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AP EURO cold war conflict
Terms in this set (72)
postwar refugees, including 13 million Germans, former Nazi prisoners and forced laborers, and orphaned children
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
UNRRA which opened over 760 DP camps and spent 10 billion to house, feed, clothe, and repatriate the refugees
having sexual relations with men in the occupying German forces
non-Germans who had assisted the occupying forces were also punished
(1945-1946) An international military tribunal organized by the four Allied powers (Soviet Union, US, Britain, France) tried and sentenced the highest-ranking Nazi military and civilian leaders who had survived the war. 22 were charged with war crimes and 12 were sentenced to death
Big Three(Stalin, FDR, Churchill) reaffirmed their determination to crush Germany, discussed Poland's postwar borders, and crafted a strategy to win the war.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. He led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war,he was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
America's policy geared to containing communism to those countries already under Soviet control
American plan for providing economic aid to western Europe to help it rebuild
George C. Marshall
Secretary of State, invited the Europeans to work out a joint plan for their economic recovery, offered financial aid to the Soviet Union and its allies
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
An economic organization of communist states meant to help rebuild eastern Europe under Soviet auspices. comecon
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an anti-Soviet military alliance of Western governments
Soviet-backed military alliance of eastern European nations
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. Helped stimulate economic activity in Europe
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers in wartime coalition and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
1945-1965. The results of research in World War II. A meeting between theoretical work and sophisticated engineering in a large organization. Led prominantly by the US but experienced in Europe and Japan as well.
It was designed and built to calculate artillery firing tables for the U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory and was used to calculate problems for H-bomb development., 1st electronic digital computer. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
Center-right political parties that rose to power in western Europe after the Second World War. Rejected autoritarianism and narrow nationalism and placed their faith in democracy and liberalism. Advocated free-market economics and promised prosperity and ample consumer goods
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
british political party founded in 1900 with the help of trade unions to represent the interests of the urban working class. Tried to establish a "cradle-to-grave" welfare state
Bretton Woods agreement
International financial agreement signed shortly before the end of World War II that created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Linked Western currencies to the U.S. dollar to facilitate free markets and world trade
Organization for European Economic Cooperation
a.k.a. OEEC. it was the first group that was formed with the idea of European unity. it had the task of handling the money provided by the US through the Marshall Plan. it began the initial work of lowering tariffs and eliminating trade barriers among those states receiving assistance
Council of Europe
Brought about by the Marshall Plan in 1948 as an attempt to evolve into a Parliament yet became only a multinational debating society.
French economist who advocated a Common Market in Europe (1888-1979)
A noted French statesman. He was a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) and an independent political thinker and activist. Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building post-war European and trans-Atlantic institutions and is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union, the Council of Europe and NATO.
European Steel and Coal Community
international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "The six".
The European Economic Community, created by six western European nations in 1957 as part of a larger search for European unity
The rapid increase in consumption of new staples produced in the Atlantic system as well as of other items of daily life that were previously unavailable or beyond the reach of ordinary people.
Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland
USSR's name for ww2
Communist Information Bureau was an international organization dedicated to maintaining Russian control over Communist parties aborad, in western as well as eastern Europe
Soviet controlled Satellite states
Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Albania, Bulgaria, and East Germany. Would be known as East Bloc. By 1950s, farmers had virtually disappeared as five year plans were introduced
Josip Broz Tito
Marxist Leninist communist who hated stalin. Soviet forces never allowed to come in and liberate Yugoslavia. He creates his own communist authoritarian regime. Not under stalin's control.
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation. Led de-Stalinization
The liberation of the post-Stalin Soviet Union led by reformer Nikita Khrushchev
(1890-1960) Russian author of Dr. Zhivago, a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era.
This man wrote One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich after Khrushchev began to allow for literature to be published, which portrays in grim detail ife in a Stalinist concentration camp- and is a damning indictment of the Stalinist past
Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt.
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia. Began a period of stagnation and limited re-Stalinization
The postwar reversal of Europe's overseas expansion caused by the rising demand of the colonized peoples themselves, the declining power of European nations, and the freedoms promised by U.S. and Soviet ideals.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
policy of postcolonial governments to remain neutral in the Cold War and play both the United States and the Soviet Union for what they could get
Dutch East Indies
a republic in southeastern Asia on an archipelago including more than 13,000 islands. Today's Indonesia that the Dutch tried to claim. Inspired by decolonization and independence
a peninsula of southeastern Asia that includes Myanmar and Cambodia and Laos and Malaysia and Thailand and Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969) Used guerilla warfare and led North Vietnam
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
When the British failed to punish the army officers responsible for the massacre at Amritsar, Gandhi urged his fellow countrymen to follow a nonviolent policy of ___________
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
The opposing person to Mao, who was in charge of the Nationalist Party. He dominated southwestern China, however in 1949, Mao got complete control of China. This person and his people fled to Taiwan, where the USA helped them set up a nationalist government
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
This country was formed in 1947 by the United Nations to give Jews a homeland.
when palestine was split into 2 states, ___ got less land and mostly desert areas; they immediatley launched an attack on israel and over time they lost more and more land
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Arab and Egyptian leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies
Mau Mau Rebellion
the Kikuyu & other hostile tribes massacred 1,700 Africans & about 100 European settlers & missionaries before British troops were able to subdue the uprising
the first prime minister of the Congo and also helped the Congo gain independence from Belgium; he was liked by the Congolese but not by the U.S. and the government and he was quickly imprisoned and murdered
Seized power of Congo in 1965 and renamed in Zaire he maintained control through a combination of force, one-party rule, and gifts to supporters. Successfully withstood several armed rebellions. Overthrown in 1998 by rebel leader Kabila.
National Liberation Front
FLN, Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950s; success of attacks led to independence of Algeria in 1958.
Means black foot, what colonists of French Algeria referred to themselves as until independence in 1962, an important example of settlers seeing themselves as owning the land they lived on, settler ownership. Late the lands with more settlers like this on them would take longer to achieve indepedence.
1954-62, the French and the pied noir vs. native Algerians. SIG: removed France from power
system designed to perpetuate Western domination and undermine the promise of political independence, thereby extending to Africa the economic subordination that the U.S. had established in Latin America in 19th century
those in the professional, technical, clerical, sales, and managerial categories
guest worker programs
Government-run programs in western Europe designed to recruit labor for the booming postwar economy
The postwar movement of people from former colonies and the developing world into Europe
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
a long-playing phonograph record
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