Chapter 20

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Terms in this set (...)

recession
This is a period in which economic activity
Radicals
These are people who favor extreme change.
Ideology
This is a system of thought and belief
autonomy
Self-rule
mestizos
Latin Americans of Native American and European heritage are called
What revolutionary leader helped Argentina win freedom from Spain?
José de San Martín
The ideas of liberals were sometimes called "bourgeois liberalism" because liberals spoke mostly for whom?
middle class
He seized power in France using a plebiscite to win public approval
Napoleon III
Uprisings sparked by the dismantling of the Charter of French Liberties forced the abdication of whom?
Charles X
Creating a homeland for people who shared a common heritage was a major goal of who?
nationalists
Louis Philippe was called the "citizen king" because of this reason.
he owed his throne to the people
Father Miguel Hidalgo's "el Grito de Dolores" was a what?
The call to fight for Mexican independence.
What major event occurred during "February Days" in France in 1848?
Louis Philippe abdicated
The Second Republic in France ended when this happened.
Louis Napoleon became emperor
What event spurred Simón Bolívar and his followers to begin the struggle for independence?
Napoleon's occupation of Spain
During the "June Days" in France, why did the peasants attack protesting socialist workers?
They feared the socialists would take their land.
What was the result of the revolutionary uprising in Belgium in the 1830s?
Belgium became an independent state with a liberal constitution.
In what ways did Enlightenment ideas influence liberal social and political views in the early 1800s?
Enlightenment ideas inspired liberals to challenge the old social order dominated by monarchs, aristocrats, and established church leaders. Liberals adopted the Enlightenment idea that people had natural rights to liberty, equality, and property. Like Enlightenment thinkers, they believed that the role of government should be limited to protecting these rights. The liberal ideas of government elected by the people and limited by a written constitution and separation of powers also came from the Enlightenment.
The Main goal of decision makers at the Congress of Vienna was to create a lasting peace in Europe. Explain how their decisions actually helped to bring about the revolutions of the early-to-mid 1800s.
The Congress of Vienna redrew national boundaries to try to create a balance of power in Europe. However, these artificial boundaries grouped peoples of different ethnic heritages into the same empire. People who shared a common heritage dreamed of creating their own homeland, sparking revolutions throughout Europe. Decision makers at the Congress of Vienna also agreed in the Concert of Europe to work together to support the old political and social order. They refused to acknowledge the underlying problems that had inspired the desire for revolution. Conservative leaders used the suppression of ideas and armed troops to support the old order. Liberals inspired by the ideals of the Enlightenment revolted against this repression. They sought to replace traditional monarchies with either a constitutional monarchy or republican form of government.
Agustín de Iturbide and Simón Bolívar both sought independence for their people but for different reasons. Explain the differences in the motivations of these two leaders.
Simón Bolívar was motivated by the ideals of "liberty, equality, and fraternity" from the French Revolution. He fought against colonial rule and tried to win freedom and reforms for his people. Agustín de Iturbide was motivated by fear of reforms and personal ambition. In Spain at the time, liberals had forced the king to issue a constitution. Iturbide feared that the new Spanish government might force reforms on the colonies as well. To counter this threat, he stopped fighting Mexican revolutionaries and instead led them in overthrowing Spanish rule. However, instead of freedom, the Mexican people gained a new monarch when Iturbide declared himself emperor.
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