Chapter 14 (The Civil War)
Terms in this set (46)
What happened at Fort Sumter?
- Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC was cut off from vital supplies and reinforcements by Southern control of the harbor
- Lincoln announced he was sending provisions of food instead of giving up Fort Sumter or trying to defend it
- Gave SC the choice of allowing the fort to hold out or opening fire with its shore batteries
- Fort was attacked and the war began
- Attack on Fort Sumter and its capture two days later united most Northerners behind a patriotic fight to save the Union
How did Lincoln use executive power during the Civil War?
- Used powers as chief executive and commander in chief often without approval from Congress
- After Fort Sumter he called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the insurrection in the Confederacy
- Authorized spending for a war
- Suspended privilege of writ of habeas corpus
- Congress was not in session so the pres acted completely on his own authority
Why did the Upper South secede?
- Became clear that Lincoln would use troops in crisis
- Confed moved capital to Richmond, VA
- People of WV remained loyal and became a separate state
Why did border states stay in the Union?
- Partly due to Union sentiment in those states and partly the result of federal policies
- In MY pro-secessionists attacked Union troops and threatened the railroad to Washington
- Union army used martial law to keep the state under federal control
- In MO the presence of troops prevented pro-South elements from gaining control though guerrilla forces sympathetic to Confed were active throughout the war
- KY state legislature voted to remain neutral
- Lincoln originally respected neutrality and waited for the South to violate KY before sending in troops
- Border loss would have increased Confed population by more than 50% and weakened the North's strategic position for conducting war
- Lincoln rejected initial calls for freedom of slaves partly to avoid alienating Unionists in the border states
What military advantages did the Union and the Confederacy have during the Civil War?
- Confed only had to fight a defensive war to win
- Union had to conquer an area as large as Western Europe
- Confeds had to move troops and supplies shorter distances than the Union
- Confeds had a long indented coastline that was difficult to blockade
- Confeds had experienced military leaders and high troop morale
- Union had a larger population enhanced by immigrants
- Emancipation brought 180,000 African Americans into the Union army in the final years of the war
- Union had the loyal U.S. Navy which gave it command of rivers and territorial waters
What economic advantages did the Union and the Confederacy have during the Civil War?
Union dominated nation's economy
- Controlled most of the banking and capital of the country, more than 85% of the factories, more than 70% of railroads, and 65% of farmland
- Skills of Northern clerks and bookkeepers proved valuable in logistical support of large military operations
- Confeds hoped that European demand for its cotton would bring recognition/financial aid
- Counted on outside help to be successful
What political advantages did the Union and the Confederacy have during the Civil War?
- Confeds struggling for independence while Union was fighting to preserve the Union
- Ideology of states' rights was a liability for Confederate government
- To win the war they needed a strong central government with strong public support
- Union had a well-established government and experienced politicians with a strong popular base
- Confeds hoped the people would turn against Lincoln and Repubs would quit the war because it was too costly
What efforts did the Confederate States of America make during the Civil War?
- Confed constitution was modeled after U.S. Const
- Provided a six-year term for the president and gave the president item veto (the power to veto only part of a bill)
- Denied the Confed congress powers to levy a protective tariff and to appropriate funds for internal improvement
- Prohibited foreign slave trade
- President Jefferson Davis tried to increase powers during the war but Southern governors resisted attempts
- VP Alexander H. Stephens urged secession of GA
- Short of money
- Tried loans, income tax, and impressment of private property but only paid for part of the war
- Issued so much money that it caused severe inflation
- Congress nationalized railroads and encouraged industrial development
What was the Battle of Bull Run?
- First major battle of the war in July 1861
- 30,000 federal troops marched from DC to attack Confederate forces near Bull Run Creek at Manassas Junction, VA
- When Union forces seemed close to victory Confed reinforcements under General Thomas Jackson counterattacked and sent Union troops in flight back to Washington
- Battle ended the illusion of a short war and promoted the myth that the rebels were invincible in battle
What was the Union's strategy during the Civil War?
- General-in-Chief Winfield Scott created a three part plan
- Use the U.S. Navy to blockade Southern ports (Anaconda Plan) and cut off essential supplies from reaching the Confederacy
- Take control of the MS River and divide the Confed in two
- Raise/train an army of 500,000 to conquer Richmond
- First two parts were easier than the third
What was the Peninsula Campaign?
- Eastern Union commander General George B. McClellan insisted that his troops be given a long period of training
- Eventually invaded VA but Union stopped as result of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's strategies
- McClellan forced to retreat and ordered back to the Potomac and replaced by General John Pope
What was the second Battle of Bull Run?
- Lee took advantage of change in Union general to strike at Pope's army in Northern VA
- Drew Pope into a trap, struck the enemy, and sent the Union army backward to Bull Run
- Pope withdrew defenses of Washington
What was Antietam?
- Lee led army across the Potomac into enemy territory in MY
- Hoped a major Confed victory in a Union state would convince Britain to give official recognition/support
- By then, Lincoln restored McClellan to command of the Union army
- McClellan knew Lee's battle plan because a Confederate officer dropped a copy
- Union army intercepted invading Confederates at Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, MY
- Bloodiest day of the war where 22,000 soldiers were killed or wounded
- Lee's army retreated to VA where they were unable to break through Union lines
- Lincoln removed McClellan as Union commander because he did not pursue Lee's army
- The battle was a draw but it hurt the Confeds because they needed open recognition/aid from foreign power
- Lincoln found enough encouragement in the results to claim a Union victory
- Used partial triumph of Union arms to announce plans for a direct assault on slavery
What was Fredericksburg?
- General Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan as Union general
- Large Union army under Burnside attacked Lee's army at Fredericksburg, VA and suffered 12,000 deaths and injuries compared to Confed's 5,000
- Magnitude of the war became clear with no prospect of victory for either side
What was Monitor vs. Merrimac?
- Union's hopes for winning the war depended on ability to maximize economic/naval advantages by effective blockade of Confed ports (Anaconda Plan)
- During McClellan's Peninsula campaign Union's blockade strategy endangered by Confed ironclad ship (Merrimack) attacked/sank several Union wooden ships near Hampton Roads, VA
- Next day the Union's ironclad ship (Monitor) engaged the Merrimack in a five hour duel
- Ended in a draw but the Monitor prevented Confed's weapon from challenging the U.S. naval blockade
- Marked a turning point in naval warfare with wooden ships being replaced by ironclad ones
How did Ulysses S. Grant influence the Civil War in the West?
- Partially commanded Union's campaign for control of the MS River
- Went south from IL in early 1862
- Used a combo of gunboats and army maneuvers to capture Fort Henry and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River (branch of the MS)
- Victories in which 14,000 Confederates were taken prisoner opened the state of MS to Union attack
- A few weeks later, a Confed army under Albert Johnston surprised Grant at Shiloh, TN
- Union army held its ground and forced Confeds to retreat after terrible losses on both sides
- Grant's drive down the MS was complemented by the capture of New Orleans by Union navy under David Farragut
What was the Trent Affair?
- Confed diplomats James Mason and John Slidell were traveling to England on British steamer called the Trent on a mission to gain recognition
- Union warship stopped the British ship, removed Mason and Slidell, and brought them to the U.S. as prisoners of war
- Britain threatened war over the incident unless the two diplomats were released
- Lincoln gave into the demands
- Mason and Slidell set free but failed to gain full recognition from Britain/France
What were Confederate raiders?
- Confeds gained enough recognition as a belligerent to purchase warships from British shipyards
- Confed commerce-raiders did serious harm to U.S. merchant ship
- The Alabama captured more than 60 vessels before being sunk off the coast of France by a Union warship
- After the war Britain agreed to pay the U.S. $15.5 million for damages caused by South's commerce-raiders
- U.S. minister to Britain Charles Francis Adams learned that the Confed arranged to purchase Laird rams (ships with iron rams) from Britain to use against the Union's naval blockade
- Adams persuaded British government to cancel the sale rather than risk war with the U.S.
Why did cotton diplomacy fail?
- Europe found ways of obtaining cotton from other sources
- By the time shortages of Southern cotton hit the British textile industry, enough cotton shipments began arriving from Egypt and India
- Other materials besides cotton could be used like wool and linen
- General Lee's setback in Antietam played a role because British gov would not risk recognition without seeing a decisive Confed military victory
- Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made the end of slavery an objective of the Union and appealed strongly to Britain's working class
- Conservative leaders of Britain were sympathetic to the Confeds but they couldn't defy the pro-Northern feelings of the majority
What were Lincoln's concerns about slavery during the Civil War?
- Keeping the support of the border states
- Constitutional protections of slavery
- Racial prejudice of many northerners
- Fear that premature action could be overturned in the next election
What were the Confiscation Acts?
- Early in the war Union General Benjamin Butler refused to return captured slaves to their Confed owners and argued that they were contraband of war
- Power to seize enemy property used to wage war against the U.S. was the legal basis for the first Confiscation Act
- Soon after the passage of this act thousands of African Americans escaped slavery by finding their way into Union camps
- In Congress passed a second Confiscation Act that freed persons enslaved by anyone engaged in rebellion against the U.S.
- Empowered the president to use freed slaves in the Union army in any capacity
What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
- By July 1862 Lincoln had already decided to use powers as commander in chief of the armed forces to free all enslaved persons in the states then at war with the U.S.
- Delayed announcement until he could win support of conservative Northerners
- Encouraged border states to come up with plans for emancipation with compensation to owners
- After the Battle of Antietam in September, Lincoln issued a warning that enslaved people in all states still in rebellion on January 1, 1863 would be freed
- On January 1 Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation
What were the consequences of the Emancipation Proclamation?
- Only applied to slaves in Confederate states outside Union control so it immediately freed only 1% of slaves
- Slavery in border states allowed to continue
- Of major importance because it enlarged the purpose of the war
- Union armies were fighting against slavery, not just secession
- Added weight to Confiscation acts and increased the amount of slaves who sought freedom by fleeing to Union lines
- With each advance of Northern troops into South abolition advanced as well
- Proclamation authorized use of freed slaves as Union soldiers
- Added recruits to the Union army
What was the thirteenth amendment?
- Phrases in the Const legitimizing slavery stood in the way of full emancipation
- Country needed to ratify a constitutional amendment to free all enslaved people in border states
- Even abolitionists gave Lincoln credit for playing an active role in political struggle to secure enough votes in Congress to pass the 13th amendment
- By December 1865 (after Lincoln's death) the amendment abolishing slavery was ratified
What role did freedmen play in the Civil War?
- After the Emancipation Proclamation thousands of Southern blacks (about 25% of the slave population) walked away from slavery to seek protection of the approaching Union armies
- Almost 200,000 African Americans served in the Union army and navy
- Segregated into all-black units like the MA 54th Regiment
- Troops performed well under fire and won respect of Union white soldiers
- More than 37,000 black soldiers died in what became known as the Army of Freedom
What happened at Vicksburg?
- By spring 1863 Union forces controlled New Orleans and most of the MS and surrounding valleys
- Union objective of securing complete control of the river was close to an accomplished fact when General Grant began his siege of Vicksburg, MS
- Union artillery bombarded Vicksburg for nearly seven weeks before the Confederates surrendered the city
- Federal warships now controlled the full length of the MS and cut off TX, LA, and AK from the rest of the Confed
What happened at Gettysburg?
- Lee took the offensive in the east by leading an army into the Union states of MY and PA
- If he could destroy the Union army/capture a major Northern city Lee hoped to force the Union to call for peace or gain foreign intervention on behalf of the Confed
- Invading Confed army surprised Union units at Gettysburg in south PA
- Most crucial battle of the war and the bloodiest with over 50,000 deaths
- Lee's assault on Union lines were futile and destroyed a key part of the Confed army
- Rest of Lee's forces retreated to VA
What was Grant's military strategy?
- Settled on strategy of war by attrition
- Aimed to wear down the Confederate armies and systematically destroy their vital lines of supply
- Grant reduced Lee's army in each battle and forced it into a defensive line around Richmond
What was Sherman's March?
- General William Tecumseh Sherman led a force of 100,000 men from Chattanooga, TN on a campaign of destruction across GA and SC
- Troops destroyed everything in their path
- Took Atlanta in time to help Lincoln get reelected
- Marched into Savannah in December and completed campaign in February 1865 by setting fire to Columbia
- Helped break spirit of the Confed and destroyed its will to fight on
What happened during the election of 1864?
- Dems nominated General George McClellan with a platform calling for peace and appealed to war-weary voters
- Republicans renamed themselves the Unionists to attract votes of War Dems who disagreed with the Democratic platform
- Republicans chose Lincoln as their candidate and a loyal War Dem Andrew Johnson to be his VP
- Ticket won 212 electoral votes but McClellan won 45% of the popular vote
What happened at Appomattox?
- Confed gov tried negotiating for peace but Lincoln wouldn't accept anything besides restoration of the Union
- Jefferson Davis still wanted nothing less than independence
- Lee retreated from Richmond with an army of less than 30,000
- Tried to escape to the mountains but was cut off and forced to surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House
- Union general allowed Lee's men to return home with their horses
Describe Lincoln's assassination.
- Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address a month before Lee's surrender
- John Wilkes Booth (Confed sympathizer) shot and killed Lincoln at a performance in Ford's Theater on April 14
- A co-conspirator attacked Secretary of State William Seward
- Aroused fury of Northerners at a time when South needed sympathy
- Extent of Lincoln's loss wasn't fully appreciated until two sections of a reunited country had to cope with problems of postwar Reconstruction
How did the Civil War affect Congress?
- Electoral process continued with few restriction
- Secession of Southern states created Republican majorities in both houses of Congress
- Radical Repubs championed immediate abolition of slavery
- Moderate Repubs were Free-Soilers who were chiefly concerned about economic opportunities for whites
- Most Dems supported the war but criticized Lincoln's conduct of it
- Peace Dems and Copperheads opposed the war and wanted a negotiated peace
How did the Civil War affect civil liberties?
- Lincoln focused more on prosecuting the war than protecting constitutional rights
- Suspended writ of habeas corpus in MY and other states with strong pro-Confederate sentiment
- Suspension meant that people could be arrested without being informed of the charges against them
- Many held without trial
- Dems said that Lincoln was like a tyrant
- People in border states had trouble distinguishing what side people were on
- After the war the Supreme Court ruled that the gov had acted improperly in IN where certain civilians had been subject to a military trial in the case of Ex Parte Milligan
- Declared that such procedures could only be used when regular civilian courts were unavailable
What was the draft?
- Union and Confed both resorted to laws for conscripting men into the service as need for replacements grew
- Union's first Conscription Act made all men age 20 - 45 liable to draft but allowed them to avoid service by finding a sub to serve or paying a $300 exemption fee
- Poorer laborers feared that when they returned to civilian life their jobs would be taken by freed African Americans
- Riots against the draft erupted in NYC when a mostly Irish American mob attacked blacks and wealthy whites
- 117 people killed before federal troops and temporary suspension of the draft restored order
How did the Civil War affect the balance of power between the North and the South?
- Old arguments for nullification and secession stopped being issues
- Supremacy of the federal gov over the states was established
- Abolition of slavery
How did the Union finance the Civil War?
- Borrowed $2.6 billion through the sale of government bonds
- Amount not enough so Congress raised tariffs through the Morrill Tariff of 1861, added excise taxes, and established the first income tax
- U.S. Treasury issued over $430 million in paper currency called Greenbacks
- Paper money could not be redeemed in gold and contributed to inflation
- Prices rose by 80%
- Congress created a national banking system to manage added revenue moving in and out of the Treasury
- First unified banking network since Andrew Jackson
How did the Civil War affect the Northern economy?
- Workers' wages did not keep pace with inflation
- Many aspects of a modern industrial economy accelerated by war
- War placed a premium on mass production and complex organization and sped up consolidation of manufacturing businesses
- War profiteers took advantage of gov's urgent needs for military supplies to sell goods at high prices
- Problems decreased after the federal gov took control of the contract process away from the states
- Fortunes made during the war produced a concentration of capital in hands of new class of millionaires who would finance the North's industrialization in the postwar years
How did Republican politics stimulate economic growth in of the North and West?
Passed an ambitious economic program including a national banking system
- The Morrill Tariff Act
- The Homestead Act
- The Morrill Land Grant Act
- The Pacific Railway Act
What was the Morrill Tariff Act (1861)?
- Raised tariff rates to increase revenue and protect American manufacturers
- Passage initiated Repub program of high protective tariffs to help industrialists
What was the Homestead Act (1862)?
- Promoted settlement of the Great Plains by offering parcels of 160 acres of public land free to any person or family that farmed that land for at least five years
What was the Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)?
- Encouraged states to use the sale of federal land grants to maintain agricultural and technical colleges
What was the Pacific Railway Act (1862)?
- Authorized the building of transcontinental railroad over a northern route to link the economies of CA and the western territories with the eastern states
How did life change for women during the Civil War?
- Absence of millions of men from their normal occupations in fields/factories added to responsibilities of women in all regions
- Stepped into labor vacuum created by war
- Operated farms/plantations and took factory jobs generally held by men
- Acted as military nurses and volunteers in soldiers' aid societies
- Most urban women left their jobs when war ended and rural women accepted male assistance on farm
- Economic struggle continued for women whose husbands never returned
- Nursing field open to women for first time
- Responsibilities taken by women during war made the movement for equal voting rights stronger
How did the Civil War affect slavery?
- 13th amendment freed 4 million people in 1865
- Economic hardship and oppression would continue for generations
- Slaves with no rights were protected by the Constitution
What were the major changes made by the Civil War?
- Killed 750,000 people
- $15 billion war costs and property losses
- Destroyed slavery and devastated Southern economy
- Catalyst to transform America into complex modern industrial society of capital, technology, national organizations, and large corporations
- Repubs enacted pro-business Whig program designed to stimulate industrial/commercial growth of U.S.