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Second Industrial Revolution

Steep growth in industry and the production of steel, petrolium, electric power, and the machinery to produce other goods

Henry Bessemer

This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient

Louis Pasteur

French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)

Incandescent Lamp

electric lamp consisting of a glass bulb containing a wire filament (usually tungsten) that emits light when heated

Carl Benz

built a three wheeled vehicle

Dresder Bank


Wright Brothers

Orville Wright credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.

Marie Curie

French chemist (born in Poland) who won two Nobel Prizes



Quantum theory

(physics) a physical theory that certain properties occur only in discrete amounts (quanta)


someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality

Rubber Condoms

used rubber for condoms because it was natural (from a tree) but then after world war II, there was a mass distribution of condoms causing a decline in STDs so more money was put into manufacturing better condoms and began to use latex


movement of individuals away from a population

Zionist movement

a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine

Farewell to old Erin's isle



a member of the working class (not necessarily employed)

Emile Zola

French novelist and critic

Contagious Disease Act


Baron Georges Haussmann

He was the administrator of the plan Napoleon III launched to modernize and beautify the city of Paris.

London's East End

severely overcrowded area in Britain that exemplified the deteriorating quality of urban housing

Ferry Laws

a set of French laws, which established first free education (1881) then mandatory and laic education (1882). Proposed by the (Republican) Minister of Public Instruction Jules Ferry, they were a crucial step in the grounding of the Third Republic

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