71 terms



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Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
A theory of how cognition develops and changes over time. Four stages, 1. sensorimotor, 2.Preoperational, 3. Concrete, 4. Formal Operation. Students through all stages cannot skip any.
Mental patterns that guide behavior to make sense of the environment.
Understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes.
Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations in the environment.
The process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment through assimilation or accommodation. According to Piaget, this is how learning occurs.
The process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences.
An imbalance between what a child understands and what a child encounters through new experiences.
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to 2 years. Infants learn about the environment by using their senses and motor skills.
Object Permanence
The fact that objects are physically stable and exist even when not physical present. This enables the child to start using symbols to represent things in their minds so they can think about them.
Preoperational Stage
2 to 7 years of cognitive development in which children learn to represent things in their mind. Use symbols to represent objects in the world. Thinking remains egocentric and centered.
Believing that everyone sees the world as you do.
The concept that certain properties of an object remain the same regardless of changes in other properties.
Paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation (tunnel vision)
The ability to perform a mental operation and then reserve thinking to return to the starting point.
Class Inclusion
The ability to think simultaneously about a whole class of objects and about relationships among subordinate classes.
Concrete Operational Stage
7 to 11 years in which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use skills only n dealing with familiar situations. Thinking is decentered.
inferred Reality
The ability to understand stimuli in the context of relevant information. being able to infer the meaning behind what they see.
Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, volume, etc.
A skill learned during the concrete operational stage in which children can mentally arrange and compare objects.
A mental transformation that requires reversible thinking.
Vygotsky's Theory of cognitive Development
Theory of cognitive development based on two key ideas. Children understand the world based on social interactions within their culture and the sign systems that represent ideas. These systems include symbols used to think, solve problems, and communicate. Theory highlights the socio-cultural of learning.
Ability to solve problems without the help of others.
Sign systems
Symbols that culture create to help people think. solve problems and communicate.
Private Speech
Inner speech, children's self talk that guides thinking and actions.
Zone of Proximal Development
Level of development immediately above a student's present level
Support for learning and problem solving.
Cooperative Learning
strategies in which students work together to help one another learn by sharing perspectives.
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Proposed people pass through 8 psychosocial stages of development. A psychosocial crisis is resolved at each stage.
Piaget's Theory of moral Development
Addresses children's moral reasoning. Children's thinking becomes more advanced and their understanding of moral problems deepens. 1 Heteronomous Moraity, 2. Autonomous Morality
Heteronomous Morality
based on rules and consequences
Autonomous Morality
Based on mutual respect and recognition
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
1. Avoid Punishment
2. obtain rewards
3. belong and be accepted
4. obey rules and regulation
5. Make and keep promises
6. Live moral imperatives
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Provision in IDEA that requires students with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled peers to maximum extent appropriate.
Multiple Intelligences
Theory by Howard Garner: 1. Interpersonal, 2.intrapersonal, 3.Musical, 4. Spatial, 5. Logical mathematical 6. bodily-kinesthetic, 7. linguistic, 8. Naturalist
Direct Instruction
An instructional approach in which the teacher transmits information through goal-orientated, structured lessons.
1. State learning objectives. 2. Review prerequisites. 3. Present new material. 4. Conduct learning probes. 5. provide independent practice. 6. Assessment and feedback. 7. Review and provide distributed practice.
Mental set
Student's attitudes of readiness to begin a lesson that involves motivation and activation of prior knowledge on the topic of instruction; topic.
Wait time
The length of time teacher waits for a student to answer a question before helping. 3 seconds
THe focus of a lesson; What studetns are expected to learn.
overt/covert Behavior
Overt behavior is observable and covert behavior is cognitive and involves thinking. Teachers must generate overt behavior to monitor student's progress toward learning goals.
Top-Down Processing
A constructivist approach in which students begin with complex problems to solve, and then work out or discover the basic skills and generalizations.
Operant Conditioning
The use of positive or negative consequences to control the occurrence of behavior.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A hierarchy of requirements for well being of a student including deficiency and growth needs. survival, safety, belonging, self-esteem, intellectual achievement, aestheic appreciation, self-actualization.
Cambourne's Conditions for learning
Characteristics of the environment that support learning. Immersion, demonstration, expectation, responsibility, employment, approximation, engagement.
The degree to which the teacher is aware of and responsive to students behavior: a heightened sense of attentiveness to relevant student behavior.
A teacher's ability to predict and respond to behavior problems without interrupting a classroom lesson or activity,
Principle of least intervention
Correcting misbehaviors by using the simplest or least invasive intervention that will work. possible steps: 1. prevention 2, using nonverbal cues, 3, verbal reminders 3. consequences
Fair use Guidelines
Guidelines limiting the rights of copyright holders and allowing portions of copyrighted materials to be used for educational purposes.
a formal measurement and judgment of student performance or behavior.
A measurement appraisal process that is ongoing, developmentally appropriate, and dynamic; the process of gathering evidence of learning.
Formative Assessment
Monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by teachers to improve their teaching. they have low or no point value
Summative Assessment
To evaluate student learning at the end of instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark. ex: midterm exam, final project.
The consistency of test results over time. A reliable measure is one that yield similar results time after time when administered to the same type or level of students under same conditions.
The truthfulness of the assessment information ex: Does it measure the content?
Norm-referenced Test
A test takers performance reported in comparison to other test takers in the same age or grade sample. Results are reported in standards scores, percentile ranks, t scores, or z scores.
Criterion-referenced Test
A test takers performance reported as mastery of learning criteria or standards. Passing requires answering a certain percentage correctly. ex: STAAR
Measurement-based Assessment
Formal or standardized assessment that report learning of constructs in numerical terms
Performance Assessment
Based on a student's performance of a skill based on a real-life situation.
Authentic Assessment
Demonstrate learning by solving a problem that could be generated from a real-life situation.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law enacted in 1974 that sets the requirements to protect the privacy of parents or legal caregivers of students.
Bloom's Taxonomy
An ordering oflearning objectives or questions based on levels o thinking from simple learning tasks to more complex. Levels include:1. knowledge 2. comprehension 3. application 4. analysis 5.sythesis 6. evaluation
Primacy Effect
Remembering information at the beginning of a text or lesson.
Recency Effect
Remembering information at the end of a text or lesson
Knowledge about one's own learning or about how to learn; thinking about thinking.
Formal operational
11 years to adulthood in which abstract and symbolic thought is possible. Problems can be solved through the use of experimentation and critical thinking.
Intermediate level of proficiency
an ELL should have the ability to seek clarification in English when failing to comprehend what they hear by requesting the speaker to repeat, slow down, o rephrase speech.
Advanced-high levels of proficiency
should be able to communicate information about a historical figure using grade-appropriate content and few errors.
Heterogeneous grouping
a type of distribution of students approximately the same age and of different academic ability levels.
Beginning ELL'S in writing
lack the vocabulary and gasp of English language structure necessary to address grade-appropriate writing tasks meaningfully, their sentences often consist of less than a few words. 0
Intermediate ELLs in writing
Have enough vocabulary and enough grasp of English language structure to address good appropriate writing task but only in a LIMITED way. Errors prevent them from communicating in school contexts effectively.
Advanced ELLs in writing
second language acquisition support is needed (relies on teacher help to write sentences and relies on dictionary) are able to identify and summarize concrete details and abstract concepts in all content areas.
Advanced-high level ELLs
are able to communicate grade-level content information with few language-realted errors and minimal second language acquisition support. They can produce communication nearly comparable to writing of native English speaking peers in clarity and precision with regard to English vocabulary and language structures.