Psychology Final Exam

Perspectives on Moral Development: Biological
-evolutionary, genetic heritage
-brain areas
Perspectives on Moral Development: Social Learning
modeling moral behavior
Perspectives on Moral Development: Behaviorist
rewards and punishment
Perspectives on Moral Development: Cognitive-Development
children as active thinkers about social rules
Characteristics of Good Models of Moral Behavior
-warmth and responsiveness
-competence and power
-consistency between words and behavior
Punishment in Early Childhood
physical punishment and frequent punishment have undesirable side effects
-effectiveness of punishment increased by:
1. consistency
2. warm parent-child relationship (as appropriate!)
3. positive discipline
-alternatives to punishment (different forms)
1. time out
2. withdrawing privileges
3. positive discipline
Corporal Punishment Chart
-2 and younger, 50% receive corporal punishment
-17+, 20% receive corporal punishment
Positive Discipline
-build mutually respectful bond
-let child know how to act: set expectations/rules in advance
1. ahead of time
-praise mature behavior (reinforce!)
Effects of Inconsistent Punishment Chart
similar rates between reprimand all and reprimand/ignore
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
-heteronomous morality: 5-10yrs
-autonomous morality: 10+yrs
Heteronomous Morality
-view rules as handed down by authorities, permanent, unchangeable, require strict obedience
-judge wrongness by outcomes, not intentions
Autonomous Morality
-rules as socially agreed upon, changeable
-standard of ideal reciprocity: mutual benefits
-judge on outcome and intentions
Evaluation of Piaget's Theory
-children can judge intentions earlier that Piaget thought
-young children center more often on consequences, interpret intentions rigidly (he was right)
-young children question basis of authority
-many children show both hetero/autonomous reasoning; problem for stages
-moral development process extends longer than Piaget thought
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
morality-based to more ideal reciprocity
1. preconventional: externally controlled
2. conventional: ensure relationship order
3. postconventional: abstract principles/values
Stage 1: punishment and obedience
Stage 2: instrumental purpose (different perspectives)
Stage 3: "good boy-good girl" morality of interpersonal cooperation
Stage 4: social order maintaining; all circumstances
Stage 5: social contract; rules flexible, further human goals
Stage 6: universal ethical principle; right action determined by self-chosen principles regardless of law, respect for dignity, and worth
The Heinz Dilemma
based on reasoning and not content; i.e. most advanced moral thinkers support individual rights (stealing the drug)
-would you:
1. steal a drug that would save the life of a dying person
2 how do you weigh obeying the law against the value of human life
Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning
-Kohlberg: rights and justice orientation
-Gilligan: caring for others orientation
1. ethic of care
-both sexes use both orientations, but females may stress care more
1. greater experiences as caregivers
Influences on Moral Reasoning
-childrearing practices
1. caring, supportive
2. discuss moral concerns
-peer interactions
Civic Responsibility
-knowledge: of political issues
-feelings: of attachment to community
-skills: for achieving civic goals
Religious Involvement and Morality
-formal religious involvement declines in adolescence
-religious involvement linked to:
1. more community service
2. lower drug and alcohol use
3. later sex
4. less delinquency
Moral Imperatives
protect rights and welfare
1. protects people's rights and welfare
2. victims and other children react strongly to moral offenses
3. adults explain rights and feelings of victims
Social Conventions
(God bless you)
customs by consensus
1. customs such as table manners or dress styles
2. peers seldom react to violations of social convention
3. adults explain less, demand obedience
Making Moral Distinctions: Moral Imperatives
-consider intentions and context of violations
Making Moral Distinctions: Social Conventions
-conventions with vs. without clear purpose
-consider intentions and context violations
Making Moral Distinctions: Personal Matters
-recognizes areas of personal choice, relate to moral rules
-recognize limits on personal choice
Development of Distributive Justice
-equality: 5-6yrs
-merit: 6-7yrs
-benevolence: around 8yrs
compliance emerges at 12-18mos
-tested through delay of gratification
improves through childhood and adolescence
-learn cognitive strategies
-develop moral self-regulation
individual differences
-hot (reactive) vs. cool (reflective) systems
Types of Aggression: Instrumental
meant to help the child get something he or she wants
Types of Aggression: Hostile
meant to hurt someone else
Types of Hostile Aggression: Physical
harm caused by physical injury
-direct or indirect
Types of Hostile Aggression: Verbal
harm caused by threats of physical aggression, name-calling, teasing
-always direct
Types of Hostile Aggression: Relational
harm caused by damage to peer relationships
-direct or indirect
Development and Aggression
early and middle childhood
-instrumental declines, hostile increases
-boys may be more physically aggressive
-less aggression, more delinquency
-delinquency peaks in middle adolescence
individual differences in aggression are lasting
Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency
early-onset: behavior begins in middle childhood
-biological risk factors and childrearing practices combine
late-onset: behavior begins around puberty
-peer influences
Sources of Aggression
-coercive interaction patterns
social-cognitive deficits and distortions
-see world as hostile
-believe aggression works
-overly high self-esteem
-ethic, political conflicts
Helping Control Aggression
reinforcing alternative behaviors
social-cognitive interventions
comprehensive approaches
-multi-systemic therapy
The consequences of the timing of puberty in males and females are generally:
positive for early-maturing males, and negative for early-maturing females
Corporal punishment has been found to be associated with:
immediate compliance
Criticisms of Vygotsky's Theory include all of the following except:
it deemphasizes the importance of teaching
Object permanence:
is an understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight; according to Piaget, object permanence develops in the Sensorimotor stage
Dual representation, egocentrism, and animistic thinking are all characteristic of which Piaget's stages of development?
What is the difference between a distance and a velocity curve?
a distance curve plots the average height and weight of a sample group at each age; a velocity curve plots their average amount of growth per year
The core knowledge perspective:
proposes an evolutionary-based paradigm in which infants are born with certain innate knowledge systems; proposes that development is domain-specific
The most common form of child maltreatment is:
Fertilization usually takes place in the:
fallopian tubes
The three stages of childbirth are (in chronological order):
dilation and effacement of the cervix, delivery of the baby, and birth of the placenta
Which of the following is true regarding preterm and small-for-date infants?
small-for-date infants usually have more serious problems than preterm infants
Today, virtually all experts agree that:
children's cognition is not as broadly stage-like as Piaget believed
Pediatricians usually test newborn reflexes carefully because weak, absent, or exaggerated reflexes may indicate:
damage to the cerebral cortex
Newborns sleep-wake cycles are initially determined by:
The right hemisphere of the brain is associated with which of the following:
spatial abilities
The Palmar grasp is:
a reflex
In general, as maternal age increases, the chance of prenatal/birth complications:
The elements of the APGAR scale are:
Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration
An infant is 2 months old, painfully thin, and in danger of dying. His mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle-feeding is inadequate. What is most likely the cause of his illness?
According to Piaget, young children's thinking is often illogical because they are not capable of:
Gwen explains that her bicycle is "sad" because it is alone in the garage. Gwen is demonstrating:
animistic thinking
What problem, often caused by unsafe water and contaminated foods, leads to 2.5 million childhood deaths each year?
In a conservation of liquid task, young children do not realize that the water in the short, wide glass would attain its former height if it were poured back into the tall, thin glass. This characteristic of preoperational thought is known as:
Vygotsky's approach to education emphasizes:
cooperative learning
Building schemes through direct interaction with the environment is known as:
According to the lecture, one reason why some parents may chose not to have their children immunized is:
a misleading correlation between the timing of immunizations and pervasive developmental disorders
A major difference between anorexia and bulimia is:
individuals with anorexia are significantly underweight
Piaget's theory is described as a constructivist approach because Piaget:
viewed children as discovering their own knowledge of the world through their own activity
Piaget's theory assumes that:
no stages can be skipped
Growth-stunted children:
are more likely to be overweight than their nonstunted age mates due to a lowered metabolism
At first, baby Mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of:
According to the lecture, the psychoanalytic perspective is deeply flawed because:
Freud misrepresented of falsified much of his early work, theory, and publications
The field of child development is often divided into the following three domains:
physical development, cognitive development, and social and emotional development
In contrast to Freud, Erikson:
emphasized the lifespan nature of development
The correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development is:
sensorimotor, preoperational, conrete operational, formal operational
In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is repeatedly paired with the . . . to eventually produce the conditioned response (CR).
neutral stimulus
In the Event Sampling method of collecting systematic observations, the observer:
records all instances of a particular behavior during a specific time period
The variable that is manipulated or changed by the researcher is the:
independent variable
In class, the importance of nutritional intake was emphasized with an example involving picky eating and . . .
Dairy Queen chicken nuggets with McDonald's french fries
Balance and self-movement information arise form the semicircular canals of the inner ear is called:
vestibular stimulation
Classical conditioning is concerned with . . . and . . ., while operant conditioning examines the effects of . . . and . . .:
stimulus and response; reinforcers and punishers
Compared to older babies, very young babies prefer to look at large, bold checkerboards over checkerboards with many small squares. This is because:
very young infants cannot resolve the more complex patterns in checkerboards with many small squares
Validity is defined as:
how accurately a measure captures the characteristics the researcher is trying to measure
During which period of prenatal development do the arms, legs, face, organs, and muscles primarily develop?
the embryo period
In the Epigenetic framework, the three factors influencing individual development are:
environment, behavior, and gene expression
The newborn baby's least-developed sense at birth is:
Psychopathology is influenced by:
the point at observation, and the perspective of the observer
The baby biographies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were:
unsystematic and subjective descriptions of a single child's behavior
Experience-expectant brain growth:
is dependent on the kinds of stimuli that are present in everyday life
The main difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional designs is that:
longitudinal studies examine the same participants repeatedly at different times while cross-sectional studies examine different participants all at the same time
The term "Purple Hat Therapy" is used to describe:
inappropriately changing a part of an evidence-based treatment to make it proprietary and profit off of it
EST stands for:
empirically supported treatment
A gene:
is a segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome
A person whose 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY:
is male
. . . is associated with a dramatic increase in the risk of having a child with Down Syndrome.
maternal age over 35yrs
Couples who know that genetic problems exist in their families are good candidates for . . . before deciding to conceive.
genetic counseling
According to operant conditioning theory:
the frequency of a behavior can be increased if it is followed by a reinforcer
The theory that is concerned with the adaptive value of human behavior and its evolutionary history is:
Rett's disorder is:
a neurological disorder primarily diagnosed in females and is associated with a deceleration in head growth
In Brofenbrenner's ecological systmes theory:
a reciprocal interaction exists between the microsystem and the child
Problems encountered when conducting longitudinal research include:
biased sampling, selective attrition, and practice effects
Developmental psychopathology focuses on all of the following except:
a particular theoretical perspective
When determining if pathology is present, which factor is considered?
duration, frequency, and intensity
Which of the following statements is true?
observer bias occurs when the observer sees what he or she expects to see
Which of the following methodologies is generally considered the least generalizable?
case studies
Which of the following study designs can by definition have data collection at only one time point?
At what prenatal stage does the heart begin beating?
Which of the following is not a newborn reflex?
pincer grasp
What category of taste do newborns tend to prefer?
In childhood, which sex tends to have more developed gross motor skills?
they are about the same
What produces symptoms similar to Marasmus?
non-organic failure to thrive
What skill refers to recognizing a symbol as an object and a symbol?
dual representation
Which theory explains the diversity in cognition across cultures?
Research on Head Start has shown that:
It's benefits in IQ and academic achievement often disappear after a few years
According to the environmental cumulative deficit hypothesis:
The effects of undprivileged rearing conditions on IQ worsen the longer the child remains in them
In the Store Model of information processing, attention largely affects:
Information from the sensory register getting into working/short-term memory
In the store model of the information-processing system, long-term memory:
Is limitless in capacity
In terms of early semantic development:
There is typically a 5-month lag in production versus comprehension; first words are usually linked to cognition and emotion; a vocabulary spurt via fast-mapping occurs between 18 and 24 months of age
Metalinguistic awareness:
Is the ability to think about language as a system; flowers in middle childhood; is more advanced in bilingual children
Individuals with an inhibited, shy temperament tend to:
React negatively to, and withdraw from, new stimuli
The most common type of attachment is:
Cooing in infancy refers to:
One-syllable vowel sounds
A 14 month old who wanders to her aunt, returns to her mother, interacts briefly with an uncle, and then returns to her mother again is demonstrating a concept of:
A secure base
Research shows that bilingual children:
Are advanced in cognitive development and metalinguistic skills relative to monolinguistic children
Research on memory suggests that:
Children learn how to structure their autobiographical memory by conversing about the past with adults
Mario sees a familiar face at the mall, but he can't recall the person's name. Mario is having problems with:
Which of the following refers to relying on another person's emotional reaction in uncertain situation?
Social referencing
Serena always says "please" and "thank you" in front of her grandmother, but not always when she is with her friends. This represents Serena's sensitivity to:
Speech registers
Self-conscious emotions are a second, higher-order set of feelings that:
Involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self
. . . Is the aspect of self-concept that involves judgments about one's own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments
Ethan tells his mother that he is not very good at math because he got seven questions wrong on his math test and his friend Jack got only one question wrong. Ethan's conclusion that he is "not very good at math" demonstrates the concept of:
Social comparisons
Two-year-old Allison uses the word "horse" for cows, zebras, and donkeys. Allison's error is known as an:
. . . Refers to the capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling:
Perspective taking
Recall is more difficult than recognition because it:
Involves remembering a stimulus that is not present
The two "types" of intellectual disability discussed in class are:
Organic and cultural-familial
Scientific evidence has consistently supported the theory that:
Autism is caused by an undetermined combination of medical conditions, genetics, and neurobiological dysfunction
By knowing a child's IQ score, one:
Knows where the child stands with respect to intelligence relative to his or her age mates
With the mastery of . . . Children view beliefs as interpretations, not just reflections, of reality.
False beliefs
One of the leading causes of death for North American youth discussed in class is:
Long-term, inter group contact, viewing others' traits as changeable, and working towards common goals are all ways of:
Reducing prejudice
Your daughter has developed a fear of cats. Based on information in your text, what should you do?
Let her approach cats at her own pace, showings her that cats can be friendly if treated kindly.
"Specialized diets" for ADHD children:
Only work for the 5% of children with ADHD who have unrelated food allergies
Gardner defines intelligence in term of:
At least eight independent intelligences that are based on distinct sets of processing operations
Associated problems frequently experienced by children with ADHD include:
57% greater tendency to have accidents; delayed motor coordination in as many as 52%; on average scoring 7-10 points lower in IQ tests
The . . . Refers to a sense of self as knower and actor; whereas the . . . Refers to a sense of self as object of knowledge and evaluation.
I-self; me-self
On average, children with ADHD taking medication for the disorder lose . . . Cm(s) in height per year.
With regard to attachment, children growing up in abusive or extremely conflicted families often are described as:
When Vince chives a high test grade he attributes it to luck, but when he gets a low test grade he attributes it to not being smart. Based on research, Vince has developed:
Learned helplessness
Is a theory of mind lated to self-awareness of mental activity
Is a set of rules about the structure and sequence of speech sounds
When baby Madeline drops her teddy bear out of her crib, she reaches towards it and whimpers, prompting her mother to pick the bear up and hand it back to her. This is an example of a:
A control deficiency refers to the:
Inability to execute a mental strategy effectively
Fluid intelligence:
Depends on basic information processing skills, such as processing speed and working memory
Which type of intellectual disability is most prevalent
Sarcasm and irony are developed largely in which developmental period?
Social functions of emotions include:
Regulating one's own behavior and affecting the behavior of others
Emotions are composed of the ABCs which stand for:
Affect (physiology), behavior, cognition
Intelligence tests are constructed so that IQ scores:
Are distributed according to a normal curve
"g" stands for:
General intelligence
Mrs. Lipscomb talks to her 4-month-old son using short sentences with distinct pauses between speech segments. She uses a high-pitched voice and exaggerates expressions, clearly pronouncing her words. Mrs. Lipscomb is demonstrating:
Child-directed speech
Kinship studies have shown that:
The greater the genetic similarity, the more similar IQ
Infants who fail to explore the environment and stay close to parent, showing distress when the parent leaves and combining clinginess and anger when the parent returns are showing:
Resistant attachment
One-session treatment is:
A massed, 3 hour exposure therapy for specific phobias
The normative cognitive development of fears progresses as:
Specific types of fears develop from concrete to abstract
The Strange Situation:
Is a procedure involving short separations from and reunions with a parent that assesses the quality of the attachment bond
8-month-old Thea and her mother watch a grasshopper in their yard. Thea looks at the grasshopper and then looks at her mother to ensure that h mother is also watching the insect. Thea's mother then labels the grasshopper and describes what it is doing. Thea and her mother are engaged in:
Joint attention
Which of the following is not a type of attention?
Semantic memory is considered part of:
Episodic memory
. . . Specifically involves metacognitive understanding, synthesizing information, working memory capacity and open-mindedness.
Scientific reasoning
Which type of intelligence tends not to be diminished in old age?
According to Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, . . . Is a component of successful intelligence.
Practical intelligence
Which of these tests can be categorized as an aptitude test?
Regarding IQ scores, when is correlational stability best?
When older at first testing
Genetics may account for about . . . Of IQ.
The defining symptom of Autistic disorder is . . .
Deficits in social interaction and communication
A child with intellectual disability was exposed to illicit drugs in utero. The cause of his ID can likely be classified as:
A person who believes that language is developed when inner capacities and environment work together is expressing a . . . View of language development.
The most basic component of language is:
In the early stages of speech development, these types of words are the most common.
At what age is a child typically able to have an effective conversation?
Which of the following coping strategies is typically used in a situation that is unchangeable?
emotion-centered coping
Regarding temperaments, what type is more likely to have high heart rates, stress hormones, and stress symptoms?
inhibited, shy
The identity status defined by a high level of exploration and a low level of commitment is:
In order to receive a disorder of Bipolar II, the following criteria must be met:
at least 1 hypomanic episode and at least 1 major depressive episode
Rates and Trajectories: ODD and CD
-about 3%
33% go on to have CD
-1%-10%, 5.5%
Approximately 33% go on to have Antisocial Personality Disorder
Equifinality: different trajectories can lead to the same thing
Multifinality: trajectory can change
Developmental Psychopathology of ODD/CD
Modulation of affective states: controlling range/inhibition of emotions
Executive dysfunction: problems with problem solving
Problem-Solving Skills
Associated Findings:
-score lower on IQ tests
-learning more sensitive to reward than punishment
-deficits in social cognition
Aggression and CD
Proactive vs. reactive vs. relational
-cultural considerations
Overt vs. Covert & Destructive vs. Non-Destructive
-overt destructive: aggression
-overt non-destructive: oppositional
-covert destructive: property violations
-covert non-destructive: status offenses; "let's get drunk"; late onset
CD/ODD: Same or Different?
-lower prevalence in girls, but once appears more stable and increased comorbidity; CD 1-10%, ODD 2-16%
-early onset worse
-ADHD consistency found to influence the "developmental course, and severity of CD"
-ADHD path to CD usually through ODD
Gender Stereotypes
views of "appropriate" characteristics for males and females
Gender Roles
the reflections of those stereotypes in everyday behavior
Gender Stereotypes: Masculine
instrumental traits: reflect competence, rationality, assertiveness
Gender Stereotypes: Feminine
expressive traits: emphasize warmth, caring, sensitivity
Development of Gender Stereotyping: Early Childhood
Stereotypes begin around 18 months
Strengthen and become more rigid through early childhood
-demonstrate cognitive limitations/bifurcated thought is common
Development of Gender Stereotyping: Middle Childhood/Adolescence
Extend stereotypes to include personalities and school subjects
More flexible about behavior/ more abstract thinking capacity
School Subject Stereotyping
-stereotypes changing
-girl's ratings of math in children and adults: children equal, adults stereotyped
Stereotypes in Gender Role Adoption
Evidence mixed for influence of stereotypes on gender role adoption
-stereotypes influence role adoption
-preferences influence stereotypes
Stereotype flexibility may be more important
Influences on Gender Stereotyping & Gender Role Adoption: Biological
Evolutionary adaptiveness
-cross-cultural similarities
Influences on Gender Stereotyping & Gender Role Adoption: Environmental
Perceptions and expectations of adults
-parents, teachers
Observational learning
Peers, siblings
Parenting and Gender Typing: Early Childhood
Parents encourage gender-specific play and behavior
Reinforce dependence in girls, independence in boys
Language indirectly teaches roles
Parenting and Gender Typing: Middle Childhood/Adolescence
Achievement more important
-gender affects perceived competence
Parents continue to demand independence from boys
-mastery-oriented help
Gender Segregation
-excluding a peer from an activity on the basis of gender, increases by age
-justified based on sex, differences in interests, and communication styles
-higher level of segregation than race
Siblings and Gender Typing
Mimic siblings masculinity or lack of
Theories of Gender Identity in Early Childhood: Social Learning Theory
gender typing behavior leads to gender identity
Theories of Gender Identity in Early Childhood: Cognitive-Developmental Theory
self-perceptions (gender constancy) come before behavior
Development of Gender Constancy
Understanding the biologically based permanence of one's gender
-gender constancy
-gender labeling
-gender stability
-gender consistency
Gender Constancy
gender remains constant
Gender Labeling
simply labeling own sex and other's correctly
Gender Stability
partial understanding of permanence; changing stereotype changes gender
Gender Consistency
late preschool/early years; sex is biologically determined and remains the same
Gender Identity in Middle Childhood
Adjustment typically linked to:
-gender typicality
-gender contentedness
-pressure to conform to gender roles
Gender Intensification in Adolescence
Increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior
Biological, social, cognitive factors
More in early adolescence, declines mid to late adolescence
Sex Differences in Mental Abilities: Performance
Verbal: girls do better from early ages, throughout school
Math: Boys better at abstract reasoning; gap larger at higher levels, although shrinking
Sex Differences in Mental Abilities: Biological Influences
Verbal: girl's advantage in left hemisphere of the brain
Math: boys better numerical memory, spatial reasoning
Sex Differences in Mental Abilities: Environmental Influences
Verbal: parents talk more to girls; language arts considered "feminine"
Math: mathematics considered "masculine"; parents see boys as better at math
Sex Differences in Personality Traits
Girls more (or boys less):
-Emotionally sensitive: but actual behavior differences small
-Likely to suffer depression/anxiety
Sex Overlap in Abilities and Personality
Sex differences account for 5-10% of differences in mental abilities
Girls more co-rumination
Sex Differences in Aggression
Boys more physically aggressive
-differences in verbal and relational aggression less clear
Biological influences
-Androgen hormones
Environmental Influences
-consequences of aggression
Evolutionary Origins of Families
Assuming responsibility for children's enhanced survival
-fathers invested care and time
-extended kinship groups also help
Functions of the Family
Economic Services
Social order
Emotional Support
Family as a Social System
Family System: a network of interdependent relationships
-bidirectional influences: all parties in the interaction influence each other
-direct influences: how people act with each other
-indirect influences: "third parties" that affect family members
Transition to Parenthood
Many profound changes
Roles often become more traditional
-reduced with second child
Marriage can be strained
-problems before children predict problems after
-sharing care can help
Later parenthood eases transition
Intervention for high-risk parents (difficult temperament)
Benefits to Families of Strong Community Ties
Parental Interpersonal acceptance
Parental access to information and services
Child-rearing controls, role models
Direct assistance with child-rearing
Child-Rearing Styles: Authoritative
high acceptance, high involvement, adaptive control, appropriate autonomy; generally considered best
Child-Rearing Styles: Authoritarian
low acceptance, low involvement, high control, low autonomy
Child-Rearing Styles: Permissive
high acceptance, too high or too low involvement, low control, high autonomy
Child-Rearing Styles: Uninvolved
low acceptance, low involvement, low control, indifferent to autonomy
Making Parenting Matter
Teach moral values
Help overcome unfavorable disposition
-adapt parenting
Foster positive capacities
-rich, varied experiences
Use authoritative style (usually)
-depends, cultural variations of good styles
1. lower SES African-American more controlling
2. respect/parental authority in Hispanic and Asian Pacific
Development and Child-Rearing
Middle Childhood
-coregulation: increased responsibility for moment-by-moment decisions
-fostering autonomy: emotional, behavioral
SES and Child-Rearing
SES: index of education, occupation, income
High SES - Affluence
-many benefits, children may get more: father involvement, time, energy, material resources, involvement in decisions; risks include accomplishment pressure and isolation from adults
Low SES - Poverty
-can be stressful, children may get more: commands, criticism, coercive discipline, physical punishment, uninvolved father
Ethnicity and Child-Rearing
Compared to European-Americans, some groups might use:
-more warmth
-more strict control
-more extended family
Parenting depends on cultural values and family context
Types of Families
employed parents
gay and lesbian parents
single parents (10% of families)
divorced parents
Trends in Having Children
Smaller numbers of Children
-average fewer than 2
-mother's careers
-have first child later
Adoption and Adjustment
What should be the goal?
-adoption best
-returned to biological mother is worse
International Divorce Rates
US worst
Italy best
IQ and Large Families
Children's IQ lower in families with more children
-later born's not lower than first born's
May be related to lower mother IQ
-adolescent parenting
Growing Up With Siblings
-can be difficult transition for first born
-infants find older siblings comforting
-play together by second year
-temperament, parenting, family context affect relationship
Middle Childhood/Adolescence:
-rivalry increases in middle childhood
-still provide companionship
-must adjust to adolescence
Gay and Lesbian Parents
Children similar to children of heterosexuals in:
-mental health
-peer relations
-gender identity
-sexual orientation
May develop more empathy and tolerance
Single Parents
90% mothers
Young African-American women most likely to postpone marriage, many marry late
-poor child outcomes
Rely on extended families
Consequences of Parental Divorce (vary greatly depending on variables of interest!)
-instability, conflict, drop in income
-parental stress, disorganization
-consequences affected by: age, temperament, sex
-improved adjustment after 2 years
-boys and children with difficult temperaments more likely to have problems
-father's involvement affects adjustment
Helping Families Through Divorce
Divorce meditation
Joint custody
Child support
Blended Families
-most frequent
-boys usually adjust quickly
-girls adapt less favorably
-older children and adolescents of both sexes display more problems
-often leads to reduced father-child contact
-children in father's custody often react negatively
-girls and stepmothers slow to get along at first, more positive interaction later
Maternal Employment and Child Development
Benefits (if done well)
-higher self-esteem
-positive family and peer relations
-fewer gender stereotypes
-better grades
-more father involvement
-less time for children
-risk of ineffective parenting
Support for Working Parents
Flexible schedules, job sharing
Sick leave
Involvement of other parent
Equal pay and opportunities
Quality child care
Factors to Consider in Choosing Child Care (finding all of these is hard and expensive)
Adult-child interactions
Teacher qualifications
Relationships with parents
Licensing and accreditation
Physical setting
Group Size
Caregiver-Child ratio
Daily activities
Increases with age, SES
Effects vary with:
-children's maturity
-how children spend their time
-time alone
Supervision needed until age 8 or 9 (recommended later)
-afterschool programs helpful through early adolescence
Child Maltreatment
Physical abuse
Sexual abuse
Emotional abuse
Factors Related to Child Maltreatment
parent characteristics
child characteristics
family characteristics
Child Sexual Abuse: Victims
more often female
reported in middle childhood
Child Sexual Abuse: Abusers (depends...)
usually male
parent or known by parent
Child Sexual Abuse: Consequences
emotional reactions
physical symptoms
effects on behavior
Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention and Treatment
prevention: education
treatment: long-term therapy
Peer Sociability in Play
Nonsocial Activity
-unoccupied, onlooker behavior
-solitary play
Parallel Play
-plays near other children with similar toys, but does not try to interact with them
Social Interaction
-associative play
-cooperative play
Associative Play
Separate activities, but exchange toys, comment on other's behavior
Cooperative Play
Play and children orient toward common goal (e.g. make believe)
Cognitive Play Categories
Functional Play 0-2yrs
Make-Believe Play 2-6yrs
Constructive Play 3-6yrs
Games with Rules After 6
Functional Play
Simple, repetitive motor movements, with or without objects
Make-Believe Play
Acting out everyday and imaginative roles
Constructive Play
Creating or constructing something
Games with Rules
Understanding and following rules in play
Middle Childhood & Adolescence Peer Sociability
Have more, diverse peers
Apply social/emotional knowledge
-e.g. perspective taking, prosocial acts
Rough & tumble play
Parental Influences on Peer Relations: Direct
Arrange informal peer activities
Guidance on how to act towards others
Monitoring activities
Parental Influences on Peer Relations: Indirect
Secure attachment
Authoritative parenting
Parent-child play
-Parents' own social networks
Thinking About Friendship
Handy Playmate: 4-7yrs
-concrete terms
Mutual trust and assistance: 8-10yrs
-more complex, psychologically oriented
Intimacy, mutual understanding & loyalty
-more about psychological closeness
Play Forms Info
All play forms coexist during preschool years
Type rather than amount of play changes
-greater cognitive maturity
Parallel play and solitary play are used as respites from social interaction
Only certain types of nonsocial activity are cause for concern:
-aimless wandering
-hovering near peers
-functional play with repetitive motion/movements
Selectivity and Stability of Friendships
More selective with age
-from 4-6 best friends to 1-2 in adolescence
Remarkably stable at all stages
-younger children more dependent on environment
Interactions Between Friends
Compared to non-friends, friends have more:
-positive interaction
-emotional expression
-prosocial behavior
-competition: aggressive friends can lead to hostile relationship
Positive Interaction
e.g. Preschoolers give 2x as much reinforcement to friends
Prosocial Behavior
e.g. Cooperation, generosity
Resemblances Between Friends
Friends often similar in:
-age, sex, ethnicity, SES
-personality, popularity, academics, prosocial behavior, judgments of others (biases)
Similarities increase supportiveness of friendship
Adolescents may explore identity by making different friends
Gender Differences in Friendships
Boys: Activities, status
-friendships more variable
-depends on gender identity: e.g. masculine boys less likely to form intimate friendships with boys
Girls: Emotional closeness
-get together to "just talk"
-danger of co-rumination: problems and negative emotions, increases quality of friendship, increases risk of anxiety and depression
Other-sex Friends:
-either very popular or very unpopular adolescents
Benefits of Friendships
Opportunities to explore self
Form deep understanding of another
Foundation for future intimate relationships
Help deal with life stress
Can improve attitude and school involvement
Peer Acceptance Categories
Popular: positive votes
-popular-prosocial: academic/social
-popular-antisocial: cool/aggressive
Rejected: actively disliked
Controversial: large number of + and - votes
Neglected: seldom chosen either + or -
Accounts for 2/3 of children; other 1/3 "average" peer acceptance
Bullies and Victims: Bullies
Most are boys
Physically, relationally aggressive
High-status, powerful
Popular: eventually become disliked
Bullies and Victims: Victims
Passive when should be active
Give in to demands
Lack defenders
Inhibited temperament
Physically frail
Overprotected, controlled by parents
First Peer Groups
Formed from proximity, similarity
Adopt similar dress and behavior
Peer culture can include
-relational aggression
Cliques and Crowds: Cliques
Teenage years
Small group of 5-7
Good friends
Identified by interests, social status
-popular and unpopular
Cliques and Crowds: Crowd
-several cliques
Membership based on reputation, stereotype
From Cliques to Dating
Boys' and girls' cliques come together
Mixed-sex cliques hang out
Groups of several couples form and spend time together
Individual couples
Changes in Dating During Adolescence
Goals change throughout adolescence
-early: recreation, group activities, shallow intimacy
-gradually look for more intimacy
Relations with parents, friends contribute to internal working models for dating
Dating Problems
Too early dating:
-drug use, delinquency, sex
-poor academics
-mental-health problems
For homosexuals:
-finding partners
-peer harassment, rejection
Peer Conformity
Pressures to conform to:
-dress, grooming, social activities
-proadult behavior
-misconduct: rises in early adolescence, but low overall
More conformity in early adolescence
Authoritative parenting helps resist pressures
Television Literacy
-learn meaning of visual and auditory
-understand story line
In the US, school ages children typically watch 24 hours of television per week!
Dangers and Benefits of TV: Dangers
Ethnic, gender stereotypes
Time away from other activities
Dangers and Benefits of TV: Potential Benefits
-educational shows
Prosocial behavior
Computers and Academic Learning
Computers and Internet access in virtually all North American schools
Small group collaboration
Programming skills
-word processing
-internet research
Worries about the "digital divide"
-equal gender and lower SES access
Educational Philosophies
Traditional vs. Constructivist
-traditional: teacher sole authority, students passive
-constructivist: Piagetian teacher offers support for student exploration
New philosophical directions
-social-constructivist: Vygotsky's, jointly construct knowledge/learning; communities of learners
School Transitions in Adolescence
Grades and psychological well-being decline with each transition
-higher academic standards
-less supportive teaching-learning environment
-declines more for girls than boys in 6-3-3 schools (i.e. k-6th, 7th-9th, 10th-12th)
-increases in 8-4 schools
Helping Adolescents Adjust to School Transitions
Parental involvement
Fewer transitions
-consider 8-4 school plan
Homeroom teacher relationships
Classes with familiar peers
Minimize competition, treatment by ability at school
Teacher-Student Interaction
Good teachers: caring, helpful, stimulating
-too many use repetitive drill
-better achievement in stimulating classrooms
Individual differences
-well-behaved, high achievers get more attention
-more impact of attention on low SES
-self-fulfilling prophecy
Children with Learning Difficulties
Difficulties include:
-mild mental retardation
-learning disabilities: 5-10% of children
Law requires least restrictive placement
-full inclusion
Parent-School Partnerships
Schools can:
-foster parent-teacher relationships
-show parents how to support children's education
-build bridges to minority cultures
-develop assignments with parent role
-include parents in planning, governance
Asian Schools versus North American Schools
Asian schools show more:
-cultural valuation of academic achievement
-emphasis on effort
-high-quality education for all
-time devoted to instruction