20 terms

Digestive System

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teeth
Teeth are the organs of chewing, which is also known as mastication.
Teeth cut, tear and grind food in the mouth, enabling it to be mixed with saliva (from the salivary glands) effectively and therefore swallowed more easily. The actions performed by teeth are all a form of mechanical digestion.
saliva
A watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion. It contains water, mucus, and enzymes.
tongue
A muscular organ in the mouth that can taste and mix food with saliva, and push the food into the esophagus.
esophagus
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
stomach
A muscular sac that physically and chemically breaks down food.
duodenum
The first part of the small intestine. It is involved in both the chemical digestion of food and its absorption into the blood stream.
small intestine
A winding tightly folded tube about 7m long that connects the stomach to the large intestine. Most of the food a person consumes is digested and absorbed in this organ.
large intestine
About 2 m long and twice the diameter of the small intestine. This organ accepts food remains from the small intestine, removes water, and stores and removes waste from the body.
rectum
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated.
salivary glands
A group of glands found under and behind the tongue and beneath the jaw that releases saliva continually as well as in response to the thought, sight, smell, or presence of food.
gall bladder
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine.
liver
A large dark red organ with multiple functions. One of is primary functions in the production of bile.
pancreas
An organ of the digestive system with two roles. The first is to produce digestive enzymes which are delivered to the small intestine. The second is to secrete insulin into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
bile
A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles.
anus
A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body.
appendix
A small, fingerlike extension off the large intestine; it contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.
villi
Fingerlike projections on the inner surface of the small intestine. The very large number of these projections increase the surface area so that nutrients can be easily absorbed into the blood stream.
nutrients
Compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
calorie
Unit of energy
peristalsis
muscle contractions