A group of colonists who wrote letters and pamphlets to inform and unite colonists against British rule. Created unity in the colonies
Army of citizens who served as soldiers during an emergency
Refused to buy certain goods and services. Causes economic hardships for merchants
Colonial militia volunteer who was prepared to fight at a minutes notice
Imposed duties on legal documents, playing cards, dice, newspapers, etc.
A formal written request to someone in authority requesting change
Writs of assistance
Legal document that allowed British customs officials to inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Violated their rights as British citizens
Virginian who fought the first battle of the French and Indian War
Marquis de Montcalm
French commander at the Battle of Quebec
English commander at the Battle of Quebec
British prime minister who aimed to save his nation by defeating the French in North America first
Colonist who set up the first committees of correspondence
Colonist had to supply British soldiers with housing, candles, bedding, and beverages. Violated their rights as British citizens
Native American nation that allied with the British
British ruler who encouraged parliament to punish Massachusetts for the Boston tea party
Sons of Liberty
Group organized to protest the Stamp Act and other British policies
Ottawa chief who let attacks against the British
Mercy Otis Warren
Colonial writer whose plays poked fun at British officials
Alabany Plan of Union
Plan for colonial governments to unite for defense against the French
Proclamation of 1763
Law passed for forbidding colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains to avoid conflict with Native Americans
Law that established protection for rights of French Catholics and set up a government in Canada
Taxed paper, paint, glass, lead, and tea. Writs of assistance made legal
No taxation without representation
Colonists felt that British tax laws were unfair because of this principle
Raised money for the British East India Company
Lexington and Concord
Fighting broke out because British troops tried to seize colonists arms and ammunition
What did France do to stop English expansion in the Ohio River Valley?
Built forts to stop England. Blocking English colonies from expanding west. Caused conflict between the nations
Why did the French expect Native Americans to side with them
Didn't destroy hunting grounds by clearing forests for farms. Married Indian women. Took on Indian ways.
How did the English win Allies among the native Americans?
Charged lower prices for trade goods. Iroquois sided with English. William Johnson helped gain support by having an Indian wife.
What were the advantages of the French in the French and Indian war?
One government that could make decisions quickly. More Indian allies. Fighting style was frontier fighting.
What were the advantages of the English and the French and Indian war?
More people. Indian allies. Navy. Easier to defend along the coast.
What was William Pitt's strategy to win the war with France?
Sent his best generals to North America. Promised large payments for goods and military service. Encouraged colonists to support the war
How did the British surprise the French at Quebec?
Gen. Wolf secretly moved his troops in boats to the foot of a cliff. Climbed the cliffs to Plains of Abraham. Winning led to the fall of new French
What was the purpose of the proclamation of 1763?
To prevent war with the Native Americans in the Ohio River Valley.
Who were the colonial leaders that emerged because of tension with Britain?
Sam Adams organized protests and stirred up public support. John Adams. Patrick Henry who was a young lawyer who gave stirring speeches. Mercy Otis Warren wrote plays making fun of officials -stirred people to action
How did British punish Massachusetts in the Intolerable Acts?
Port of Boston closed. Colonist for bidden to hold town meetings more than once a year. Custom officers and other officials charged with major crimes tried in Britain. New quartering act colonist would have to house British soldiers in their homes.
What led directly to the American Revolution after the French and Indian war?
England insisted that the colonist help pay the war debt. Put many taxes on the colonists.
Unit 4: French and Indian War and the Road to the Revolution71 terms