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87 terms

Biology Final

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The study of the function of the body and body parts is called
physiology
The following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex in the levels of structural organization of the human body:
Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level
The system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide to the exterior is the
respiratory system
The system that controls and coordinates the body through hormones is the
endocrine system
The following system is matched most accurately to the lift function it provides
Nervous system - responsiveness
The following is the correct order of elements in a control system
Stimulus, receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response
Your body thermostat is located in a part of the brain called hypothalamus. The following element of the control system represents this hypothalamus
Control Center
In anatomical position
The body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward
The following orientation and directional terms have the same meaning (in humans
Anterior and ventral
The following orientation terms have the opposite meaning
Distal and proximal
Sarah fell while ice skating and hit her occipital region. What is this region?
Back of head
In describing the relationship between the patellar and popliteal regions
the patellar region is anterior to the popliteal region
Which type of section/plane could be used to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity?
Transverse
Inferior
Below
Deep
Away from the body surface
Distal
Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of the limb to the body trunk
Medial
Toward the body surface
Superior
Toward the body surface
Ventral
In front of
A charged atom with 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 10 electrons is a
cation
Ninety-six percent of the human body is composed of the elements
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
An atom with an atomic number of 14 with have __ electrons in its valence shell
4
The following statement is correct regarding the electrical charge of subatomic particles
Protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons are neutral.
Isotopes have different numbers of ___; thus they also have different _______.
Neutrons; atomic masses
The following solutions is the weakest acid
a solution with a pH of 6.4
The following substance is matched with its correct organic group
enzymes - proteins
An atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, & 6 electrons. Its atomic mass is...
14
The atomic number of an atom reveals the number of:
Protons in the atomic nucleus
The subatomic particles that are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms re the
Electrons
This is an example is a compound:
CH4
When a pair of elections is shared equally between two atoms, the bond formed is called a
nonpolar covalent bond
The reaction A+B --> is an example of a
synthesis reaction
Glucose and starch are examples of
carbohydrates
The organic compounds that function in building tissues and acting as enzymes are the
proteins
Shell 1 of an atom can hold a maximum of _ electrons
2
Building block is the monosaccharide
carbohydrates
DNA, RNA, and ATP are types of these organic compounds
Nuclei acids
Triglycerides, steroids, and fat-soluble vitamins are types of these organic compounds
Lipids
Antibodies, some hormones, and enzymes are types of these organic compounds
Proteins
Glycogen, glucose, and lactose are compounds
Carbohydrates
Nucleotides form a the building blocks of these organic compounds
Nucleic acids
The bodys ability to maintain stable internal conditions is referred to as
homeostasis
Blood clotting and the birth of a baby are examples of the _____ feedback mechanism
Positive
The Cranial and spinal cavities are divisions of the ______ cavity
Dorsal
The following statements about RNA are true
RNA is single stranded
Microvilli are apt to be found in cells that are specialized for
absorption
The following RNA bases are complementary (match)
adenine & uracil
Ribosomes are found
in the cytoplasm and on the rough endoplasmic reticulum
The following is NOT an active transport process
facilitated diffusion
The movement of fluid through the cell membrane from a high pressure are to a lower pressure area is called
filtration
two types of passive transport are
diffusion and filtration
two types of endocytosis are
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
If the sequence of nitrogenous bases in one strand of DCA is GTA-GCA the sequence of bases on its complementary DNA strand would be
CAT-CGT
A cell would plump with water and possibly lyse (burst) in which solution
hypotonic
The phase of cell division during which the chomatids are pulled apart, appear in a V shape and move to the opposite ends of the cell is
Anaphase
The following statement about DNR is incorrect
It has the base uracil instead of thymine
The correct order of phases of the cell cycle is
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
DNA replication takes place during
interphase
Which cell structure forms an internal framework inside the cell and is made of microtubules, intermediate filaments, & microfilaments
cytoskeleton
Protein synthesis cannot proceed without ribosomes
True
Translation is the stage in protein synthesis that occurs in the nucleus and involves the mRNA obtaining a coded message from a template strand of DNA
False
The process of facilitated diffusion requires energy from the cell
False
Osmosis is a special name for the diffusion of water
True
Telophase is the stage of mitosis when the chromosomes unwind and become chromatin again and the nuclear membrane reforms
True
Desmosomes are junctions that allow cell communication
False
Organelles are duplicated in Interphase
True
The following do no involve the movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration
filtration
A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is
hypotonic
A cell whose job is to detoxify harmful or poisonous substances such as alcohol would have many
peroxisomes
What are the correct base-pairing rules for DNA
adenine bonds to thymine and guanine bonds to cytosine
A cell ingests bacteria. What type of transport is likely responsible for this process
Endocytosis
Looking into a microscope, you notice cells swimming, propelled by a long tail. What cell structure must these cells have in order to be mobile
flagella
The events of prophase seem to be opposite of those that occur during
telophase
Perform transcription ton this partial sequence of DNA into mRNA: TTA-GCT-ACT
AAU-CGA-UGA
mRNA
Copies the instructions for building a protein from DCA and takes teh instructions to a ribosome
rRNA
Helps from the ribosomes where proteins are built
tRNA
Helps form the ribosomes where proteins are built
DNA
Found in the nucleus. Acts as a template for mRNA during transcription
Protein
Synthesized (made) during translation
Centriole
rod shaped and found in pairs. directs formation of mitotic spindle
mitochondria
captures energy to produce ATP
Ribosome
Site of protein synthesis
Lysosome
Digests worn out or nonusable cell structures. Sometimes called the cell's digestive system or suicide sac.
Microtubule
Determines overall cell shape
Golgi Apparatus
Packages substances, especially proteins, for release from cell.
Nucleolus
Site of ribosome synthesis
Peroxisomes
Uses oxygen to detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde. Breaks down free radicals.