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Perspectives on Moral Development: Biological

-evolutionary, genetic heritage
-brain areas

Perspectives on Moral Development: Social Learning

modeling moral behavior

Perspectives on Moral Development: Behaviorist

rewards and punishment

Perspectives on Moral Development: Cognitive-Development

children as active thinkers about social rules

Characteristics of Good Models of Moral Behavior

-warmth and responsiveness
-competence and power
-consistency between words and behavior

Punishment in Early Childhood

physical punishment and frequent punishment have undesirable side effects
-effectiveness of punishment increased by:
1. consistency
2. warm parent-child relationship (as appropriate!)
3. positive discipline
-alternatives to punishment (different forms)
1. time out
2. withdrawing privileges
3. positive discipline

Corporal Punishment Chart

-2 and younger, 50% receive corporal punishment
-17+, 20% receive corporal punishment

Positive Discipline

-build mutually respectful bond
-let child know how to act: set expectations/rules in advance
1. ahead of time
-praise mature behavior (reinforce!)

Effects of Inconsistent Punishment Chart

similar rates between reprimand all and reprimand/ignore

Piaget's Theory of Moral Development

-heteronomous morality: 5-10yrs
-autonomous morality: 10+yrs

Heteronomous Morality

-view rules as handed down by authorities, permanent, unchangeable, require strict obedience
-judge wrongness by outcomes, not intentions

Autonomous Morality

-rules as socially agreed upon, changeable
-standard of ideal reciprocity: mutual benefits
-judge on outcome and intentions

Evaluation of Piaget's Theory

-children can judge intentions earlier that Piaget thought
-young children center more often on consequences, interpret intentions rigidly (he was right)
-young children question basis of authority
-many children show both hetero/autonomous reasoning; problem for stages
-moral development process extends longer than Piaget thought

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

morality-based to more ideal reciprocity
1. preconventional: externally controlled
2. conventional: ensure relationship order
3. postconventional: abstract principles/values


Stage 1: punishment and obedience
Stage 2: instrumental purpose (different perspectives)


Stage 3: "good boy-good girl" morality of interpersonal cooperation
Stage 4: social order maintaining; all circumstances


Stage 5: social contract; rules flexible, further human goals
Stage 6: universal ethical principle; right action determined by self-chosen principles regardless of law, respect for dignity, and worth

The Heinz Dilemma

based on reasoning and not content; i.e. most advanced moral thinkers support individual rights (stealing the drug)
-would you:
1. steal a drug that would save the life of a dying person
2 how do you weigh obeying the law against the value of human life

Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning

-Kohlberg: rights and justice orientation
-Gilligan: caring for others orientation
1. ethic of care
-both sexes use both orientations, but females may stress care more
1. greater experiences as caregivers

Influences on Moral Reasoning

-childrearing practices
1. caring, supportive
2. discuss moral concerns
-peer interactions

Civic Responsibility

-knowledge: of political issues
-feelings: of attachment to community
-skills: for achieving civic goals

Religious Involvement and Morality

-formal religious involvement declines in adolescence
-religious involvement linked to:
1. more community service
2. lower drug and alcohol use
3. later sex
4. less delinquency

Moral Imperatives

protect rights and welfare
1. protects people's rights and welfare
2. victims and other children react strongly to moral offenses
3. adults explain rights and feelings of victims

Social Conventions

(God bless you)
customs by consensus
1. customs such as table manners or dress styles
2. peers seldom react to violations of social convention
3. adults explain less, demand obedience

Making Moral Distinctions: Moral Imperatives

-consider intentions and context of violations

Making Moral Distinctions: Social Conventions

-conventions with vs. without clear purpose
-consider intentions and context violations

Making Moral Distinctions: Personal Matters

-recognizes areas of personal choice, relate to moral rules
-recognize limits on personal choice

Development of Distributive Justice

-equality: 5-6yrs
-merit: 6-7yrs
-benevolence: around 8yrs


compliance emerges at 12-18mos
-tested through delay of gratification
improves through childhood and adolescence
-learn cognitive strategies
-develop moral self-regulation
individual differences
-hot (reactive) vs. cool (reflective) systems

Types of Aggression: Instrumental

meant to help the child get something he or she wants

Types of Aggression: Hostile

meant to hurt someone else

Types of Hostile Aggression: Physical

harm caused by physical injury
-direct or indirect

Types of Hostile Aggression: Verbal

harm caused by threats of physical aggression, name-calling, teasing
-always direct

Types of Hostile Aggression: Relational

harm caused by damage to peer relationships
-direct or indirect

Development and Aggression

early and middle childhood
-instrumental declines, hostile increases
-boys may be more physically aggressive
-less aggression, more delinquency
-delinquency peaks in middle adolescence
individual differences in aggression are lasting

Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency

early-onset: behavior begins in middle childhood
-biological risk factors and childrearing practices combine
late-onset: behavior begins around puberty
-peer influences

Sources of Aggression

-coercive interaction patterns
social-cognitive deficits and distortions
-see world as hostile
-believe aggression works
-overly high self-esteem
-ethic, political conflicts

Helping Control Aggression

reinforcing alternative behaviors
social-cognitive interventions
comprehensive approaches
-multi-systemic therapy

The consequences of the timing of puberty in males and females are generally:

positive for early-maturing males, and negative for early-maturing females

Corporal punishment has been found to be associated with:

immediate compliance

Criticisms of Vygotsky's Theory include all of the following except:

it deemphasizes the importance of teaching

Object permanence:

is an understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight; according to Piaget, object permanence develops in the Sensorimotor stage

Dual representation, egocentrism, and animistic thinking are all characteristic of which Piaget's stages of development?


What is the difference between a distance and a velocity curve?

a distance curve plots the average height and weight of a sample group at each age; a velocity curve plots their average amount of growth per year

The core knowledge perspective:

proposes an evolutionary-based paradigm in which infants are born with certain innate knowledge systems; proposes that development is domain-specific

The most common form of child maltreatment is:


Fertilization usually takes place in the:

fallopian tubes

The three stages of childbirth are (in chronological order):

dilation and effacement of the cervix, delivery of the baby, and birth of the placenta

Which of the following is true regarding preterm and small-for-date infants?

small-for-date infants usually have more serious problems than preterm infants

Today, virtually all experts agree that:

children's cognition is not as broadly stage-like as Piaget believed

Pediatricians usually test newborn reflexes carefully because weak, absent, or exaggerated reflexes may indicate:

damage to the cerebral cortex

Newborns sleep-wake cycles are initially determined by:


The right hemisphere of the brain is associated with which of the following:

spatial abilities

The Palmar grasp is:

a reflex

In general, as maternal age increases, the chance of prenatal/birth complications:


The elements of the APGAR scale are:

Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration

An infant is 2 months old, painfully thin, and in danger of dying. His mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle-feeding is inadequate. What is most likely the cause of his illness?


According to Piaget, young children's thinking is often illogical because they are not capable of:


Gwen explains that her bicycle is "sad" because it is alone in the garage. Gwen is demonstrating:

animistic thinking

What problem, often caused by unsafe water and contaminated foods, leads to 2.5 million childhood deaths each year?


In a conservation of liquid task, young children do not realize that the water in the short, wide glass would attain its former height if it were poured back into the tall, thin glass. This characteristic of preoperational thought is known as:


Vygotsky's approach to education emphasizes:

cooperative learning

Building schemes through direct interaction with the environment is known as:


According to the lecture, one reason why some parents may chose not to have their children immunized is:

a misleading correlation between the timing of immunizations and pervasive developmental disorders

A major difference between anorexia and bulimia is:

individuals with anorexia are significantly underweight

Piaget's theory is described as a constructivist approach because Piaget:

viewed children as discovering their own knowledge of the world through their own activity

Piaget's theory assumes that:

no stages can be skipped

Growth-stunted children:

are more likely to be overweight than their nonstunted age mates due to a lowered metabolism

At first, baby Mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of:


According to the lecture, the psychoanalytic perspective is deeply flawed because:

Freud misrepresented of falsified much of his early work, theory, and publications

The field of child development is often divided into the following three domains:

physical development, cognitive development, and social and emotional development

In contrast to Freud, Erikson:

emphasized the lifespan nature of development

The correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development is:

sensorimotor, preoperational, conrete operational, formal operational

In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is repeatedly paired with the . . . to eventually produce the conditioned response (CR).

neutral stimulus

In the Event Sampling method of collecting systematic observations, the observer:

records all instances of a particular behavior during a specific time period

The variable that is manipulated or changed by the researcher is the:

independent variable

In class, the importance of nutritional intake was emphasized with an example involving picky eating and . . .

Dairy Queen chicken nuggets with McDonald's french fries

Balance and self-movement information arise form the semicircular canals of the inner ear is called:

vestibular stimulation

Classical conditioning is concerned with . . . and . . ., while operant conditioning examines the effects of . . . and . . .:

stimulus and response; reinforcers and punishers

Compared to older babies, very young babies prefer to look at large, bold checkerboards over checkerboards with many small squares. This is because:

very young infants cannot resolve the more complex patterns in checkerboards with many small squares

Validity is defined as:

how accurately a measure captures the characteristics the researcher is trying to measure

During which period of prenatal development do the arms, legs, face, organs, and muscles primarily develop?

the embryo period

In the Epigenetic framework, the three factors influencing individual development are:

environment, behavior, and gene expression

The newborn baby's least-developed sense at birth is:


Psychopathology is influenced by:

the point at observation, and the perspective of the observer

The baby biographies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were:

unsystematic and subjective descriptions of a single child's behavior

Experience-expectant brain growth:

is dependent on the kinds of stimuli that are present in everyday life

The main difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional designs is that:

longitudinal studies examine the same participants repeatedly at different times while cross-sectional studies examine different participants all at the same time

The term "Purple Hat Therapy" is used to describe:

inappropriately changing a part of an evidence-based treatment to make it proprietary and profit off of it

EST stands for:

empirically supported treatment

A gene:

is a segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome

A person whose 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY:

is male

. . . is associated with a dramatic increase in the risk of having a child with Down Syndrome.

maternal age over 35yrs

Couples who know that genetic problems exist in their families are good candidates for . . . before deciding to conceive.

genetic counseling

According to operant conditioning theory:

the frequency of a behavior can be increased if it is followed by a reinforcer

The theory that is concerned with the adaptive value of human behavior and its evolutionary history is:


Rett's disorder is:

a neurological disorder primarily diagnosed in females and is associated with a deceleration in head growth

In Brofenbrenner's ecological systmes theory:

a reciprocal interaction exists between the microsystem and the child

Problems encountered when conducting longitudinal research include:

biased sampling, selective attrition, and practice effects

Developmental psychopathology focuses on all of the following except:

a particular theoretical perspective

When determining if pathology is present, which factor is considered?

duration, frequency, and intensity

Which of the following statements is true?

observer bias occurs when the observer sees what he or she expects to see

Which of the following methodologies is generally considered the least generalizable?

case studies

Which of the following study designs can by definition have data collection at only one time point?


At what prenatal stage does the heart begin beating?


Which of the following is not a newborn reflex?

pincer grasp

What category of taste do newborns tend to prefer?


In childhood, which sex tends to have more developed gross motor skills?

they are about the same

What produces symptoms similar to Marasmus?

non-organic failure to thrive

What skill refers to recognizing a symbol as an object and a symbol?

dual representation

Which theory explains the diversity in cognition across cultures?


Research on Head Start has shown that:

It's benefits in IQ and academic achievement often disappear after a few years

According to the environmental cumulative deficit hypothesis:

The effects of undprivileged rearing conditions on IQ worsen the longer the child remains in them

In the Store Model of information processing, attention largely affects:

Information from the sensory register getting into working/short-term memory

In the store model of the information-processing system, long-term memory:

Is limitless in capacity

In terms of early semantic development:

There is typically a 5-month lag in production versus comprehension; first words are usually linked to cognition and emotion; a vocabulary spurt via fast-mapping occurs between 18 and 24 months of age

Metalinguistic awareness:

Is the ability to think about language as a system; flowers in middle childhood; is more advanced in bilingual children

Individuals with an inhibited, shy temperament tend to:

React negatively to, and withdraw from, new stimuli

The most common type of attachment is:


Cooing in infancy refers to:

One-syllable vowel sounds

A 14 month old who wanders to her aunt, returns to her mother, interacts briefly with an uncle, and then returns to her mother again is demonstrating a concept of:

A secure base

Research shows that bilingual children:

Are advanced in cognitive development and metalinguistic skills relative to monolinguistic children

Research on memory suggests that:

Children learn how to structure their autobiographical memory by conversing about the past with adults

Mario sees a familiar face at the mall, but he can't recall the person's name. Mario is having problems with:


Which of the following refers to relying on another person's emotional reaction in uncertain situation?

Social referencing

Serena always says "please" and "thank you" in front of her grandmother, but not always when she is with her friends. This represents Serena's sensitivity to:

Speech registers

Self-conscious emotions are a second, higher-order set of feelings that:

Involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self

. . . Is the aspect of self-concept that involves judgments about one's own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments


Ethan tells his mother that he is not very good at math because he got seven questions wrong on his math test and his friend Jack got only one question wrong. Ethan's conclusion that he is "not very good at math" demonstrates the concept of:

Social comparisons

Two-year-old Allison uses the word "horse" for cows, zebras, and donkeys. Allison's error is known as an:


. . . Refers to the capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling:

Perspective taking

Recall is more difficult than recognition because it:

Involves remembering a stimulus that is not present

The two "types" of intellectual disability discussed in class are:

Organic and cultural-familial

Scientific evidence has consistently supported the theory that:

Autism is caused by an undetermined combination of medical conditions, genetics, and neurobiological dysfunction

By knowing a child's IQ score, one:

Knows where the child stands with respect to intelligence relative to his or her age mates

With the mastery of . . . Children view beliefs as interpretations, not just reflections, of reality.

False beliefs

One of the leading causes of death for North American youth discussed in class is:


Long-term, inter group contact, viewing others' traits as changeable, and working towards common goals are all ways of:

Reducing prejudice

Your daughter has developed a fear of cats. Based on information in your text, what should you do?

Let her approach cats at her own pace, showings her that cats can be friendly if treated kindly.

"Specialized diets" for ADHD children:

Only work for the 5% of children with ADHD who have unrelated food allergies

Gardner defines intelligence in term of:

At least eight independent intelligences that are based on distinct sets of processing operations

Associated problems frequently experienced by children with ADHD include:

57% greater tendency to have accidents; delayed motor coordination in as many as 52%; on average scoring 7-10 points lower in IQ tests

The . . . Refers to a sense of self as knower and actor; whereas the . . . Refers to a sense of self as object of knowledge and evaluation.

I-self; me-self

On average, children with ADHD taking medication for the disorder lose . . . Cm(s) in height per year.


With regard to attachment, children growing up in abusive or extremely conflicted families often are described as:


When Vince chives a high test grade he attributes it to luck, but when he gets a low test grade he attributes it to not being smart. Based on research, Vince has developed:

Learned helplessness


Is a theory of mind lated to self-awareness of mental activity


Is a set of rules about the structure and sequence of speech sounds

When baby Madeline drops her teddy bear out of her crib, she reaches towards it and whimpers, prompting her mother to pick the bear up and hand it back to her. This is an example of a:


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