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envelope (viral structure)
"viral membrane" phospholipid bilayer with embedded glycoproteins surrounding capsid in enveloped virus
virion (viral structure)
"viral particle" complete infectious viral structure: nucleic acid plus capsid for nonenveloped virus; nucleic acid plus capsid plus envelope for an enveloped virus
can cause re-infection as the new structure of the virus is not recognized by the immune system memory
Involves major changes in virion structure due to the acquisition of new genes thru co-infection or recombination
most common portal of entry into the body which is always exposed to large numbers of pathogens
second most common portal of entry; the viruses that enter here must be resistant and resilient to harsh environments in order to survive
What causes inflammation of the digestive tract and diarrhea?
destruction of M cells that were used in the transcytosis of the virus
if viruses enter through the nervous system
some target neurons, some use neurons to get to their preferred target areas
Characteristics of transformed cancerous cells
increased growth, loss of contact inhibition, tumor specific transplant and T antigens
Viruses associated with human cancers
Epstein-Barr virus, Hepatitis B and C, Human lymphotropic virus, HPV
fibrous structures in the brain called plaque, disrupt the cell membrane causing cell death, convert normal prions to abnormal prions
To inactivate a prion
autoclaving in an alkali solution (bleach containing 2% chlorine) for one hour
Symptoms of TSE
lack of coordination, staggering, slurred speech, dramatic mood swings, paralysis, death withing a year of symptom onset
Five forms of TSE in humans
Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD), Variant CJD (vCJD), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome (GSS), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI)
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