History Chapter 6
Terms in this set (68)
Olive Branch Petition
peace petition sent to King George by colonial delegates after the battles of Lexington and Concord, declaring their loyalty to the king and asking him to repeal the Intolerable Acts
Green Mountain Boys
Vermont colonial militia led by Ethan Allen, which made a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga, giving Americans control of the key route into Canada and many weapons used to drive the British into Canada
army established by the Second Continental Congress to fight the British
colonist who favored war against Britain
colonist who remained loyal to Britain
Battle of Bunker Hill
in 1775, first major battle of the Revolution; showed that the Americans could fight bravely and showed that the British would not be easy to defeat
the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
soldier who fights merely for pay, often for a foreign country
Battle of Long Island
a 1776 battle in New York in which more than 1400 Americans were killed, wounded, or captured
Battle of Trenton
a 1776 battle in New Jersey in which George Washington's troops captured a Hessian encampment in a surprise attack
Battle of Saratoga
in 1777, the first major American victory in the Revolution, which ended the British threat to New England, boosted American spirits, and convinced France to become an ally of the United States
nation that works with another nation for a common purpose
troops on horseback
Pennsylvania site of Washington's Continental Army encampment during the winter of 1777-1778; where the Continental Army suffered a long, cold winter, which resulted in help from other Patriots; where the army trained
published in 1776, an essay by Thomas Paine that urged the colonies to declare independence; sold many colonists on the idea of independence, as well as Continental Congress members
person who betrays his or her country
Declaration of Independence
a 1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independent nation
introduction to a declaration, constitution, or other official document
rights that belong to all people from birth
Battle of Cowpens
a 1781 battle in South Carolina, where Americans won an important victory over the British
soldier who uses hit-and-run tactics
military blockade or bombardment of an enemy town or position in order to force it to surrender
Battle of Yorktown
final battle in the Revolution; this 1781 American victory in Virginia forced the British to surrender
Treaty of Paris
peace treaty between the United States and Britain, ratified in 1783, that recognized the United States as an independent nation
King George III
king of Britain; sent troops to the colonies after the Olive Branch Petition was sent to crush the revolt; ordered a blockade of all colonial ports after the British fled to Canada
commander of the Continental Army; placed cannons on Dorchester Heights
They met at the Second Continental Congress, and sent the Olive Branch Petition.
What steps did the Continental Congress take to pursue peace with Britain?
They set up the Continental Army.
What steps did the Congress take to pursue war with Britain?
Many owned rifles and were good shots. George Washington also developed into a brilliant commander. Furthermore, they were determined to fight to defend their homes and properties.
What advantages did the Patriots have as the war began?
They had highly trained, experienced troops, and their navy was the best in the world. Many colonist were loyalists also.
What advantages did the British have as the war began?
He set the cannons that the Green Mountain Boys had captured up on Dorchester Heights, and the British knew that they could not hold Boston.
How did Washington force the British to leave Boston?
They felt like this because they knew that there were no longer any British to protect them from the angry Patriots.
Why did some Loyalists feel they had to go with the British to Canada?
He wrote an essay urging the colonies to declare independence called Common Sense
Richard Henry Lee
He introduced a resolution in favor of independence in Congress
He wrote the Declaration of Independence that listed many wrongs done by Britain, and pronounced the colonies independence
Declaration of Indepence
pronounced the colonies independence and listed the wrongs done by Britain, and stressed the idea of natural rights
He said that the idea of kings and queens was wrong, that the colonists did not owe any loyalty to any monarch, that the colonists did not owe anything to Britain, that the British only helped the colonies for their own benefit, and that it could only hurt the colonies to remain under British rule.
What arguments did Thomas Paine use in Common Sense to persuade the colonists to declare independence?
They appointed a committee to draw up a formal declaration of independence, signed the document, and sent it to King George.
What actions did congress take to make the final break with Britain?
Natural rights; British Wrongs; Independence
Describe the main parts of the Declaration of Independence.
a young Connecticut officer who volunteered to go behind British lines; after he was caught, he was hanged
General John Burgoyne
British general who proposed that British troops cut off New England from the other colonies; he captured Fort Ticonderoga, but later got trapped by Americans
Marquis de Lafayette
a French noble who brought trained soldiers to help the Patriots; one of Washington's most trusted friends
Friedrich von Steuben
From the German state of Prussia, a general who helped train Washington's troops to march and drill.
a Polish engineer who helped build forts and other defenses
He left fires burning and retreated behind British lines once he heard the British were coming, but attacked the British forces marching toward Princeton.
How did Washington turn retreat into victory in New Jersey?
It ended British threat to New England, boosted American spirits, and convinced Europeans to become allies.
Explain the results of the Battle of Saratoga.
They did this because they had learned to march and fight with new skill.
How did the Continental Army come through the terrible winter at Valley Forge with new hope?
Mary Ludwig Hays
carried water to her husband and other soldiers; called Molly Pitcher; when her husband was wounded, she took his place by loading and firing cannons
an African American who fought at Lexington and Concord, and went on to fight at Bunker Hill
George Rogers Clark
led Virginia fighters against the British in the Ohio Valley and won with the help of the Miami Indians; plotted a surprise attack on the British at Vincennes and won after spreading his troops out in the woods
Bernardo de Galvez
governor of Spanish Louisiana; gave Patriots supplies; seized British forts along the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico; drove the British out of West Forida
John Paul Jones
captured the powerful British warship Serapis
It did this by allowing women to think that they should be treated as equals because they did men's work while their husbands were at war
How did the war change many women's attitudes?
They did this because the British promised freedom to African Americans if they fought with them.
Why did some slaves escape to the British?
They hoped this because the Declaration of Independence said that all men are created equal.
Why did African American Patriots hope that the Revolution would end slavery?
He was a hero because the British navy was the most powerful in the world, and Jones gave Americans hope.
Why was John Paul Jones a hero to Americans?
British commander who proposed that the British invade the south and have Loyalists join them
leader of the main British army; didn't listen to Clinton's orders, and marched his soldiers to the Yorktown Peninsula, where Britain surrendered
commander of the Continental Army in the South; used his knowledge of geography to put the Brits at a disadvantage
tricked the British at the Battle of Cowpens
leader of a band of Patriot militia who used guerrilla tactics
a traitor of the Americans; captured Richmond and other towns
Comte de Rochambeau
helped the Americans trap the British at Yorktown
It became the battleground because many Loyalists lived in the South, and the British wanted them to join.
Why did the South become the main battleground of the war in 1778?
He was forced to surrender because his casualties were growing and his supplies were running low.
Why was Cornwallis forced to surrender at Yorktown?
It recognized the United States as an independent nation and stated its borders.
Describe the major points of the Treaty of Paris.
Geography, foreign help, and patriotism
Why did the Americans defeat the British in the Revolution?