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ionic compounds

a compound composed of oppositely charged ions

Periodic Table

a tabular display of the chemical elements, which consists of rows and columns

Valence Shells

the outermost electron shell of an atom

Molecular Compounds

a compound made up of 2 or more non-metal elements


Vertical columns in the periodic tables


a chemical reaction, which absorbs heat energy from the surroundings

Physical Change

a change in the physical appearance of a substance after a chemical reaction

Chemical Equation

a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in which the reactants are present on the left side and the products on the right side.


charged particle


horizontal rows in the periodic table

Ionic bonds

bonds created between a metal and non-metal due to the full transfer of electrons


the substances that are present before the chemical reaction begins and react to form new product/products


an ion, which has a positive charge and due to its positivity it, is attracted towards the negative electrode in electrolysis


a chemical reaction, which releases heat energy into the surroundings

Chemical Reaction

a process in which one or more reactants react together to form one or more products by the help of heat, electricity and catalyst


an electrically neutral group of 2 or more atoms which are held together by chemical bonds (covalent).

Valence electrons

electrons, which are present in the outermost shell of an atom and these, are the electrons, which are either transferred or shared with another atom to start a chemical reaction.


they help to reduce the activation energy by speeding up the chemical reaction

Covalent bonds

bonds formed between 2 non-metals due to the sharing of electrons


the end substances, which are formed in a chemical reaction after the reactants, have reacted


an ion having a negative charge

Law of conservation of mass

this states that mass is neither created nor destroyed and the mass of the reactants is always equal to the mass of the products.


the insoluble solid which is left behind at the end of the chemical reaction

Reactivity Series

this consists of a series of metals in order of their reactivity from the top to the bottom (top being the most reactive and bottom being the least reactive)


a compound which produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water


a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one another element.

Binary Acid

acids which are composed of 2 elements: 1 is hydrogen and the other is a non-metal e.g. HCl, HBr, HI. HF etc...........

Neutralization Reaction

a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react together to produce salt and water, which are both neutral substances (pH at 7)

Rate of Reaction

the speed of a reaction i.e. how fast or slow a reaction takes place


they are biological catalysts that help to speed up a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy


a bitter substance which has a pH value more than 7.

pH Scale

a scale with measurements used to determine the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution


it consists of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and at least one more element

pH meter

an electronic instrument which is used to measure the acidity or basicity (pH) of a substance


:a chemical detector of protons in acid-base titrations

pH meter

an electronic instrument which is used to measure the acidity or basicity (pH) of a substance


a substance which is formed along with water when an acid and an alkali react together in a neutralization reaction.

Litmus Paper

an indicator, which is used to test whether, a solution is acidic or basic. The litmus paper turns red in acidic solutions and blue in basic solutions.

Surface Area

it is a measure of how much exposed area a solid has (measured in square units)


the strength of a solution which is measured in mol/dm3


combining of elements or molecules


splitting of molecules into smaller molecules or elements

Single displacement

one element replacing another element in a compound

Double displacement

two compounds switching there elements

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