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cytoplasmic determinants

maternal substances that affect devel of cells that inherit them during early mitotic divisions of they zygote.

cell differentiation

the specialization of cells in their structure and function.


the process by which an animal takes shape and the differentiated cells end up in the appropriate locations.

acrosomal reaction

hydrolytic enzymes released from the acrosome make a hole in the jelly coat, while growing actin filaments form acrosomal process.


specialized vesicle at tip of sperm.

fast block to polyspermy

depolarization prevents additional sperm cells from fusing with the egg's plasma membrane.

cortial reaction

fusion with the egg's plasma membrane of numerous vesicles lying in the egg's cortex.

cortical granules

vesicles located under the plasma membrane of an egg cell that undergo exocytosis during the cortical reaction.

fertilization envelope

resists the entry of additional sperm.

slow block to polyspermy

formation of the fertilization envelope and other changes in the egg's surface that prevent fusion of the egg with more than one sperm.

zona pellucida

the ECM of the egg.


process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane.


first 5-7 cleavages create the
is at least 128 cells

vegetal pole

the yolk is concentrated to this side

animal pole

the yolk decreases to this side

holoblastic cleavage

A type of cleavage in which there is complete division of the egg, as in eggs having little yolk (sea urchin) or a moderate amount of yolk (frog), but not a lot of yolk (like birds)


incomplete cleavage of yolk-rich egg (birds, insects, fishes)


cellular and tissue based processes by which animal body takes shape


set of cells on or nera surface of blastula moves to interior location, 3 cell layers establish, and primitive digestive tube is formed


The development of organ rudiments from the three germ layers. Includes neurlation:(notocord, and nuearl tube formation)


flat disk with upper layer of cells


lower layer of trophoblast, the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems


having sturctures allowing for reproduction in dry enviorment


site for gas exchange within amnion


disposes of waste in reptile eggg

yolk sac

encloses yolk in egg of reptiles, in mammels it is the site of early formation of blood cells


period of rapid cell division without growth , produces large number of cells (blasomeres)


Smaller cells produced by cleavage during mitotic cell division


fluid filled cavity inside a blastula


cleave creates a multicellular ball called a


A stiff but flexible rod that supports a chordate embryo's back that becomes backbone in adults. from cells in dorsal mesoderm.

nueral tube

will become the animals central nervous system. from the infolding of etodermal neural plate


develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid,


skin, sweat glands, follicles, nervous/sensory systems, pituaty gland, jaws/teeth,germ cells


skeletal/muscualr, ciruclatory, lymphatic, excretory, reproductive, dermis of skin,and adrenal cortex


Fetal membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac around the embryo (in mammals and reptiles/birds)

convergent extension

A process in which the cells of a tissue layer rearrange themselves, so that the sheet of cells becomes narrower (converges) and longer (extends). happens in gasturaltion and organogenesis

fate maps

specific regions of zygotes or blasula develop into specif parts of older embryos

positional information

Signals to which genes regulating development respond, indicating a cell's location relative to other cells in an embryonic structure.

apical ectodermal ridge

A limb-bud organizing region consisting of a thickened area of ectoderm at the tip of a limb bud.

zone of polarizing activity

anterior/posterior vertebrate limb development; dictates anterior/posterior axis; located in posterior mesoderm


process in which cells become specialized in structure and function


the acrosomal reaction creates a ____ block to polyspermy


skipping g1 and g1 phases means that the cell isn't acutlaly undergoing


diploid zygote is formed during


the axes are formed in


the fluid filled cavity is formed in


3 layers formed during


notocord is fromed druing

cell adhesion molecules

specific membrane proteins that allow cells to identify the tissue that they begin with, cells that belong to a specific type of tissue will have cell adhesion molecules that they are complimentary to each other, these proteins will fit into eachother and attach the individual cells to other cells in their specific tissue. if one of these cells break away from their tissue, these cell adhesion molecules will evolve into an enzyme that will initiate apotosis(programmed cell death) in order to prevent a cell from a different tissue type from existing in a tisse where it does not belongto


Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell

cytoplasmic determinants

The maternal substances in the egg that influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells.


The development of a zygote into a blastula is called _____

zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula

correct sequence of stages during embryogenesis?

multicellular embryo consisting of smaller cells called blastomeres

During cleavage the single large zygote is converted into a _____

Cell division is restricted to a small disk of yolk-free cytoplasm at the animal pole of the zygote.

Which of the following is true of meroblastic cleavage?


As an animal develops, organs form and the body transforms into a shape typical of the species, in a process called _____.


During gastrulation, the primitive _____ forms.


What is the embryonic origin of the lining of the digestive tube?

there is an opening from the cavity inside the gastrula to the outside

difference between the blastula and gastrula stages of development is that _____.

differentiation of cels into tissus

Which of the following events occurs only during organogenesis?


The human brain develops from _____.


the skeleton and muscles develop from the embryonic _____


encloses a chamber for the deposition of wastes of a bird embryo?


the outermost membrane surrounding a lizard or mouse embry


In mammals, the _____ facilitates implantation in the uterine wall.

The cytoskeleton

drives cell migration

extracellular matrix

can direct the migration of cells.


The digits of a developing vertebrate limb respond to molecules that establish an anterior-posterior axis. These molecules originate in _____.

a defect in motile cilia that renders them immotile

People with Kartagener's syndrome suffer from a variety of ailments, including the intriguing condition known as situs inversus, a reversal of the abdominal and thoracic organs. This condition occurs because of _____.

Sonic hedgehog gene

Produced at the base of LIMB BUDS in the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity). Mediates ECTODERMAL functions, and patterning along anterior-posterior axis.

cell division

As an embryo develops, new cells are produced as the result of

fertilization envelope wouldn' develope

In an egg cell treated with EDTA, a chemical that binds calcium and magnesium ions, the

first cleavage

) In mammals, the nuclei resulting from the union of the sperm and the egg are first truly diploid at the end of the

zona pellicula

In mammalian eggs, the receptors for sperm are found in the

) an embryonic cell that is much smaller than the ovum.

A human blastomere is

are still surronded by folllicle cells

At the moment of sperm penetration, human eggs

meroblastic development, which is typical of birds

The pattern of embryonic development in which only the cells lacking yolk subsequently undergo cleavage is called

gray crescent

The small portion of the embryo that will become its dorsal side develops from th

yolk of frog egg

supports the higher rate of cleavage at the animal pole compared to the vegetal pole.


A solid clump of cells resulting from cleavage in the early embryo. Because there is very little growth of these cells during cleavage, the morula is ony about as large as the original zygote.

cleavage → morula → blastula → gastrula

Which of the following correctly displays the sequence of developmental milestones


The mesoderm gives rise to the


An open space within the gastrula is the


the formation of the primitive streak is guided by the structure known as the

humans and birds (not frogs)

) A primitive streak forms during the early embryonic development of

mammels birds and lizards

Extraembryonic membranes develop in

produces blood cells that then migrate into the embryo

In placental mammals, the yolk sac


Gases are exchanged in a mammalian embryo in the


Some of these women gave birth to children with arm and leg deformities, suggesting that the drug most likely influenced

form neural and non-neural structures in the periphery

The migratory neural crest cells

gastulation, organogenisis and cleAVGE

Changes in both cell shape and cell position occur extensively during


Changes in the shape of a cell usually involve a reorganization of the


animal cells, but not plant cells, migrate during


Cadherins and other cell-adhesion molecules that guide cell migration are

maternal proteins and maternal rna

) To meet a zygote's metabolic and developmental requirements

ecto and meso

adrenal gland from which derms?


The first cavity formed during sea urchin development is the

human trophoblasts

are of embryonic origin and function in embryo nutrition

nueral tube

embryonic precursor to the human spinal cord is the

medail to lateral

Which of the following is the anatomical axis that is largely symmetrical in both frogs and humans?

) P granules of mRNA and protein

The developmental precursors to the gonadal tissues of C. elegans uniquely contain

pattern formation

arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in 3-D space defines

positional information for limb-bud pattern formation.

If the apical ectodermal ridge is surgically removed from an embryo, it will lose

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