30 terms

IB Chemistry- Bonding SL

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Allotropes
Different structural forms on an element
Bond dissociation enthalpy
The amount of energy required to break the bonds between 1 mole of bonded atoms
Covalent bond
The electrostatic attraction of one or more pairs of electrons and the nuclei between which they are shared
Covalent network lattice
An arrangement of atoms in a lattice in which there are strong, covalent bonds between the atoms in all three dimensions
Dative covalent bond
A covalent bond in which one atom has contributed two electrons to the bond; the other atom has not contributed any electrons
Diatomic molecule
A molecule that is made up of 2 atoms
Double covalent bond
A covalent bond made up of two pairs of shared electrons (4 electrons)
Ductility
The ability to be drawn into a wire
Electrical conductivity
The ability to allow electricity to pass through a substance
Electrostatic attraction
The attraction between positive and negative charges
Element
A substance made up of only one type of atom
Empirical formula
The simplest whole number ratio of elements in a compound
Hydrogen bonding
A type of strong, dipole-dipole bonding occuring between molecules that contain hydrogen bonded to fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen
Intermolecular forces
The electrostatic attraction between molecules
Ionic bond
The electrostatic attraction between a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion
Ionic lattice
A regular arrangement of ions in which every positive ion is surrounded by negative ions and every negative ion is surrounded by positive ions
Malleability
The ability of a metal to be bent or beaten into shape without breaking
Metallic bond
The electrostatic attraction between a positively charged metal ion and the sea of delocalized electrons surrounding it
Molecule
A discrete group of non-metallic atoms, of known formula, covalently bonded together
Non-bonding pairs of electrons (lone pairs)
Pairs of valence electrons not involved in bonding
Permanent dipole attraction
The electrostatic attraction that occurs between polar molecules
Polar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which the electrons are not equally shared between the two nuclei due to a difference in the electronegativities of the elements involved
Polyatomic ion
A group of two or more atoms covalently bonded together with an overall positive or negative charge
Strong bonding
Ionic, metallic or covalent bonding
Single covalent bond
A covalent bond made up of one pair of shared electrons (2 electrons)
Structural formula
A formula that represents the 3 dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
Triple covalent bond
A covalent bond made up of three pairs of shared electrons (6 electrons)
Valence electrons
The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
van der Waal's forces
The weak attraction between molecules that occurs due to the instantaneous dipoles formed as a result of the random movement of electrons within the molecules
VSEPR theory
The theory that accounts for the shape of molecules as a result of electrostatic repulsion between each pair of electrons (bonding and non-bonding) to a position as far from the others as possible in three-dimensional space. Also known as the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory.