133 terms

Earth Science Regents

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1. Density is
how close or compact the molecules are
2. **As temperature increases
molecules spread out (volume increases) and density decreases (inverse)
3. **As pressure increases
molecules move closer together and density increases (direct)
4. The same objects have the
same density NO MATTER WHAT SIZE
5. ** Latitude lines run
horizontal, but measure north - south of Equator (latitude = flatitude)
6. **Longitude lines run
up and down, but measure east - west of Prime meridian
7. The altitude of Polaris equals
the north latitude of the observer (Use ESRT for cities in NYS)
8. Time zones are separated by
15 degrees of longitude, which equals 1 hour per time zone
9. Going to the west (California) time gets
earlier
10. Going east time gets
later (London)
11. The closer the isolines are
the steeper the gradient
12. To get the highest possible elevation
subtract one from the next possible contour line
13. Tick marks mean
depressions; the first tick marked line is the same elevation as the one before it
14. How do you know which way water flows on a topographic map?
downhill; opposite the bends ("V") in contour lines (they point upstream)
15. The mineral and rock that react to acid are
calcite and limestone (cave formation from acid rain)
16. The physical properties of minerals depends upon
the internal arrangement and bonding of atoms
17. Rocks are classified on the basis of
their origin (how they formed)
18. Rocks are identified by their
texture
19. **Igneous rocks form by
Large crystals
Small crystals
Texture
- Vesicular means
the crystallization of molten magma or lava
slow cooling (Intrusive)
fast cooling (Extrusive)
glassy, fine, and coarse (intergrown crystals)
gas pockets
20. **Sedimentary rocks
Texture
form from sediments by compaction & cementation, evaporation, and organic remains
clastic (pieces of other rocks)
Fossils!!!
21. **Metamorphic rocks form from
Texture
Key words are
other rocks by the heat and pressure (recrystallization)
foliated or banded
foliation, re-crystallize, and distorted structure
22. As particle size decreases
surface area increases and the rate of weathering increases
23. Moist and warm climates favor
chemical weathering
24. Moist and cold climates favor
physical weathering
25. Streams valleys are
V-shaped
26. Stream velocity depends on
gradient (steepness or slope) and volume (amount) of water
27. The outside of a meander bend is
fast and eroded (elbow)
28. The inside of a meander bend is
slow and deposits (dent)
29. Evidence of gravity erosion is
unsorted and angular (sharp) rocks at base of cliff
30. Glacial landscapes show
U-shaped valleys, erratics (large boulders), kettle lakes, & scratched bedrock
31. Water and wind deposits are
sorted by size and layered
32. Gravity and glacial deposits are
unsorted and not layered
33. The particles that settle out first are
larger, most dense, and roundest
34. When a river enters the ocean
it slows down, deposits and is called a delta (horizontal sorting)
35. Plate tectonics is caused by
convection currents in the upper mantle (asthenosphere)
36. Most earthquakes and volcanoes are located
at or near plate tectonic boundaries
37. The farther you go from the center of a ridge
the older the rocks get
38. To get the exact location you need
three seismographs
39. Ocean crust is
high density, young age, thin, made of basalt (mafic)
40. Continental crust is
low density, old age, and thick (think Mt. Everest) made of granite (felsic)
41. We know the outer core is liquid because
S waves can't go through it
42. **The 3 types of plate boundaries are
divergent (moving away at mid ocean ridges),
convergent (coming together) and
transform (sliding, San Andreas Fault)
43. P waves
faster than S- waves, travels through solids and liquids
44. S waves
slower, S-motion, solids only (all start with S)
45. In undisturbed strata, the bottom layer is
older (law of superposition)
46. Contact metamorphism occurs when
molten rock partially melts the rock around it (use ESRT to get meta. rock)
47. If an intrusion has no Contact Metamorphism (CM) on top (bald) it is
older, if it has C.M. on top it is / younger
48. Index fossils are
found over a wide area and existed for a short period of time
49. An unconformity is a
buried erosional surface that represents a gap in geologic time
50. Any faults, folds, intrusions that disrupts another layer is
always younger than the rock layer
51. Plateaus are classified by
high elevations and horizontal bedrock
52. The half-life of a radioactive isotope
cannot be changed No Matter What! Radioactive elements decay forever!
53. When calculating half using a T or T.O.M. chart remember to
add half life on the time (left) side and divide (÷) by 2 on the mass (right) side
54. Carbon 14 is used to date
RECENT organic remains (thousands of years ago)
55. Uranium 238 is used to date
old rocks (billions of years ago)
56. The difference between the forms of electromagnetic radiation is
wavelength
57. Dark and rough objects
absorb light ex. dark soil or a forest
58. Light and smooth objects
reflect light ex. ice and snow
59. Good absorbers of light are
good radiators (black heats up and cools down quickly)
60. Water has a high specific heat because
it heats up and cools down slowly (moderates marine climates)
61. Infiltration occurs when the land is
permeable, unsaturated, low slope, not frozen.
62. Runoff occurs when the land is
impermeable, saturated, steep slope, frozen ground.
63. Porosity is the
percent of empty space in soil
64. Porosity does NOT depend on
particle size
65. Permeability is
how fast water flows through soil
66. As particle size increases, permeability
increases (directly related)
67. Capillarity is the
upward movement of water into small spaces
68. As particle size increases, capillary action
decreases (inversely related)
69. A barometer measures
air pressure
70. An anemometer measures
wind speed
71. A wind vane measures
wind direction
72. Wind is named for
the direction it comes from
73. Wind is caused by
differences in air pressure High to Low
74. Isobars close together indicate
a fast wind speed --- far apart, calm winds
75. The weather in a high is
happy, nice, cool and dry (sunny no precipitation) (a rising barometer)
76. The weather in a low is
lousy, bad, warm and wet (cloudy and precipitation) (a falling barometer)
77. **The circulation around a low pressure system is
LICC, where air rises (Low, Inward, CounterClockwise)
78. **The circulation around a high pressure system is
HOC, where air sinks (High, Outward, Clockwise)
79. Coriolis effect
winds and ocean currents deflected to the right in Northern Hemisphere due to Earth's rotation
80. Sling psychrometer has a wet and dry bulb to measure
dew point and relative humidity
81. The closer air temperature is to the dew point
the greater the chance of precipitation
82. Dewpoint temperature is the
temperature at which the air is saturated (filled) with water
83. Relative humidity is the
percent of water in the air
84. Clouds form when
warm, moist air rises, expands, cools, & condenses (at the dew point!)
85. Weather systems (storms) in the US usually move
from west to east (with a hook to the NE)
86. The 500 rule says
over 500 add a 9, below 500 add a 10, and always add a decimal
87. Warm air rises because
it is less dense than cold air! (the molecules are more compact in cold air and sink)
88. What is the source region of a cold and dry (cP) air mass
Central Canada
89. What is the source region of a warm and moist (mT) air mass
Gulf of Mexico (warm waters)
90. At the cold front air is
very unstable, thunderstorm occur (short, heavy rain)
91. In front of a warm front air is
stable long, drizzle occurs (long, light rain)
92. Hurricanes form over
warm oceans in summer and autumn
93. Hurricanes lose strength
as they move over land or cool water
94. To prepare for a hurricane or storm
prepare an escape route, get hand-crank radio , store up food, water
95. Marine climate has
cool summers and warm winter (moderates temp. water has high specific heat)
96. Continental climate has
cold winter and hot summers (larger temp. range)
97. Leeward side of a mountain is
dry and warm due to compression (high pressure)
98. Windward side of a mountain is
cool and moist due to expansion (low pressure)
99. In the greenhouse effect earth absorbs mostly
short wavelength light energy (UV and visible light)
100. In the greenhouse effect earth reradiates mostly
long wavelength heat (infrared) energy which is trapped by greenhouse gases (CO2), therefore heating up the Earth
101. The greenhouse gases are
carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and water vapor
102. Humans add greenhouse gases (CO2) to the air by
burning fossil fuels (oil/gas) from cars and factories
103. The seasons are caused by
the tilt of the earth's axis and the revolution around the sun
104. As the angle of insolation (sun in sky) increases
the temperature increases (directly related)
105. The sun is most intense at an angle of
90°
106. In the US, at noon, to see the sun you have to face
south (shadow points north)
107. The sun is never
overhead in NYS (sun only overhead between the tropics)
108. The equator always receives
12 hours of intense sunlight
109. Shadows are longest when the sun is
low in the sky, shortest when the sun is / highest in the sky (noon)
110. Duration of insolation is the
length of day; most in summer, less in winter
111. Summer solstice
sun rises
sun sets
sun's altitude
vertical ray hits
NY gets
North Pole gets
June 21 **
north of east
north of west
highest of year
Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N)
16 hours of daylight
24 hours of daylight
112. Winter solstice
sun rises
sun sets
sun's altitude
vertical ray hits
NY gets
North Pole gets
December 21 **
south of east
south of west
lowest of year
Tropic of Capricorn (23.5°S)
8 hours daylight
0 hours daylight
113. Vernal Equinox
Autumnal Equinox
sun rises
sun sets
vertical ray hits
whole earth gets
March 21 **
September 23 **
due east
due west
equator
12 hours
114. Two proofs that the earth rotates
Coriolis Effect and Foucault's Pendulum
115. The earth rotates
west to east, 15 degrees per hour, in 24 hours or one day
116. The earth revolves
counterclockwise, 1 degree per day, in 365 1/4 days or one year
117. Proof earth revolves
different constellations to be visible at different times of the year
118. The moon has phases because
it revolves around the Earth, in 29.5 days (½ the moon is always lit)
119. We always see the same side of the moon because it
rotates and revolves at the same rate (27.3 days)
120. **A new moon occurs when
the moon is between the earth and the sun SME (all dark from Earth)
121. **A full moon occurs when
the earth is between the sun and the moon SEM (all bright from Earth)
122. **When the Earth, Moon, and Sun are in a line a
spring tide occurs (most extreme - full and new moons)
123. **When the Moon and Sun are working against each other we get
neap tides (less extreme - half moons)
124. **A solar eclipse happens when
the moon is between the earth and the sun and it blocks out the sun (NEW MOON PHASE ALWAYS!)
125. A lunar eclipse happens when
the Earth is between the sun and the moon and the shadow hits the moon (FULL MOON PHASE ALWAYS!)
126. **How come we don't have a lunar and solar eclipse every month
the moon's orbit is tilted 5 degrees
127. Eccentricity is a measure of
how oval or elliptical the orbit is (highest =1, line) (lowest=0, perfect circle)
128. The two factors affecting the force of gravity on an object is
mass and distance (closer = more gravity)
129. As a planet gets closer to the sun or a star
the faster it orbits (further = slower)
130. Age of universe is approximately
13.7 billion years old; solar system, Earth is only / 4.6 billion
131. Two proofs of the Big Bang Theory and universal expansion are
cosmic background radiation and the red shift caused by the Doppler effect
132. Your universal address from smallest to largest
Earth, solar system, Milky Way galaxy, and the Universe
133. Ways to pass the Regents
When in doubt, whip out your ESRT
R.T.F.Q.2
Don't leave ANYTHING blank
Become one with the facts
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