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BIOLOGY....Chapter 4 Cellular Respiration
Terms in this set (52)
What organisms trap sunlight & store it in carbohydrates?
What 2 organisms break down carbohydrate to release energy from cells?
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
What is the main energy currency of a cell?
Define cellular respiration
Breaking down of organic compounds
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2+ 6H2O + ATP
(glucose) (oxygen) (oxygen) (water) (energy)
What process begins cellular respiration & does it produce much ATP?
glycolysis and it produces 4 ATP
If there is no oxygen in cells, the products of glycolysis enter _______ pathways that yield no _____
anaerobic ; ATP
Fermentation is an _________ pathway because no oxygen is used
If oxygen is present in cells, the glycolysis products enter the ________ respiration pathway
Does aerobic respiration produce ATP?
Yes, KC+ETC= 36
2 + 32= 36
What simple sugar starts glycolysis?
In glycolysis, glucose is broken into 2 molecules of ________ acid in the _________ of the cell
pyruvic ; cytosol
In which part of the cell does fermentation occur? Is oxygen involved?
Cytosol and no.
Name 2 types of of fermentation
Lactic acid and alcoholic
________ acid fermentation helps make cheese and yogurt and also occurs in ________ cells during heavy exercise
Lactic ; muscle
What effect does lactic acid have on muscle cells?
it causes fatigue and cramps
acidity increases soreness increases
Yeasts carry what type of of fermentation?
what alcohol is made in alcoholic fermentation?
_______ are made by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation
One molecule of sugar or glucose produces ________ kilocalories of energy
________ respiration, like glycolysis,produces less energy than ___________ respiration of pyruvic acid
anaerobic ; aerobic
Aerobic respiration requires what gas?
How much more ATP does aerobic respiration produce than glycolysis?
It produces 34 more than glycolysis
AR= 36 Gly= 2
Name the 2 major stages of Aerobic respiration
Krebs cycle, ETC
What is completed in the Krebs cycle?
oxidation of glucose
The energy carrier NAD+ is reduced to what substance?
Which part of aerobic respiration makes most of the ATP or cell's energy?
ETC= 34 ATP
Where does aerobic respiration take place in prokaryotes?
Krebs cycle- cytosol
ETC- cell membrane
Where do these reactions take place in eukaryotes?
What is the mitochondrial matrix, and what product of glycolysis diffuses into this matrix?
space in the inner mitochondrial membrane ; pyruvic acid
What is found inside the mitochondrial membrane to help catalyze the reactions of the Krebs cycle?
What is acetyl CoA & to what does it combine?
Pyruvic acid + CoA ; oxaloacetic acid
define the Krebs cycle
converts acetyl CoA into NADH, FADH2, C02, ATP
The first acid produced in the Krebs cycle is ________
Two energy carriers are reduced in the Krebs cycle; ________ becomes NADH and ________ becomes FADH2
NAD+ ; FAD
Is any ATP made in the Krebs cycle?
yes, 1 cycle makes 2 ATP
What gas is a waste product in the Krebs cycle?
The ___ is the second part of aerobic respiration.
Where does the ETS take place in eukaryotic cell?
___ is made in the ETS when NADH and FADH2 release ________ ions
ATP ; hydrogen
What gas serves as the final acceptor of electrons in the ETS? ( Electron Transport System)
Oxygen ( O2 )
Write the equation for this gas accepting electrons at the end of the ETS
4H + 4E + O2 --> 2H2O
What is the final product of ETS?
H2O & ATP
How many ATP's of energy are made during glycolysis?
How many ATP's of energy are made during the Krebs cycle?
Each FADH can generate how many ATP's for energy?
Each NADH can generate how many ATP's of energy?
__ NADH molecules & _ FADH molecules are made by aerobic respiration.
10 & 2
How many molecules are made by the electron transport chain?
34 from ETC
What is the maximum number of ATP molecules that can be produced from each glucose molecule?
Cellular respiration begins with
_______ is broken down during ______
Glucose and glycolysis
Glycolysis produces a small amount of ___&____
ATP & NADH
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