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AP European History: Key Terms I
Terms in this set (49)
*The scholarly interest in the study of the classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome.
*Humanism contributed to the promotion of a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history.
*A branch of humanism associated with northern Europe.
*Like their Italian counterparts, the Christian humanists closely studied classical texts. However, they also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian content.
*Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus were committed to religious piety and institutional reform.
*The everyday language of a region or country.
Miguel de Cervantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Martin Luther all encouraged the development of their national languages by writing in the vernacular.
Desiderius Erasmus, however, continued to write in Latin.
*European monarchs who
-created professional armies
-created a more centralized administrative bureaucracy.
-negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church
*Key new monarchs include: Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella.
*A direct tax on the French peasantry.
*The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
*The centuries-long Christian "reconquest" of Spain from the Muslims.
*Culminated in 1492 with the conquest of the last Muslim stronghold, Granada.
*A certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church.
*The certificate stated that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or cancelled together.
*Protestants who insited that only adult baptism confromed to Scripture.
*Protestant and Catholic leaders condemned Anabaptists for advocating the complete separation of church and state.
*Doctrine espoused by John Calvin that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned.
*Calvin declared that "by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once and for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and wom he would condemn to destruction."
*French protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin.
*Rules who put political necessities above personal beliefs.
*Examples: Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I of England subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity.
*The interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the Old world and the New World.
*Economic philosophy calling for close government regulation of the economy.
*Emphasized building a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports.
*Supported the acquisition of colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods.
*Favorable balance of trade would enable a country to accumulate reserves of gold and silver.
*A preindustrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes.
*Example: watch manufacturers in Swiss towns employed villagers to make parts for their products. The system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid restrictive guild regulations.
*A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. They share the profits in proportion to the amount they invest.
*English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies
*A system of government in which the ruler claims sole and uncontestable power.
*Absolute monarchs were not limited by constitutional restraints.
*The idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God.
*Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, a French bishop and court preacher to Louis XIV, provided the theological justification for the divine right of kings by declaring that "the state of monarchy is the supremest thing on earth, for kings are not only God's lieutenants upon earth and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself are called gods. In the scriptures kings are called Gods, and their power is compared to the divine powers."
Divine Right of Kings
*French royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king.
*Played a key role in establishing French absolutism
*A series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652.
*Played a key role in Louis XIV's decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace.
*System of forced labor used in eastern Europe.
* Peasants usually owed three or four days a week of forced labor.
* This system was abolished in 1848.
* Prussia's landowning nobility.
* Supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.
* The use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature.
* These patterns or natural laws can be described with mathematical formulas.
* Eighteenth century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system.
* Leading philosophes such as Voltaire fought irrational prejudice and believed that society should be open to people of talent.
*The belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature.
*Believed that natural laws could be discovered by the use of human reason.
* A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole.
* As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
* A system of government supported by leading philosophes in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people.
*Enlightened monarchs supported: religious tolerance, increased economic productivity, administrative reform, and scientific academies.
*Enlightened monarch: (best known): Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great
*The process by which British landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops.
*The Enclosure Acts led to an increase in the size of farms held by large landowners.
*The innovations in farm production that began in 18c Holland and spread to England.
*These advances replaced the open-field agriculture system with a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture.
*Group of Eighteenth-Century French economists led by Francois Quesnay.
*This group criticized mercantilist regulations and called for free trade.
*Phrase coined by Adam Smith to refer to self-regulating nature of a free marketplace.
*French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles.
*The Parlement of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
*A moderate republican faction active in the French Revolution from 1791-1793.
*Favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France's border.
*The working people of Paris who were characterized by their long working pants and support for radical politics.
*The French policy of conscripting all males into the army.
*Created a new type of military force based upon mass participation and a fully mobilized economy.
Levee en Masse
* Name given to the reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution.
*Associated with the end of the Reign of Terror and reassertion of bourgeoisie power in the Directory.
*The principle that rulers who have been driven from their thrones should be restored to power.
*Example: the Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to power in France.
*A strategy to maintain an equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country.
*It was one of the guiding principles of the Congres of Vienna.
Balance of Power
*Political philosophy that in the nineteenth century advocated:
-representative government dominated by the propertied classes
-minimal government interference in the economy
-civil liberties such as freedom of speech.
*Political philosophy that in the nineteenth century supported:
*Conservatives favored gradual change in the established social order.
*Belief that a nation consists of a group of people who share similar traditions, history, and language.
*Argued that every nation should be sovereign and include all members of a community. A person's greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state.
*Philosophical and artistic movement in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Europe that represented a reaction against the Neoclassical emphasis upon reason.
*Romantic artists, writers, and composers stressed emotion and the contemplation of nature.
*A program of political reforms sponsored by British workers in the late 1830s.
*Demands included: universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, equal electoral districts, and salaries for members of the House of Commons.
*A free-trade union established umong the major German states in 1834.
*A secret revolutionary society working to unify Italy in the 1820s.
*A social movement of British textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution.
*Believed that the new industrial machinery would eliminate their jobs.
*Responded by attempting to destroy the mechanized looms and other new machines.
*A theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."
*Bentham argued that this principle should be applied to each nation's government, economy, and judicial systme.
*Early nineteenth century socialists who hoped to replace the overly competitive capitalist structure with planned communities guided by a spirit of cooperation.
*Leading French utopian socialists such as Charles Fourier and Louis Blanc believed that property should be communally owned.
*Political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
*They believed that history is the result of a class conflict that will end with the triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie.
*The new classless society would abolish private property.
*A radical republican party during the French Revolution.
*Led by Maximilien Robespierre, unleashed the Reign of Terror.
*Other key leaders included: Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, and the Comte de Mirabeau. The Marquis de Lafayette was not a member of this group.
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