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Chapter 11: Respiratory System I

STUDY
PLAY
Gas Exchange
-Pathway for O2 flow
-Passive diffusion of gases
-enhancing diffusion
-Air vs. water O2 levels
O2
Lungs-blood-tissues
CO2
Tissues-blood-lungs
Gas exchange with environment
-exchange CO2 and O2 via gas exchange structures
Mitochondria---->?
O2
ATP
High/low
Gas molecules move from an area of ____ to ___ PARTIAL PRESSURE
P(atm) x % of air
P (O2) (N)
surface area x diffuse gradient/thickness
Diffusion Rate
Material properties
influence diffusion rates of gases (ex. dry vs moist skin)
Enhancing Diffusion 1
-Increased surface area (ex. aveoli in mammals)
Enhancing diffusion 2
-Decreased thickness of gas exchange membranes
--example
-thin walls of aveoli
-thin walls of capillaries
-thin skin (amphibian)
Enhancing diffusion 3
-Increase diffusion gradient (PUMPS to move fluid)
Oxygen
O2 in water is variable; water holds less ________ than air
Gas molecules
___ ___ in air must dissolve in liquid (water)
Factors that affect gas solubility
-Properties of the gas: CO2>>O2>>N2
-Partial Pressure in air
-Temperature of water: solubility inversely related
-Dissolves solutes in water: solubility inversely related
Hemoglobin
Most O2 in blood bound to _______ in red blood cells (98.15%)
Low
O2 solubility ____ in plasma (1.5%)
4 Oxygen
Hb can bind up to ___ ____ Molecules (saturated)
Blood pH
buildup and elimination of CO2 affects ___ ___
Decreased pH
affinity of Hb for O2 decreased with ______
O2 Uptake
Lung---Blood
O2 exchange
Blood---Tissue
Carbon Dioxide transport
CO2 combines w/ H20 to form carbonic acid (H2CO3)
Carbon Dioxide Transport
reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase
Carbon dioxide transport
H2CO3 dissociates into (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Carbon dioxide transport
HCO3- released into plasma--->buffers H+ ions