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72 terms

Biology Midterm Review

STUDY
PLAY
Hypothesis
Educated guess
Analysis
Looking at/comparing data
Data
Information from an experiment
Problem
Concept being tested
Monomer
A small molecule that makes up a polymer
Polymer
A compund that is made up of many small monomers
Carbohydrate
Macromolecule made up of glucose
Protein
Macromolecule made up of amino acids
Lipid
Macromolecule made up of 3 fatty acids and glycerol
Nucleic Acid
Macromolecule made up of nucleotides
Enzyme
Biological catalyst that breaks down molecules
Activation Energy
Energy required to start a chemical reaction
Catalyst
Lowers activation energy required for chemical reactions
CHONPS
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur - 6 essential elements required for life
Hydrolysis
When monomers connect with water to form a polymer
Dehyrdration
Loss of water from a polymer, making a lot of smaller monomers
Amino Acid
Small monomer that makes up protein
Glucose
Small monomer that makes up carbohydrates
Nucleotides
Small monomer that makes up nucleic acids
3 fatty acids & glycerol
Small monomers that make up lipids
Cell
Basic building block of life, smallest level of organization in existence
Cytoplasm
Jelly-like substance that holds all organelles in place
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of cell where Cell Respiration occurs
Nucleus
Brain of the cell that makes all of the decisions in the cell
Eukaryote
Type of cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus (Ex: bacteria, algae, microorganisms)
Prokaryote
Type of cell without a nucleus or any other cell organelles, save for ribosomes
Animal Cell
Cell that lacks a chloroplast, but has a mitochondia to produce its energy (Ex: humans, animals)
Plant Cell
Cell with a chloroplast to conduct photosynthesis and a mitochondria to conduct Cell Respiration (Ex: trees, grass)
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion that requires proteins to aid the movement of particles through a membrane
Cell Wall
Cell organelle that provides structure and protection for plant cells
Cell Membrane
Cell organelle that controls what comes in and out of the cell
Diffusion
Movement of particles in an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration w/out the use of energy
Concentration
How many particles are occupying a certain space
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable layer
Active Transport
Movement of particles that requires energy to move
Golgi Body
Receives, packages, and sends nutrients to rest of cell
Vacuole
Storage for cell
Ribosome
Creates proteins
ER
Smooth - Makes lipids
Rough - Studded with ribosomes - transport proteins
Cell Respiration
Creates ATP for organism
Photosynthesis
Creates glucose for plant cells to use for Cell Respiration
Oxygen
Needed for Cell Respiration, given off as a by-product by plants
Glucose
Monomer of carbs
Made during photosynthesis
Used during cell respiration
Water
Required for cell respiration
Chloroplast
Where photosynthesis happens
Reactant
Compounds mixed together before chemical reaction
Product
Results of chemical reaction
ATP
Energy for organisms produced during cell respiration
Chlorophyll
Produced during photosynthesis
Used during cell respiration
Aerobic
Exercise that requires oxygen
More efficient
Anaerobic
Exercise that doesn't require oxygen
Good for short bursts
Heterotroph
Needs to eat their food for energy
Autotroph
Can produce their own food with the sun
Homeostasis
When the body is doing good and is at the perfect conditions
Neurons
Feedback systems that tell the brain how the body is doing
Skeletal System
Provides structure and support
Circulatory System
Transports blood and nutrients throughout body
Respiratory System
Inhales oxygen for cell respiration, exhales carbon dioxide as waste
Excretory System
Removes waste from the body
Nervous System
Sends and receives messages telling body what to do
Runs body functions
Feedback Inhibition
Reacting to something that is happening (ie:touching a hot pan)
Endocrine System
Hormones
Immune System
Preventing and fighting infection
Nonspecific defenses
Skin, hair, nails, T-cells
Specific Defenses
White Blood Cells
Digestive System
Breaks down food into nutrients for body
Regulate
To check and fix
DNA
Genetic Information
Virus
Non-living infectious agent that manifests itself in living cells and reproduces
Bacteria
Living prokaryotic infectious cells that can be treated
Antibiotics
Take them when you have a bacterial infection
Vaccine
Take them to prevent viral infections