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45 terms

American Government and Civics GHSGT Study Skills

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15th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution stating: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
16th Amendment
This amendment, passed in 1913, made the tax on personal income permanent.
17th Amendment
This amendment provided for the direct election of U.S. senators.
18th Amendment
This amendment prohibited the sale and use of alcoholic beverages.
19th Amendment
This amendment gave women the right to vote.
1st Amendment
In Bethel School District v. Frasier (1986), the Supreme Court ruled that school districts can limit these kinds of rights in order to keep standards of good taste and public morality.,** freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
26th Amendmen
This amendment to the constitution allowed citizens 18 years and older to vote.
4th Amendment
In New Jersey v. TLO (1985), the Supreme Court ruled restrictions on rights from this amendment do NOT apply to school officials. ** Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures
Amendment Process
This is a method by which the Constitution may be changed or added to.
Appellate Jurisdiction
This is the authority of a court to hear or review a case after it has been decided at a lower court level.
Bill Of Rights
This is the first ten amendments to the constitution, generally directed at protecting the individual from abuse of power by the national government.
Censure
This means to formally reprimand a member of Congress or the Federal government for their actions. It has no force of law.
Checks And Balances
This is the system of overlapping powers among judicial, executive, and legislative branches to allow each branch to oversee the actions of the others.
Civil Law
This is the body of law that regulates interactions between individuals in a state.
Cloture
This is the term for a Congressional procedure that is used to limit or quickly end debate on issues before the Senate. It requires the support of 60% of the Senate
Concurrent Powers
Powers that are held by both the federal and state governments.
Declaration Of Independence
This was an act passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776 declaring the thirteen American Colonies independent of British rule.
Delegated Powers
Powers specifically given to the government by the Constitution.
Direct Democracy
This is a system of government in which the people participate directly in making all public policy.
Due Process
This is a policy that the government's actions towards its citizens must follow established rules and procedures.
Ex Post Facto
This is a law that punishes someone for an act that is now illegal but was not when the person committed it. These types of laws are illegal in the United States.
Exclusive Powers
These are powers that can only be executed by the federal government.
Executive
This is the branch of government that is responsible for carrying out the laws.
Executive Order
This is an edict from a President (or Governor) that has the force of law without having to be passed or approved by Congress (or a state legislature).
FDA
This is the part of the Federal Department of Health and Human Services that regulates and enforces laws about food production and standards in the United States.
Federalism
This system of government has powers divided between the central government and regional governments, with central government being supreme.
Federalist Papers
This was a series of Articles written to persuade New York to ratify the Constitution.
Filibuster
This is the term for a tactic in which a Senator attempts to delay a vote on a bill by talking continuously, refusing to "yield the floor" to other Senators.
Fourteenth Amendment
This is one of the post-Civil War amendments to the US Constitution that includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. ** required states to grant citizenship to "all persons born naturalized in the U.S." and promised "equal protection of the laws."
Impeachment
This is the formal accusation against a Federal (or state) official for wrong-doing while in office. It is the first step in the process of removing the official from office.
Implied Powers
Powers that are not expressed but that the government may be inferred to have from another power.
Judicial Review
This is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent for constitutionality or for the violation of basic principles of justice.
Legislative
This is the branch of government that creates and makes laws.
Libel
This is an illegal form of printing (newspaper, magazines, or internet) in which false statements are made about a person or group, resulting in damage to that person or group's image or reputation.
Lobbying
These are actions of an interest group or agents to influence the policy of the governments.
McCulloch V. Maryland
This Supreme Court case upheld the Federal government's use of "implied powers," those that are necessary to keep the government running and are not expressly listed in the Constitution.
PAC
This is a political organization within a business or industry that is legally allowed to raise money for candidates who favor or are sympathetic to the group's cause(s).
Platform
This is a statement of a political party's beliefs and positions on many- if not most- issues
Proposition
This is a proposed law that is placed on the ballot for the general public to approve or disapprove for passage.
Referendum
This is when citizen are allowed to directly vote on whether to accept or reject a proposed law.
Reserved Powers
These are powers that are held for the states to execute, not for the federal government.
Slander
This is an illegal form of speech in which false statements are made about a person or group, resulting in damage to that person or group's image or reputation.
Suffrage
This is the right to vote, synonym: 'franchise'.
Thirteenth Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution abolishing and prohibiting slavery. "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
Veto
This is the power of the executive to prevent a bill from passing.