34 terms

Cognition RM

Review for AP Psych test
Key features of language
-arbitrary (rarely sound like their meanings)
- has additive structure (words = sentences = paragraph)
- can be analyzed in various ways
- is productive (nearly endless combos of words)
- dynamic, constantly changing, evolving
smallest units of speech sounds in a given language
smallest semantically meaningful parts of language
set of rules by which language is constructed, made of syntax and semantics
tones and inflections added to language that elaborate meaning with no world alterations
word order
word meaning or word choice
Language stages
Cooing, babbling, holophrases (single term applied to various things)
using one word to describe a lot of things that require a greater vocabulary
telegraphic speech
two or three word groups
"Mommy, food" AKA "Mommy, give me food"
grammar rules extended to unique situations
Transformational Grammar
Developed by Noam Chomsky, describes organization of language which differentiates superficial of word arrangement and the meaning of the words
surface vs deep structure of language
word order vs. meaning of words
Theory of linguistic relativity
Developed by Benjamin Lee Whorf, Edward Sapir, says speakers of different languages develop different cognitive systems
Degree to which an object fits the average
Typical picture that describes something
Superordinate concept
very broad and encompasses a large group of items (food)
Basic concept
smaller and more specific (bread)
Subordinate concept
an even smaller and more specific concept like "Rye bread"
drawing of conclusion from evidence
Deductive Reasoning
drawing logical conclusions from general statements
Inductive Reasoning
drawing general conclusion from specific observations
Convergent thinking
requires specific thinking to find one answer that works the best
Divergent thinking
like brainstorming, formulating various ways to solve a problem
intuitive shortcuts
Availability heuristic
rule of thumb is judged by what events come most to mind (airplanes are more dangerous than cars)
Representativeness heuristic
judge objects and events in terms of how closely they match their prototype (putting everything in a little box, discrimination)
systematic, mechanical approaches that guarantee an eventual answer to a problem
Wolfgang Kohler
showed brain uses insight ( sudden understanding of problem) to solve problems
Mental set
fixed frame of mind that we use when approaching problems
Confirmation bias
search for information that supports our hypothesis or wish
Hindsight Bias
tendency to think we would have acted perfectly once looking back or knowing all the facts
Belief perseverance
person only sees evidence that supports a particular position
process of producing something unique