73 terms

APUSH: Chapter 21


Terms in this set (...)

urban middle class
Most Progressives were of this class.
white, old stock Protestants
The missionary spirit inspired these kinds of people. They were native born and came from older families of elites.
A practical approach to morals, ideals, and knowledge. William James and John Dewey lead this new philosophy.
William James and John Dewey
They were American advocates who led pragmatism. They defined "truth" in a way that many progressives found appealing. They argued that the people should take practical approaches to morals, ideals, and knowledge. They should experiment with ideas and test them till something would produce a well functioning democratic society.
Frederick W. Taylor
By using a stopwatch to time output of factory workers, this man discovered ways of organizing people in the most efficient manner: the scientific management system.
scientific management
Most progressives believed that government can be made more efficient if placed in the hands of experts and scientific managers through this.
Henry Demarest Lloyd
A Chicago reporter who in 1881 wrote a series of articles for the Atlantic Monthly, attacking practices of the Standard Oil Company and railroads. He also wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth, which exposed the corruption of the oil monopoly but failed to suggest how to control it.
Standard Oil Company
This company was criticized by Lloyd of how corrupt and greedy they were.
Lincoln Steffans
Muckraker who wrote articles known as Tweed Days in St. Louis. He also wrote The Shame of the Cities, which characterized the corrupt deals from Philadelphia to Minneapolis.
Ida Tarbell
Muckraker who wrote articles known as The History of the Standard Oil Company.
Jacob Riis
One of the first photojournalists who published How the Other Half Lives.
Theodore Dreiser
Muckraker who wrote the novels The Financier and The Titan, which portrayed the avarice and ruthlessness of an industrialist.
Australian ballot
Political parties could manipulate and intimidate voters by printing lists of party candidates and dumping them all into a ballot box in Election Day.
direct primary
A new system for bypassing politicians and placing the nominating process directly in the hands of voters.
Robert La Follett
The man who came up with the direct primary.
17th Amendment
The amendment allows for popular election of the United States.
initiative, referendum, and recall
1. A method by which voters could compel the legislature to consider a bill 2. A method that allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws 3. Enabled votes to remove a bad or corrupt politician from office by majority vote
municipal reform
This refers to changes in city governments made to encourage greater efficiency, honesty, and responsiveness. It was created by Samuel M. Jones.
Samuel M. Jones
A mayor who introduced municipal reform, including free kindergartens, night schools, and public playgrounds.
Tom L. Johnson
A mayor who devoted himself to tax reform and three cent trolley fares for the people of Cleveland.
commission plan
A system in which voters would elect heads of city departments, not just the mayor.
city manager plan
A system in which an expert manager is hired by an elected city council to direct the work of various departments of city government.
Charles Evans
This man battled fraudulent insurance companies in New York.
Hughes Hiram Johnson
This man fought against the economic and political power of the Southern Pacific Railroad.
Wisconsin Idea
Robert La Follette established a series of Progressive measures that included direct primary law, tax reform, and state regulatory commissions to monitor railroads, utilities, and business such as insurance.
state Prohibition laws
The drys (aka prohibitionists) persuaded the legislatures if 2/3 of the states in 1915 to set up these in order to prohibit the sale of alcohol.
National Child Labor Committee
This organization proposed model state child labor laws that were passed by 2/3 of the states in 1907.
compulsory school attendance laws
These laws proved effective in keeping children out of mines and factories
Florence Kelly and the National Consumers' League
This woman and organization promoted the passage of state laws to protect women from working long hours.
Lochner v. New York
In this case, the Supreme Court ruled against a state law limiting workers to a 10 hour workday.
Muller v. Oregon
In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that health of women needed special protection from long hours.
Triangle Shirtwaist fire
This tragedy killed 146 lives, mostly women, in a New York factory. It sparked greater women's activism and motivated states to pass laws to improve safety and working conditions in factories.
Square Deal
Roosevelt proposed this to mine workers, which granted a 10% wage increase and 9 hour workday.
anthracite coal miners' strike (1902)
People feared that, without coal, they would freeze to death during winter due to this strike.
Roosevelt did this, particular to the Northern Securities Company. He later did this to Standard Oil and more than 40 other companies.
bad vs. good trusts
Roosevelt made a distinction between these, one of which harmed the public and stifled competition, which the other dominated the market through efficiency and low prices.
Elkins Act (1903)
Under this act, the Interstate Commerce Commission had the authority to stop railroads from granting rebates to favored customers.
Hepburn Act (1906)
Under this act, the Interstate Commerce Commission could fix "just and reasonable" rates for railroads.
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker who wrote The Jungle.
The Jungle
A book by Sinclair that described in detail the horrifying conditions in the Chicago stockyards and meat packing industry.
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
This act forbade the manufacture, sale, and transportation of adulterated or mislabeled foods and drugs.
Meat Inspection Act
This act provided that federal inspectors visit meat packing plants to ensure that they met minimum standards of sanitation.
Forest Reserve Act (1891)
This act set aside 150 million acres of federal land as a national reserve that could not be sold to private interests.
Newlands Reclamation Act (1902)
This act provided money from the sale of public land for irrigation projects in western states.
White House Conference
Roosevelt hosted this to promote coordinated planning federal and state governments.
Gifford Pinchot
The National Conservation Commission was established under this man, who was earlier appointed to be the first director of the JS Forest Service.
Socialist Party of America
This political party called from keep radical reforms than the Progressives favored: public ownership of the railroads, utilities, and major industries.
Eugene V. Debs
One of the Socialist's founders, this man was the candidate for president for 5 elections. He adopted socialism while jailed for the Pullman strike. He was a critic of business and champion of labor.
Bull Moose Party
Roosevelt's claim that he was as strong as a bull moose have the new Progressive party this nickname.
New Nationalism
Roosevelt called for this, with more government regulation of business and unions, women's suffrage, and more social welfare programs.
New Freedom
Wilson called for this, which would limit both big business and big government, bring about reform by ending corruption, and revive competition by supporting small business.
Mann-Elkins Act (1910)
This act gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to suspend new railroad rates and oversee telephone, telegraph, and cable companies.
16th Amendment
This amendment states that Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909)
This raised the tariff on most imports.
Underwood Tariff (1913)
This substantially lowered tariffs for the first time in 50 years.
Federal Reserve Act (1914)
By this act, Americans have purchased goods and services using the Federal Reserve Notes issued by the federally regulated banking system.
Federal Reserve Board
Wilson proposed a national banking system with 12 district banks supervised by this.
Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)
This act strengthened the provisions in the Sherman Antitrust Act for breaking up monopolies. It contained a clause exempting unions from being persecuted as trusts.
Federal Trade Commission
This agency was empowered to investigate and take action against an unfair trade practice in every industry except banking and transportation.
Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)
By this act, 12 regional federal farm loan banks were established to provide farm loans at low interest rates.
Child Labor Act
This act prohibited the shipment in commerce of products manufactured by children under 14.
racial segregation laws
Because of the decision from Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, these were enacted throughout the US.
Booker T. Washington
This influential African American argued that blacks needed education and economic progress, and that they should concentrate on learning industrial skills for better wages. He sad that only by establishing a secure economic base could blacks hope to realize their other goal of political and social equality.
WEB Dubois
This African American wrote The Souls of Black Folk, where he criticized Book T. Washington's approach and demanded equal rights for blacks. He argued that political and social rights were a prerequisite for economic independence.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
WEB Dubois founded this organization, where their mission was the abolish all forms of segregation and increase educational opportunities for black children.
National Urban League
An organization that was meant to help people migrate from the south to the north. Their motto was "Not Alms but Opportunity"
Carrie Chapman Catt
An energetic reformer from Iowa who became president of the Nation American Woman Suffrage Association and later the League of Women Voters.
National American Woman Suffrage Association
An organization that sought to win votes for women at the state level before changing strategies and seeking a suffrage amendment to the US Constitution.
Alice Paul
This woman broke from the Nation American Woman Suffrage Association and created the National Women's party.
National Woman's Party
Alice Paul formed this party, which focused on winning the support of Congress and the president for an amendment to the Constitution.
19th Amendment
This amendment gave women the right to vote.
League of Women Voters
Carrie Chapman Catt organized this organization that was dedicated to keeping voters informed about candidates and issues.
Margaret Sanger
This Progressive woman advocated birth control education.