32 terms

Chapter 7-Rocks and Minerals & Logical Fallicies

The volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands are
shield volcanoes.
The most common carbonate rock is
The largest volcano on Earth is a
shield volcano
Young Earth developed a layered structure under the influence of
gravity and density segregation—the process of differentiation.
Plutons form from magma
below Earth's surface.
The two most common igneous rocks are basalt and granite. Basalt is commonly found _____, and granite is found _____.
on both the ocean floor and continental land; only on the continents.
Some _____ rock is formed from minerals that were once dissolved in water.
Shield volcanoes usually have explosive eruptions.
Erosion and weathering are basically the same process.
Metamorphism caused by the close proximity of a magma source is called
contact metamorphism
The three sources that brought young Earth to its melting point were
impact heating, gravitational contraction heating, radioactive decay heating.
Most rock-forming minerals are members of the group called
The majority of continental surface rocks are
Limestone may be metamorphosed into
Fluids in a metamorphic reaction
speed up the process.
The formation of metamorphic rocks involves melting.
The two most abundant elements in Earth's crust are
silicon and oxygen
The Hawaiian Islands are predominantly made up of
`volcanic igneous rock.
When magma solidifies before reaching Earth's surface it is called
intrusive igneous rock,plutonic rock,a pluton.
In a sedimentary rock, poorly sorted, angular grains indicate that
the sediment traveled a short distance.
Flat or elongated mineral grains in parallel layers in a metamorphic rock is called
Well rounded sediment particles indicate
long transport distances
The layered appearance of foliated metamorphic rocks is due to the
realignment of sheet-structured minerals so that they are perpendicular to compressive forces.
Volcanic rocks form from
solidification of lava.
Igneous rock is formed from
crystallization of molten magma.
Rocks are grouped into three classes depending on how the rock was
Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from
the precipitation of minerals from a water solution.
Rocks altered by heat and pressure beneath Earth's surface are
metamorphic rocks.
When rock is broken down into smaller and smaller pieces, we say the rock has undergone
mechanical weathering.
Layered sedimentary rocks and foliated metamorphic rocks share similarities because
most foliated metamorphic rocks are derived from layered sedimentary rocks.
The most violent volcanic explosions are generally associated with
composite volcanoes.
Compaction and cementation of sediments leads to