medical student's sense of self efficacy and confidence regarding patient interactions is most likely to manifest via which phenomenon?
The Thomas Theorem
The Thomas theorem is a theory of sociology which was formulated in 1928 by W. I. Thomas and D. S. Thomas (1899-1977): " If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. "
The Hawthorne effect (also referred to as the observer effect ) is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify or improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
A constructionist understanding of gender asserts that categories of gender are
fluid and subject to social processes of meaning making
According to Mead, which behavior is an expressionof the Me component of the Self?
An individual studying for an exam instead of going to a party.
Me: socialized, conforming aspect of self
I: spontaneous, less socialized aspect of self
An individual who previously worked as a salaried corporate attorney loses his or her job. Subsequently, the individual now works as an hourly wage employee at a retail store. This individual has experienced which type of social mobility?
includes efficiency, calculabillity, uniformity, and technological control
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