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104 terms

bio 47

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cytoplasmic determinants
maternal substances that affect devel of cells that inherit them during early mitotic divisions of they zygote.
cell differentiation
the specialization of cells in their structure and function.
morphogenesis
the process by which an animal takes shape and the differentiated cells end up in the appropriate locations.
acrosomal reaction
hydrolytic enzymes released from the acrosome make a hole in the jelly coat, while growing actin filaments form acrosomal process.
acrosome
specialized vesicle at tip of sperm.
fast block to polyspermy
depolarization prevents additional sperm cells from fusing with the egg's plasma membrane.
cortial reaction
fusion with the egg's plasma membrane of numerous vesicles lying in the egg's cortex.
cortical granules
vesicles located under the plasma membrane of an egg cell that undergo exocytosis during the cortical reaction.
fertilization envelope
resists the entry of additional sperm.
slow block to polyspermy
formation of the fertilization envelope and other changes in the egg's surface that prevent fusion of the egg with more than one sperm.
zona pellucida
the ECM of the egg.
cleavage
process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane.
blastula
first 5-7 cleavages create the
is at least 128 cells
vegetal pole
the yolk is concentrated to this side
animal pole
the yolk decreases to this side
holoblastic cleavage
A type of cleavage in which there is complete division of the egg, as in eggs having little yolk (sea urchin) or a moderate amount of yolk (frog), but not a lot of yolk (like birds)
meroblastic
incomplete cleavage of yolk-rich egg (birds, insects, fishes)
morphogenesis
cellular and tissue based processes by which animal body takes shape
gastrulation
set of cells on or nera surface of blastula moves to interior location, 3 cell layers establish, and primitive digestive tube is formed
organogenesis
The development of organ rudiments from the three germ layers. Includes neurlation:(notocord, and nuearl tube formation)
epiblast
flat disk with upper layer of cells
hypoblast
lower layer of trophoblast, the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
amniotes
having sturctures allowing for reproduction in dry enviorment
chorion
site for gas exchange within amnion
allantois
disposes of waste in reptile eggg
yolk sac
encloses yolk in egg of reptiles, in mammels it is the site of early formation of blood cells
cleavage
period of rapid cell division without growth , produces large number of cells (blasomeres)
blastomeres
Smaller cells produced by cleavage during mitotic cell division
blastocoel
fluid filled cavity inside a blastula
blastula
cleave creates a multicellular ball called a
notocord
A stiff but flexible rod that supports a chordate embryo's back that becomes backbone in adults. from cells in dorsal mesoderm.
nueral tube
will become the animals central nervous system. from the infolding of etodermal neural plate
endoderm
develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid,
ectoderm
skin, sweat glands, follicles, nervous/sensory systems, pituaty gland, jaws/teeth,germ cells
mesoderm
skeletal/muscualr, ciruclatory, lymphatic, excretory, reproductive, dermis of skin,and adrenal cortex
amnion
Fetal membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac around the embryo (in mammals and reptiles/birds)
convergent extension
A process in which the cells of a tissue layer rearrange themselves, so that the sheet of cells becomes narrower (converges) and longer (extends). happens in gasturaltion and organogenesis
fate maps
specific regions of zygotes or blasula develop into specif parts of older embryos
positional information
Signals to which genes regulating development respond, indicating a cell's location relative to other cells in an embryonic structure.
apical ectodermal ridge
A limb-bud organizing region consisting of a thickened area of ectoderm at the tip of a limb bud.
zone of polarizing activity
anterior/posterior vertebrate limb development; dictates anterior/posterior axis; located in posterior mesoderm
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
fast
the acrosomal reaction creates a ____ block to polyspermy
translation
skipping g1 and g1 phases means that the cell isn't acutlaly undergoing
fertilization
diploid zygote is formed during
cleavage
the axes are formed in
blastula
the fluid filled cavity is formed in
gastural
3 layers formed during
organogenesis
notocord is fromed druing
cell adhesion molecules
specific membrane proteins that allow cells to identify the tissue that they begin with, cells that belong to a specific type of tissue will have cell adhesion molecules that they are complimentary to each other, these proteins will fit into eachother and attach the individual cells to other cells in their specific tissue. if one of these cells break away from their tissue, these cell adhesion molecules will evolve into an enzyme that will initiate apotosis(programmed cell death) in order to prevent a cell from a different tissue type from existing in a tisse where it does not belongto
totipotent
Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell
cytoplasmic determinants
The maternal substances in the egg that influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells.
cleavage
The development of a zygote into a blastula is called _____
zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula
correct sequence of stages during embryogenesis?
multicellular embryo consisting of smaller cells called blastomeres
During cleavage the single large zygote is converted into a _____
Cell division is restricted to a small disk of yolk-free cytoplasm at the animal pole of the zygote.
Which of the following is true of meroblastic cleavage?
morphogenesis
As an animal develops, organs form and the body transforms into a shape typical of the species, in a process called _____.
gut
During gastrulation, the primitive _____ forms.
endoderm
What is the embryonic origin of the lining of the digestive tube?
there is an opening from the cavity inside the gastrula to the outside
difference between the blastula and gastrula stages of development is that _____.
differentiation of cels into tissus
Which of the following events occurs only during organogenesis?
ectoderm
The human brain develops from _____.
mesoderm
the skeleton and muscles develop from the embryonic _____
allanatois
encloses a chamber for the deposition of wastes of a bird embryo?
chorion
the outermost membrane surrounding a lizard or mouse embry
tropoblast
In mammals, the _____ facilitates implantation in the uterine wall.
The cytoskeleton
drives cell migration
extracellular matrix
can direct the migration of cells.
ZPA
The digits of a developing vertebrate limb respond to molecules that establish an anterior-posterior axis. These molecules originate in _____.
a defect in motile cilia that renders them immotile
People with Kartagener's syndrome suffer from a variety of ailments, including the intriguing condition known as situs inversus, a reversal of the abdominal and thoracic organs. This condition occurs because of _____.
Sonic hedgehog gene
Produced at the base of LIMB BUDS in the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity). Mediates ECTODERMAL functions, and patterning along anterior-posterior axis.
cell division
As an embryo develops, new cells are produced as the result of
fertilization envelope wouldn' develope
In an egg cell treated with EDTA, a chemical that binds calcium and magnesium ions, the
first cleavage
) In mammals, the nuclei resulting from the union of the sperm and the egg are first truly diploid at the end of the
zona pellicula
In mammalian eggs, the receptors for sperm are found in the
) an embryonic cell that is much smaller than the ovum.
A human blastomere is
are still surronded by folllicle cells
At the moment of sperm penetration, human eggs
meroblastic development, which is typical of birds
The pattern of embryonic development in which only the cells lacking yolk subsequently undergo cleavage is called
gray crescent
The small portion of the embryo that will become its dorsal side develops from th
yolk of frog egg
supports the higher rate of cleavage at the animal pole compared to the vegetal pole.
morula
A solid clump of cells resulting from cleavage in the early embryo. Because there is very little growth of these cells during cleavage, the morula is ony about as large as the original zygote.
cleavage → morula → blastula → gastrula
Which of the following correctly displays the sequence of developmental milestones
notocord
The mesoderm gives rise to the
archetendon
An open space within the gastrula is the
hypoblast
the formation of the primitive streak is guided by the structure known as the
humans and birds (not frogs)
) A primitive streak forms during the early embryonic development of
mammels birds and lizards
Extraembryonic membranes develop in
produces blood cells that then migrate into the embryo
In placental mammals, the yolk sac
chorion
Gases are exchanged in a mammalian embryo in the
morphogenesis
Some of these women gave birth to children with arm and leg deformities, suggesting that the drug most likely influenced
form neural and non-neural structures in the periphery
The migratory neural crest cells
gastulation, organogenisis and cleAVGE
Changes in both cell shape and cell position occur extensively during
cytoskeleton
Changes in the shape of a cell usually involve a reorganization of the
morphogenesis
animal cells, but not plant cells, migrate during
glycoproteins
Cadherins and other cell-adhesion molecules that guide cell migration are
maternal proteins and maternal rna
) To meet a zygote's metabolic and developmental requirements
ecto and meso
adrenal gland from which derms?
blastocoel
The first cavity formed during sea urchin development is the
human trophoblasts
are of embryonic origin and function in embryo nutrition
nueral tube
embryonic precursor to the human spinal cord is the
medail to lateral
Which of the following is the anatomical axis that is largely symmetrical in both frogs and humans?
) P granules of mRNA and protein
The developmental precursors to the gonadal tissues of C. elegans uniquely contain
pattern formation
arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in 3-D space defines
positional information for limb-bud pattern formation.
If the apical ectodermal ridge is surgically removed from an embryo, it will lose