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5-lipoxygenase inhibitors

singulair, treatment of asthma and allergies


intrauterin devises increase PGF2 alpha

activation G protein signal transduction pathway

alpha-GTP activates enzymes, opens ion channels, activation of enzymes and opening of ion channels generates second messengers, pertussis toxin inhibits on reaction only for Gi


mimic action of hormones, diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estradiol (E) agonist


affect other species, inter-specific effects


emiter benefits


steroids with masculinizing effects


inhibit action of hormones, tamoxifen, and E antagonist in breat tissue

antisense oligonucleotides

a method to inactivate specific mRNAs


recognized that if you remove the testis from male animals they do not develop the same way as normals

asthma and allergies

leukotrines case contraction of small airway passages in lungs, singulair to treat asthma and allergies


method that uses radioactive labeling to determine anatomical location of hormones

Banting and Best

isolated extract of insulin from dog pancreas and was able to treat diabetes mellitus 1 with pancreantic islet extract

bayliss and starling

discovered the first hormone, secretin, done with dogs, cutting the nervous system to the stomach to prevent any interaction then placed acid in the stomach and saw hormone projection from the pancreas


living organizms have an internal state that has to be kept in balance

Berthold's experiment

effects of castration and testis replacement found that male roosters did not develop secondary sexual traits


study of hormonal action in living systems

blood clots

to much thromboxane and or to little prostacyclin increases tendency of blood to clot, asprinin is an effective treatment because thromboxane synthesis inhibited more than prostacyclin synthesis

blot test

determine whether particular nucleic acid or protein present, tissue homogenized and cells lysed with detergent homogenate placed on introcellulose filter, filter incubated with labeled complementary nucleic acid or protein antibody


self-administered aqueous extract of dog and guinea pig testies


helps to regulate calcium if there is to much in the system made by perafolicular cells in pancreaus


cellular calcium receptor in all eukaryotic cells, four ca2+ binding sites, structurally similar to troponin c, biologically activated when calcium binds to at least three of the four calcium binding sites, activates Ca2+ calmoduline-dependent kinase, stimulates ATPase that pumps Ca2+ out of cells or into storage depots (mitochondria and smooth ER), activates myosin light chain kinase in smooth muscle


coined the term homeostasis

catecholamine hormones

deactivated by monoamine oxidase (MOA) and/or catecholamine-o-methyl transferase (COMT)

C-fos gene

expression in hippocampus an immediate early gene

c-fos protein

a transcription factor expression in hippocampus

chemical ablation

use of chemicals or drugs to destroy endocrine function, alloxan or streptozotocin to destroy beta cells o islets of langerhands

chemical messengers

any substance produced by a cell of endogenous or exogeneous origin that affects the physiological activity of another cell

common neurotransmitters

acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin

COX2 inhibitors

induced, selective inhibitors (COXIBS), celebrex, vioxx


brain, tylenol

cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP 2nd messenger

transmembrane form as well as soluble form of gyanylate cyclase, cGMP inactivated by cGMP phosphodiesterase

cyclin adenosine monophosphate cAMP second messenger

hormone-receptor binding increases adenylate cyclase activity, adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP second messenger, cAMP activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA, PKA phosphorylates proteins

Cyclooxygenase1 inhibitors

basal, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), aspirin, ibuprofin, indomethacin

deactivation of cAMP second messenger

cyclin AMP phosphodiesterase converts cAMP to inactive AMP, phosphodiesterase inhibited by methyl xanthines

deactivation of G protein signal transduction pathway

alpha-GTP termed a GTP-switch protein because of its intrinsic GRPase activity, cholera toxin inhibits off reaction


run though

discovery of hormones

chinese discovered goiters due to enlarged thyroid gland, suggested seaweed to help iodine levels

ductus arteriosus

closes at birth in part because of decreased PG exposure, PG inhibitors used to close duct in premature infants


painful menstrual crams, excess PGF2 alpha synthesis, treat with PG synthesis inhibitors

earl sutherland

discovery of the second messenger cAMP

ectopic site

site other than normal site

endocrine gland

a ductless gland that releases a hormone directly into the blood


the study of endocrine glands, the hormones they produce and the effects of these hormones

enzyme immunoassay

quantitative measurement of hormones, hormone labeled with enzyme rather than radioactive isotope


acidic dye, interacts with basic cellular components

equilibrium between bounded hormones, free hormones and plasma proteins


Ernest Starling

1905 coined the term hormone from the greek word to arouse or excite


steroids with feminizing effects

exocrine gland

a duct gland that releases a hormone or hormones

extripation and replacement

classic method removal and replacement

friedman test

rabbit test for human chronic gonadotropin (hCG), urine from women suspected for being pregnant injected into female rabbit, if woman is pregnant, hCG stimulates rabbit ovaries to form corpora lutca, antibody test for hCG now used


raises the concentration of glucose in the blood


steroid that effect carbohydrate metabolism

G-protein- coupled receptors GPCRs

largest class, bind polypeptide hormones, neurotransmitters, rhodopsins, odorant molecules, single chain of 7 hydrophobic transmembrane domains separated by hydrophilic segments, receptor when bound to hormone couples to G proteins

G proteins

bind guanine nucleotides, guanosine diphosphate (GDP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP), heterotrimers, alpha subunit type determines whether stimulator or inhibitory effects

Guillemin and Schally

discovered hypothalamic neurohormones that regulate anterior pituitary gland thyrotopin releasing hormone TRH, suggested a link between hormones and light

half-life of hormones in blood

time required for half of molecules to be inactivated or cleared from circulation (t1/2)


basic dye, interacts with acidic cellular components

heterospecific down regulation

thyroxine decreases thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors

heterospecific up regulation

estradiol increases progesterone receptors


came up with the idea that humans illness could be caused by an imbalance of the 4 humors

homospecific down regulation

insulin decreases insulin receptors

homospecific up regulation

prolactin increases prolactin receptors


chemical messenger produced by endocrine glands or cells where they affect the activity of these cells

hormone receptors

high specificity, hight affinty (low Kd), hormone binding to receptor initiates biological activity

human endocrine glands

most endocrine glands secrete more than one hormone, placenta is a transient endocrine gland in females, thymus gland atrophies prior to puberty in both sexes

human growth hormone

single chain polypeptide hormone with 191 amino acids


annealing or paring of complementary strands of nucleic acid


formed by cellular fusion of a beta lymphocyte and a myeloma, large amounts of specific antibodies obtained from hybridomas


antibody-based procedure for visualizing location of substance, antibody to substance of interest conjugated to a fluorescent dye or enzyme

inflammation of arteries

excess leukotrines synthesis causes inflammatory response in arterial wall, treat with leukotrine synthesis inhibitors

in situ hybridization

percise cellular location of RNA or DNA of interest, hybridization of labeled probe occurs within cell


lowers concentration of glucose in blood


a two chained polypeptide hormone

intracellular receptors class 1

receptors of steroid hormones, located in cytoplasm or nucleus, associated with heat shock proteins HSPs when not bound to ligand, when bound to hormone form homodimers that bind to hormone response elements HRSs


recipient benefits

knockout gene method

disruption of natural occurring gene


increased PGF2 alpha, associated with onset, PG inhibitors help prevent premature labor, increased PGF2 alpha decreased bleeding from umbilical cord


increase smooth-muscle contraction, blood vessel permeability, and mucosus secretion in airways, synthesized and released by leukocytes, components of inflamatory response



membrane receptors with intrinsic enzymatic activity

receptors with tyrosine kinase activity (RTK), receptors with guanlate cyclase activty, not 7-transmembrane receptors, do not associate with G proteins

monoclonal antibodies

antibodies produced from hybridomas

morpholino oligos

a synthetic form of antisense oligonucleotides

negative vs positive feedback

negative feedback is far more important


chemical messengers produced by neurosecretory neurons that are transported via the blood to garget cells


chemical messengers that stimulate or inhibit responses of neurons to neurotransmitters

neurosecreory neurons

specialized neurons that carry action potentials and release neurohormones


chemical messengers produced by nerve cells, which are released from the pre-synaptic membrane, diffuse across a synaptic cleft, and bind to receptors of the postsynaptic membrane of a nerve or muscle cell


single chain with a ring


helps to regulate calcium if there is not enough in a system

peptide=growth stimulating factors

peptides that stimulate cell division

permissive effect

one hormone must be present for another hormone to act (thyroxine required for GH induced brain growth)


affects conspecifics, intra-specific effects

pigeon crop assays for prolactin

epithelial cell height positively correlated with PRL levels, determine PRL levels using dose-response curve

polypeptide hormones

hormones consisting of amino acids that are joined by peptide bonds, may be stored prior to release, released phasicly, transported free in blood

primer pheromones

long term developmental effects


inhibit blood platelet aggregation, syntesized by endothelial cells of blood vessels, travel to platelets and decrease free Ca2+


affect smooth muscle activity, increased PGF2alpha: contractions, increased PGE2: relaxation


curves are inverse, the higher the viral count the lower the testosterone levels

receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)

tyrosine kinase part of receptor, hormone binding to receptor activates tyrosine kinase, receptor for insulin and epidermal growth factor

receptor with guanylate cyclase activity

guanylate cyclase part of receptor, receptor for atrial natriuretic factor ANF

receptor with guanylate cyclase activty

guanylate cyclase part of receptor, receptor for atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

releaser pheromones

rapid effects

RNA interference (post transcriptional gene silencing)

injection of double stranded RNA to silence specific genes by interfering with their mRNA, dsRNA digested by enzyme to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)

rosalyn yallow

developed a method of measuring small amounts of hormones radioimmunoassays


chemical messengers that carry information to other animals


used to measure bound labeled hormone as indicated by color change caused by enzyme reacting with added substrate

steroid and thyroid hormones

transported in blood bound to plasma proteins

steroid hormones

sulfation and glucornoide formation makes these soluable in water to get out of system

stomach ulcers

PG required for normal mucus production, PG treatment to health stomach ulcers

synergistic effect

effect of two or more hormones acting together greater than sum of their individual effects


stimulate blood platelet aggregation, synthesized by blood platelets, clotting stimuli such as thrombin stimulate synthesis, increase free Ca2+ and change platelet shape

thyrotropin releasing hormone

single chain polypeptide hormone with 3 amino acids

toad bladder/frog skin response to arginine vasopressin (AVP)

use to study mechanism of action of AVP on movement of water across membranes

tyrosine kinase-associate receptor

tyrosine kinase not part of receptor instead non covalent associated, hormone binding causes formation of dimeric receptor that activates tyrosine kinase in cytoplasm, receptor for GH, prolactin, erythropoietin, cytokines such as interferons

vertebrate transgenic animals

gene introduction from one species to another, rat GH gene transferred to mice

Von Mering and Minkowiski

removed pancreas from dogs and noted excess sugar in urine and blood, blood glucose levels rose past absorption rates in kidneys and lead to a high level of sugar in blood

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