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59 terms

Islam

Mr. West History Islam Test
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Arabs
Semitic-speaking people form Southwest Asia
Bedouin Arabs
Arabia is inhabited by them during the Roman Empre. nomads from north, lived in tribes
Allah
Muslim god
Muhammad
Prophet of Islam
Khadija
the caravan manager married her, she also became his boss
Gabriel
angel who told Muhammad about the Qur'an(his revelation)
Muslims
practitioners of Islam
Ulama
Muslim scholars who wrote the Shari's(laws)
Abu Bakr
First Caliph
Ali
son-in-law of muhammad, 5th caliph
Umar
third caliph
Uthman
4th caliph (assassinated)
Mu'awiya
governor of Syria, 6th caliph, Ali's main enemy, makes the Umayyads
Umayyads
Mu'awiya's bloodline, the official line of leaders
Hussein
Ali's son who led an unsuccessful revolt in Iraq in 680 because of unfair treatment toward non-Arab muslims
Shi'ite
followers of Ali, people who thought Ali should have been the first successor
Sunni
people who believe the order of the caliphs was correct
Abbassids
replaced the Umayyad's
Seljuk Turks
take over after the Abbassids, declare new emperor, Sultan. Take over capital at Baghdad. Butt heads with the Byzantine empire
Persians
outsiders
Crusaders
Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled
Mongols
Muslims from Mongolia
Ottoman Turks
take over constantinople after the Mongols
Dervish
poor persians
Arabia/Arabian Penninsula
in middle east
Saudi Arabia
an absolute monarchy occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula in southwest Asia
Mecca (Saudi Arabia)
Where Islam was "founded" Muhammad's home town, where he fled from.
Medina (Saudi Arabia)
city of prophet, Muhammad fled here when he was an outsider in Mecca, spent the rest of life here.
Byzantine Empire
Umayyad's cannot capture
Constantinople (Byzantium)
Umayyad's cannot capture
Damascus (Syria)
Umayyads moved capitol to here
Baghdad (Iraq)
Abbasids built new capitol here, center of trade
Jerusalem (Israel)
where the Dome of the Rock is located
Cairo (Egypt)
center of trade
The Dome of the Rock
In Jerusalem, built on spot where Muhammad was accented into heaven with Gabriel
Sheikh
ruler of Bedouin Arabs tribe
Majlis
council of elders, elected the ruler of the Bedouin Arbs tribe
Polytheistic
belief in multiple gods
Qur'an
Holy scripture of Islam
Hegira
the name of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina
Umma
first Muslim community
Ka'aba
the "cube", main center of prayer for Muslims
Monotheistic
Belief in one god
Sura
Chapters in Qur'an (114)
5 Pillars of Islam
1. Belief in Allah and Muhammad as his prophet
2. Standard prayer 5 times a day, and public prayer on Friday at midday
3. Observation of the holy month of Ramadan (fasting)
4. Go to Mecca at least once in your lifetime
5. Giving alms (Zakat) to the poor
Ramadan
the holy month, fasting
Zakat
Alms given to the poor
Shari'a
laws (no gambling,pork,alcohol,dishonest behavior, men and women didnt engage in sexual activity unless married, polygamy was allowed(4 wives))
Polygamy
more than one wife
Caliph
successor
Jihad
holy war (against their enemies)
Ridda
Bedouin revolt after Muhammad's death
Imam
religious leader of the Arabs
Sultan
real authority
Crusades
Byzantine empire turns to west for help
Women's Rights
Limited rights, had to be covered head to toe
Sufism
embrace Allah directly, abandons formal Islam
Islam
The monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Qur'an
Muhammad
The Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)